Plasma Protein Metabolism - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125987509, 9780323145183

Plasma Protein Metabolism

1st Edition

Regulation of Synthesis, Distribution, and Degradation

Editors: Marcus Rothschild
eBook ISBN: 9780323145183
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 584
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Description

Plasma Protein Metabolism: Regulation of Synthesis, Distribution, and Degradation covers the concepts concerning the physiological and pathophysiological factors regulating the distribution, degradation, and synthesis of plasma proteins.

This book is organized into nine parts encompassing 32 chapters. The first parts present the assumptions and methodology involved in the various in vivo and in vitro techniques that provide insights to protein metabolism. The next parts describe the techniques of protein isolation, characterization, labeling, and mathematical analysis of the data, as well as the methods for directly quantitating protein synthetic rates in nonsteady state conditions. Other parts are devoted to the factors involved in regulating the serum levels of albumin, acute phase reactants, immunoglobulins, clotting factors, complement and hormone-binding proteins. The controlling factors include such general and specific physiological regulators of protein synthesis and catabolism as levels of specific serum proteins, hormonal regulators, variations of temperature and oncotic pressure, antigenic stimulation, and nutritional factors. The remaining parts analyze the pathophysiological factors including disorders of protein synthesis, distribution, exogenous catabolism, and external loss and stress that produce abnormal levels of serum proteins.

This book is intended primarily intended to protein chemists and researchers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Part I Model Systems and Protein Isolation

1. Measurements Required to Define Behavior of a Plasma Protein In Vivo : The Need for Measuring Protein Synthetic Rate with a Criticism of Available Methods

I. Generalized Model of a Plasma Protein System

II. Measurements of Synthetic Rate

References

2. An Approach to the Investigation of the Dynamic Structure of a Complex Biological System Incorporating State Variable Diagram Analysis

I. Introduction

II. 14C Metabolic Pathways after Intravenous 14C-Carbonate

III. The Construction of a Biological Model

IV. The Formulation of a Mathematical Model

V. Model Reduction

VI. The Numerical Evaluation of the Reduced Model Parameters

VII. Discussion

VIII. Summary

References

3. Models for Protein Synthesis Studies

I. Introduction

II. Analysis of Models for Albumin Synthesis

III. Discussion

IV. Conclusion

Appendix

References

4. Synthesis and Degradation of Plasma Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Measurement of Rates of Synthesis of Liver-Produced Plasma Proteins

III. Measurement of Rates of Catabolism of Plasma Proteins

References

5. Techniques for Protein Separation

I. Introduction

II. Requirements

III. Quantitative Analytical Techniques

IV. Salting-Out Techniques

V. Fractionation by Gel Filtration

VI. Fractionation by Absorption Chromatography

VII. Preparative Electrophoresis

VIII. Protein Concentration

IX. Tests for Purity

X. Evidence of Denaturation

References

Part II Protein Distribution

6. Regulation of Interstitial Albumin

I. Introduction

II. Constancy of Body Albumin

III. Functional Anatomy of Interstitial Protein

IV. Measurement of Interstitial Proteins in Tissues

V. Control of Interstitial Protein-Mathematical Evaluation

VI. Factors Responsible for the Different Distributions of Different Plasma Proteins in the Interstitial Fluids

VII. Discussion

VIII. Summary

References

7. The Extravascular Transport of Albumin

I. Introduction

II. Proteins of the Extravascular Tissue Spaces

III. Role of the Lymphatics in the Return of Proteins to the Circulation

IV. Delivery of Newly Synthesized Albumin to the Plasma

V. Models of Distribution of Albumin in the Interstitial Tissues

VI. Transport of Albumin into Ascitic Fluid

VII. Delay in the Delivery of Albumin from Its Synthetic Site in the Liver

Appendix

References

8. Studies on the Extravascular Albumin of Rats

I. Introduction

II. The Extravascular Protein Pool

III. Experimental Procedure

IV. Results

V. Results by Other Workers

VI. Discussion

References

Part III Subcellular Synthesis Site and Amino Acid Regulation

9. Factors in Regulation of Liver Protein Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Species Differences in Rates of Albumin Synthesis and in Liver Composition

III. Sites of Formation of Secreted and Retained Proteins

IV. Amino Acid Supply and Liver Protein Synthesis

V. Diurnal Rhythms in Liver Protein Metabolism

References

10. Identification of Proteins Made on Microsomes and Free Ribosomes of Rat Liver

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Experimental Results

IV. Discussion

References

11. Serum Protein Synthesis in Rats Force-Fed a Threonine-Devoid Diet

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Procedure

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

Part IV Albumin Metabolism

12. Albumin Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis

III. Albumin Degradation

IV. Albumin Distribution

V. Summary

References

13. Nutritional, Hormonal, and Temporal Factors Regulating Net Plasma Protein Biosynthesis in the Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

Effects of Feeding or Fasting Liver Donors and of Supplementation with Amino Acids, Insulin, Cortisol, and Growth Hormone

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

14. Oncotic Pressure and Albumin Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Oncotic Pressure and Albumin Synthesis

