Platform Chemical Biorefinery

Platform Chemical Biorefinery

Future Green Chemistry

1st Edition - June 2, 2016

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  • Authors: Satinder Kaur Brar, Saurabh Jyoti Sarma, Kannan Pakshirajan
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029800
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128030042

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Platform Chemical Biorefinery: Future Green Chemistry provides information on three different aspects of platform chemical biorefinery. The book first presents a basic introduction to the industry beneficial for university students, then provides engineering details of existing or potential platform chemical biorefinery processes helpful to technical staff of biorefineries. Finally, the book presents a critical review of the entire platform chemical biorefinery process, including extensive global biorefinery practices and their potential environmental and market-related consequences. Platform chemicals are building blocks of different valuable chemicals. The book evaluates the possibility of renewable feedstock-based platform chemical production and the fundamental challenges associated with this objective. Thus, the book is a useful reference for both academic readers and industry technical workers. The book guides the research community working in the field of platform chemical biorefinery to develop new pathways and technologies in combination with their market value and desirability.

Key Features

  • Offers comprehensive coverage of platform chemicals biorefineries, recent advances and technology developments, potential issues for preventing commercialization, and solutions
  • Discusses existing technologies for platform chemicals production, highlighting benefits as well their possible adverse effects on the environment and food security
  • Includes a global market analysis of platform chemicals and outlines industry opportunities
  • Serves as a useful reference for both academic readers and industry technical workers


Chemical/biochemical engineers, biotechnologists, biochemists, as well as industrial microbiologists, environmental biotechnologists, environmental engineers. Also, professional researchers working in the industries dealing with industrial chemical manufacturing or industrial biotechnology