III. Site of Oncotic Regulation

IV. Isolated Rabbit Liver Perfusions

V. Other Studies with Isolated Livers

VI. Hyperalbuminemia

VII. Incorporation of Isotopic Amino Acids into Protein in in Vitro Systems

VIII. Conclusion

References

15. Control of Albumin Degradation in Vivo and in the Perfused Liver

I. Introduction

II. Reduction of Plasma Albumin

III. Increased Albumin Pool

IV. Conclusions

References

Part V Immunoglobulin Metabolism

16. Genetic Regulation of Immunoglobulin Levels in Man

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Control of the Immune Response

III. Structure of Human Immunoglobulins

IV. Genetic Polymorphism of Immunoglobulins

V. Control of Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Health and Disease

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

17. Physiological Factors Controlling Immunoglobulin Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Metabolism of the Different Classes of Immunoglobulin in Normal Man

III. Physiological Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Synthesis

IV. Physiological Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Catabolism

V. Summary

References

18. Abnormalities of Immunoglobulin Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Hypogammaglobulinemia Associated with Decreased Immunoglobulin Synthetic Rate

III. Hypogammaglobulinemia Associated with Decreased Immunoglobulin Survival

IV. Summary

References

19. The Submolecular Site Related to the Rate of Catabolism of IgG Immunoglobulins

I. Introduction

II. Structure of IgG Immunoglobulins

III. The Catabolism of IgG Fragments and Polypeptide Chains in Experimental Animals

IV. Catabolism of Human IgG Myeloma Proteins and of H Chain Disease Proteins in Man

V. Summary

References

20. The Influence of Gastrointestinal Tract on y-Globulin Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Immunoglobulin Synthesis

III. Physiological Factors Regulating Immunoglobulin Transport by the Gastrointestinal Tract

IV. The Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Immunoglobulin Catabolism

V. Ulcerative Colitis

References

21. Protein-Losing Enteropathies of Lymphatic Origin

I. Introduction

II. Clinical Picture

III. Biological Findings

IV. Diagnostic Studies

V. Pathological Study

VI. Mechanisms

VII. Treatment

References

Part VI Acute Phase Proteins: Stress-Trauma

22. The Effects of Trauma and Partial Hepatectomy on the Rates of Synthesis of Plasma Proteins by the Liver

I. Introduction

II. Evidence Concerning Control of Rates of Synthesis Obtained from Studies in Vivo

III. Evidence from Experiments with the Isolated Perfused Liver

IV. Evidence from Cell-Free Systems

V. General Conclusions

VI. Summary

References

23. Regulation of Plasma α2-(Acute Phase) Globulin Synthesis in Rat Liver

I. Organ and Cellular Sites of Synthesis

II. Role of Infection

III. Fetal and Neonatal Liver Synthesis

IV. Relationship between Host Injury and Liver Cell Proliferation

V. Effects of Actinomycin D in Vivo and in Vitro

VI. Summary

References

24. Analysis of "Acute Phase" Protein Synthesis in the Mouse by Immunoelectrophoresis

I. Introduction

II. Tissue Culture Studies

III. In Vivo Incorporation Studies

IV. Cell-Free Systems

References

25. Regulation and Metabolism of the Third Component of Complement (C3)

I. Introduction

II. Complement Components and Their Interaction in Vitro

III. Alterations in Complement in Vivo

IV. Characteristics and Reactions of C3

V. Abnormalities of C3 Concentration

VI. Studies of Alterations of C3 in Vivo

VII. Conclusions

References

26. Regulation of Protein Metabolism in Burns

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Extravascular-Intravascular Protein Distribution and the Lymph: Effects of Warm Air Treatment

V. Regulation of Synthesis of Acute Phase Proteins

VI. Summary

References

27. Metabolism of α2-Macroglobulin

Regulation and Distribution

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Serum Levels in Disease

IV. Systemic Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Hypogammaglobulinemia

V. Metabolic Studies

VI. Summary

References

Part VII Fibrinogen and Prothrombin

28. Regulation of the Metabolism of Proteins Involved in Blood Coagulation

Text

29. Effects of Typhoid Endotoxin on Fibrinogen and Prothrombin Metabolism in Calves

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Conclusions

References

30. Abnormal Fibrinogen Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Forms of Abnormal Fibrinogen Metabolism

III. Changes in the Absolute Synthesis Rate of Fibrinogen

IV. Changes in the Fractional Catabolic Rate of Fibrinogen

References

Part VIII Lipoproteins

31. The Metabolism of Plasma Lipoproteins

I. Introduction

II. Turnover Methodology

III. Chylomicrons

IV. Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL, Pre-β-Lipoprotein)

V. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, β-Lipoprotein)

VI. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, α-Lipoprotein)

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

Part IX Hormonal Transport

32. Regulation of Hormones by Binding Proteins With Special Reference to the Transport of Thyroxine in the Circulation

I. Introduction

II. Significance of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine

III. Thyroxine Kinetics

IV. Serum Protein Binding of Thyroxine

V. Molecular Characteristics of Thyroxine-Binding α-Globulin (TBG)

VI. Thyroxine-Binding Proteins and Free Thyroxine

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
584
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1970
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323145183

About the Editor

Marcus Rothschild