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. Platform Chemicals: Significance and Need
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Commercially Important Platform Chemicals: Organic Acids
      • 1.3. Commercially Important Platform Chemicals: Alcohols
      • 1.4. Advances in Platform Chemical Process Engineering: Natural Microbial Synthesis
      • 1.5. Challenges and Future of the Industry
      • 1.6. Conclusion
    • Chapter 2. Biorefinery: General Overview
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Biorefinery: A Reemerging Concept
      • 2.3. Biorefinery and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction
      • 2.4. Biorefinery for Chemical and Energy Security
      • 2.5. Biorefinery for Sustainable Development
      • 2.6. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 3. Petroleum Versus Biorefinery-Based Platform Chemicals
      • 3.1. Feedstock Availability
      • 3.2. Product Range
      • 3.3. Nature and Extent of Environmental Pollution
      • 3.4. Sustainability
    • Chapter 4. Life Cycle Analysis of Potential Substrates of Sustainable Biorefinery
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Lignocellulosic Biomass From Agriculture and Forests
      • 4.3. Algae and Fungi
      • 4.4. Industrial Organic Waste
      • 4.5. Municipal Wastewater and Solid Waste
      • 4.6. Sludge From Wastewater Treatment Plants
    • Chapter 5. Propylene Glycol: An Industrially Important C3 Platform Chemical
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Global Propylene Market: An Overview
      • 5.3. Propylene Glycol and Commercial Applications
      • 5.4. A Comparative Evaluation of Different Methods Used for Propylene Production
      • 5.5. Sustainable Propylene Glycol Production and Challenges
    • Chapter 6. 3-Hydroxy-propionic Acid
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Importance of 3-Hydroxy-propionic Acid
      • 6.3. Biotechnological Production of 3-Hydroxy-propionic Acid
      • 6.4. Potential Feedstock for 3-Hydroxy-propanoic Acid Production
      • 6.5. Production of Biodegradable Polymer Using 3-Hydroxy-propanoic Acid
    • Chapter 7. Butyric Acid: A Platform Chemical for Biofuel and High-Value Biochemicals
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Butyric Acid as a Potential Biorefinery
      • 7.3. Production of Butyric Acid
      • 7.4. Chemical Synthesis of Butyric Acid
      • 7.5. General Aspects of Biological Butyric Acid Production
      • 7.6. Microorganisms
      • 7.7. Feedstock
      • 7.8. Fermentation
      • 7.9. Downstream Processing
      • 7.10. Butyric Acid as a Platform Chemical for Promising Biofuel Butanol
      • 7.11. Chemical Conversion of Butyric Acid to Butanol
      • 7.12. Biochemical Conversion of Butyric Acid to Butanol
      • 7.13. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry
    • Chapter 8. Fumaric Acid: Production and Application Aspects
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Production Routes of Fumaric Acid
      • 8.3. Molecular Biology of Fungal Morphogenesis Versus Fumaric Acid Production
      • 8.4. Downstream Processing of Fumaric Acid
      • 8.5. Application Aspects of Fumaric Acid
      • 8.6. Future Perspectives and Challenges
    • Chapter 9. Malic and Succinic Acid: Potential C4 Platform Chemicals for Polymer and Biodegradable Plastic Production
      • 9.1. Different Methods of Malic Acid Production
      • 9.2. Malic Acid Production From Renewable Materials: Commercial Potential
      • 9.3. Application of Malic Acid for the Production of Renewable Polymers
      • 9.4. Succinic Acid Bioproduction
      • 9.5. Succinic Acid and Its Commercial Potential for Biodegradable Plastic Production
      • 9.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 10. Potential Applications of Renewable Itaconic Acid for the Synthesis of 3-Methyltetrahydrofuran
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Methyltetrahydrofuran
      • 10.3. Methyltetrahydrofuran Production
      • 10.4. Recovery and Purification of Methyltetrahydrofuran
      • 10.5. Methyltetrahydrofuran Applications
      • 10.6. Itaconic Acid
      • 10.7. Brief History of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.8. Microorganisms Exploited for the Production of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.9. Biosynthesis of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.10. Aspergillus terreus as a Potent Producer of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.11. Process Development Strategies for Enhanced Itaconic Acid Production
      • 10.12. Potential Feedstocks for the Bioproduction of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.13. Downstream Process for the Recovery of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.14. Potential Applications of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.15. Market Potential of Itaconic Acid
      • 10.16. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 11. Production of Renewable C5 Platform Chemicals and Potential Applications
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Potential of C5 Platform Chemicals
      • 11.3. Metabolic Engineering of C5 Platform Chemicals
      • 11.4. Xylitol–Sugar Alcohol
      • 11.5. 5-Aminovalaric Acid: Organic Acid
      • 11.6. 1,5-Diaminopentane: Diamine
      • 11.7. Itaconic Acid: Organic Acid
      • 11.8. Levulinic Acid: Organic Keto Acid
      • 11.9. Furfural: An Aldehyde
      • 11.10. Glutamic Acid: Amino Acid
      • 11.11. Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. Sorbitol Production From Biomass and Its Global Market
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. A Comparative Evaluation of Different Renewable Feedstocks Used for Sorbitol Production
      • 12.3. Downstream Processing of Sorbitol
      • 12.4. Global Production and the Sorbitol Market
      • 12.5. Sorbitol and Its Major Applications
      • 12.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13. Sugar-Derived Industrially Important C6 Platform Chemicals
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Glucaric Acid
      • 13.3. 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid
      • 13.4. Gluconic Acid
      • 13.5. Sorbitol
      • 13.6. Conclusion and Future Outlook
    • Chapter 14. Production of Drop-In and Novel Bio-Based Platform Chemicals
      • 14.1. Possibility and Challenges of Drop-In Chemicals Production
      • 14.2. Role of Chemical Catalysis in Drop-In Chemical Production
      • 14.3. Lactic Acid: A Commercially Important Drop-In Platform Chemical
      • 14.4. Bio-Polyethylene Terephthalate: Production and Technical Challenges
      • 14.5. Novel Bio-Based Platform Chemicals
    • Chapter 15. Platform Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Industries
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Isosorbide
      • 15.3. Cyanophycin, Aspartic Acid, and Arginine
      • 15.4. Hydroxymethyl Furfural
      • 15.5. Glycerol
      • 15.6. Acetaldehyde
      • 15.7. Future Strides
      • 15.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16. Biorefinery and Possible Deforestation
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Forest-Based Feedstock for Biorefinery
      • 16.3. Applications of Forest Resources as Biorefinery Feedstocks
      • 16.4. Remedial Measures
      • 16.5. Extensive Land Use for the Production of Biorefinery Feedstock and Deforestation
      • 16.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 17. Biorefinery and Possible Negative Impacts on the Food Market
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Classification Scheme and Complexity
      • 17.3. Food Materials Used in Biorefinery
      • 17.4. Present Global Production and Demand of Biofuels and Bio-Based Chemicals
      • 17.5. Projected Demand of Food-Grade Materials In Biorefinery for the Next 20Years
      • 17.6. Possibility of Increased Food Prices due to Extensive Biorefinery Practices in the Future
      • 17.7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 18. Algal Biorefinery for High-Value Platform Chemicals
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Potential Products of Algal Biorefinery
      • 18.3. Algae Cultivation Process Engineering for Energy and Chemicals
      • 18.4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 19. Animal Fat- and Vegetable Oil-Based Platform Chemical Biorefinery
      • 19.1. Global Production of Animal Fat and Vegetable Oil
      • 19.2. Biodiesel Production
      • 19.3. Direct Application of Fat and Oil for Platform Chemical Production
      • 19.4. Potential Market of Fat- and Oil-Derived Platform Chemicals
      • 19.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 20. Platform Chemical Biorefinery and Agroindustrial Waste Management
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Agroindustrial Waste Types and Their Global Annual Production
      • 20.3. Present Agroindustrial Waste Management Approaches
      • 20.4. Advantages and Challenges of Using Agroindustrial Wastes as the Feedstock for Biorefinery
      • 20.5. Agroindustrial Waste Biorefinery: Engineering Breakthroughs
      • 20.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 21. Integrated Biorefinery for Food, Feed, and Platform Chemicals
      • 21.1. Introduction to the Biorefinery Concept
      • 21.2. Current Biofuels Scenario
      • 21.3. Nonrenewable and Renewable Resources
      • 21.4. Green Chemistry Inspiration
      • 21.5. Platform Molecules
      • 21.6. Importance of Catalysts in Biomass Conversion for Food, Feed, and Platform Chemicals
      • 21.7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 22. Integrated Biorefinery for Bioenergy and Platform Chemicals
      • 22.1. Integrated Biorefinery of Biodiesel and Platform Chemicals
      • 22.2. Integrated Biorefinery of Bioethanol and Platform Chemicals
      • 22.3. Integrated Biorefinery of Platform Chemicals and Biogas Production
      • 22.4. Agroindustrial Wastes as Feedstock for Bioenergy and Platform Chemicals
    • Chapter 23. Microbiology of Platform Chemical Biorefinery and Metabolic Engineering
      • 23.1. History and Current Scenario of Fossil Fuels
      • 23.2. Origin, Definition, and Types of Biorefineries in the World Scenario
      • 23.3. Application of Microbiology in Biorefineries
      • 23.4. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms in Biorefinery
      • 23.5. Omics Data for Various Environmental and Genetic Perturbations
      • 23.6. Conclusion
    • Chapter 24. Enzymes in Platform Chemical Biorefinery
      • 24.1. Introduction to Enzymes and Their Modes of Action
      • 24.2. Chemical Catalysis Versus Biocatalysis
      • 24.3. Advantages of Biocatalyst-Based Processes
      • 24.4. Importance of Biocatalysts Over Chemical Catalysts
      • 24.5. Enzymes in Biorefinery
      • 24.6. Pretreatment Process in Biorefinery
      • 24.7. Enzymatic Activity in the Pretreatment Process
      • 24.8. Cellulose Degradation
      • 24.9. Hemicellulose Treatment
      • 24.10. Why Modern Era Industries Prefer Enzymes Over Conventional Chemicals?
      • 24.11. Classification of Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes
      • 24.12. Enzyme Technology in Biorefineries
      • 24.13. Development of New Enzymes for Effective Biorefinery Operation
      • 24.14. Conclusion
    • Chapter 25. Process Design and Optimization for Platform Chemical Biorefinery
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Production of C3 Platform Chemicals
      • 25.3. Coproduction of 3-Hydroxy-propionic Acid and 1,3-Propanediol
      • 25.4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 26. Case Studies on the Industrial Production of Renewable Platform Chemicals
      • 26.1. An Overview of Different Renewable Platform Chemicals Produced at Industrial Scale
      • 26.2. Nature of the Processes, Feedstock Conversion, and Product Recovery Efficiency
      • 26.3. Change of Production Volume Over Time
      • 26.4. Product Quality and Process Cost
      • 26.5. Present Applications and Potential Market
      • 26.6. Conclusion
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 528
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: June 2, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029800
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128030042

About the Authors

Satinder Kaur Brar

Satinder Kaur Brar is full professor at York University, Canada. She is leading the research group on the Bioprocessing and Nano-Enzyme Formulation Facility (BANEFF) at INRS. Her research interests lie in the development of finished products (formulations) of wastewater and wastewater sludge based value-added bioproducts, such as enzymes, organic acids, food bioproducts, platform chemicals and circular economy. The facility has so far led to the successful supervision of 30 PhDs, 8 Master’s and 6 postdoctoral students. She has collaborative programs with several industries in Canada and researchers from Argentina, Spain, Chile, Switzerland, France, Vietnam, China, USA, India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Morocco, Tunisia and Ivory Coast. She Editor-in-Chief of Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering (Springer Journal) and has more than 400 publications, including ten books and handbooks that are academic standards and 6 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor, York University, Ontario, Canada

Saurabh Jyoti Sarma

Saurabh Jyoti Sarma is a researcher at INRS-ETE, Canada, and has completed his Ph.D. from the same institute. He is one of the associate editors of “Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering”, an international journal of Springer. He is also a guest editor of “Biofuels” (Special issue: Biorefinery for fuels and platform chemicals), an international journal published by Tailors & Francis. Before joining INRS-ETE he had received a research fellowship from DST, government of India and for nearly 3 years he had worked as a research fellow at IIT Guwahati, India. He is a recipient of prestigious merit scholarship for foreign students (FQRNT) offered by Government of Canada; postdoctoral research fellowship of University of Calgary, Canada; doctoral research fellowship of INRS-ETE, Canada; supplementary grant for doctoral study from CRIQ, Canada as well as travel grant (Brazil) offered by ministry of international relation, Quebec, Canada. His expertise includes pilot scale (2000 l) fermentation, pilot scale ultrafiltration and nano-spray drying technology, preparation and characterization of nanoparticles for biorefinery and environmental uses, designing and application of microbial electrolysis/electro-synthesis cells for biofuel such as hydrogen and biobutanol production, and solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Including research articles, book chapters and journal editorials, he has about 64 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (Eau, Terre et Environnement, INRS-ETE), Québec, Canada

Kannan Pakshirajan

Kannan Pakshirajan is a Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India. He researches on biological removal of heavy metals and xeonobiotics such as phenolics, dyes, polycyclic aromatic compounds, perchlorate, etc. from contaminated water, air and soil, and resource recovery, mainly biofuels, from waste materials. He is a recipient of many awards and honours, which include besides others Hiyoshi Young Leaf Award, BOYSCAST Fellowship (by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India), Indian National Science Academy (INSA) Award for Young Scientist, National Academy of Sciences India (NASI) Young Scientist Award, Bioresource Technology Journal Top Reviewer Award (by Elsevier Publications). He has authored and co-authored over 90 peer-reviewed journal publications, produced seven PhDs and currently guides nine PhD students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, India

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