Plant Virology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124805606, 9781483258669

Plant Virology

2nd Edition

Authors: R. E. F. Matthews
eBook ISBN: 9781483258669
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 916
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Description

Plant Virology, Second Edition, was written to cover the substantial developments in many areas of plant virology since the first edition was published. Advances have been made in all branches of the subject, but these have been most far reaching with respect to the structure of viruses and of their components, and in the understanding of how viral genomes are organized and how viruses replicate in cells. Significant developments have also occurred in the understanding of how viruses are transmitted by invertebrates and in the application of control measures for specific diseases. The taxonomy of viruses has advanced significantly, and there are now 25 internationally approved families and groups of plant viruses. All these developments have required that most sections be entirely rewritten. This book is intended primarily for graduate students in plant pathology, plant virology, general virology, and microbiology, and for teachers and research workers in these fields. It should also prove useful to some people in related disciplines—molecular biologists, biochemists, plant physiologists, and entomologists.

Table of Contents


Preface

Preface to First Edition

Acknowledgments

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

I. Historical

II. Definition of a Virus

2. Assay, Detection, and Diagnosis

I. Infectivity

II. Analytical Ultracentrifugation

III. Density Gradient Centrifugation

IV. Serological Methods

V. Counting Virus Particles Using Electron Microscopy

VI. Chemical Procedures for Purified Viruses

VII. Assay Using Radioisotopes

VIII. Relative Sensitivity of Different Methods

IX. Diagnosis of Disease

3. Isolation

I. Choice of Plant Material

II. Extraction Medium

III. Extraction Procedure

IV. Preliminary Isolation of the Virus

V. Further Purification of the Virus Preparation

VI. Storage of Purified Viruses

VII. Identification of the Infective Particle and Criteria of Purity

VIII. Virus Concentration in Plants and Yields of Purified Virus

4. Structural Components

I. Nucleic Acids

II. The Proteins in Plant Viruses

III. Other Components in Viruses

5. Architecture

I. Methods

II. Physical Principles in the Architecture of Viruses

III. Geometric Viruses with ssRNA

IV. Geometric Viruses with dsRNA

V. Geometric Viruses with DNA

VI. Enveloped Viruses

VII. Stabilizing Bonds in Virus Structure

6. Introduction to the Study of Virus Replication

I. Generalized Outline for the Replication of a Small ssRNA Virus

II. The Strategies of Plant Viral Genomes

III. Experimental Viral Protein Synthesis and the Biochemical Mapping of Viral Genomes

IV. Other Methods for Determining Gene Content and Arrangement

V. Experimental Systems for Studying Replication In Vivo

7. Replication

I. Viruses with Monopartite ssRNA Genomes

II. Viruses with Bipartite ssRNA Genomes

III. Viruses with Tripartite ssRNA Genomes

IV. Satellite Viruses, Satellite RNAs, and Their Helpers

V. DNA Viruses

VI. Reoviridae

VII. Enveloped Viruses

VIII. Viroids

IX. Involvement of the Nucleus in the Replication of RNA Viruses

X. Recognition and Control Mechanisms

XI. Possible Roles for Specialized Terminal Structures in Plant Viral RNAs

XII. Mixed Virus Assembly in Vitro and In Vivo

XIII. The Survival Value of Multipartite Genomes

8. Transmission and Movement

I. Direct Passage in Living Higher Plant Material

II. Transmission by Organisms Other Than Higher Plants

III. Mechanical Transmission

IV. Movement and Final Distribution in the Plant

9. Disease Symptoms

I. Macroscopic Symptoms

II. Histological Changes

III. Cytological Effects

10. Effects on Plant Metabolism

I. Experimental Variables

II. Nucleic Acids and Proteins

III. Lipids

IV. Carbohydrates

V. Cell Wall Components

VI. Respiration

VII. Photosynthesis

VIII. Transpiration, Water Content, and Translocation of Solutes

IX. Activities of Specific Enzymes

X. Hormones

XI. Concentration of Some Low Molecular Weight Compounds

XII. Summary

11. Induction of Disease

I. Possible Virus Roles

II. Effects on Growth'

III. Effects on Chloroplasts

IV. Mechanisms for the Limitation of Virus Infection

V. Leaf Ontogeny and Mosaic Disease

VI. Role of Membranes

12. Factors Influencing the Course of Infection and Disease

I. Plant Factors

II. Environmental Factors

III. Interaction with Other Agents

13. Variability

I. Isolation of Strains

II. The Molecular Basis of Variation

III. Relationships between Structure and Biological Activity

IV. Criteria for the Recognition of Strains

V. Virus Strains in the Plant

14. Inactivation

I. Temperature

II. Radiation

III. Ultrasonic Vibration

IV. Desiccation

V. High Pressure

VI. Aging

VII. Hydrogen Ion Concentration

VIII. Oxidation and Reduction

IX. Inorganic Substances

X. Organic Compounds

XI. Metabolites and Antimetabolites

XII. Substances from Organisms

XIII. Summary of Processes Involved in Virus Inactivation

15. Relationships between Plant Viruses and Invertebrates

I. Vector Groups in the Invertebrates

II. Nematodes (Nematoda)

III. Aphids (Aphidoidae)

IV. Leafhoppers (Auchenorryncha)

V. Insects with Biting Mouth-parts

VI. Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)

VII. Thrips (Thysanoptera)

VIII. Mites (Arachnida)

IX. Pollinating Insects

16. Ecology

I. Biological Factors

II. Physical Factors

III. Survival through the Seasonal Cycle

IV. Conclusions

17. Economic Importance and Control

I. Economic Importance

II. Control Measures

18. Occurrence among the Groups of Plants and the Fungi

I. Host Ranges of Viruses Infecting Angiosperms

II. Plant Groups below the Angiosperms

III. Viruses Infecting Fungi

IV. Viruses in Bacteria Associated with Plants

19. Nomenclature Classification, Origins, and Evolution

I. Nomenclature and Classification

II. Criteria Available for Classifying Viruses

III. Speculations on Origins and Evolution

20. The Groups of Plant Viruses

Text

Appendix Literature on Plant Virology

Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
916
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483258669

About the Author

R. E. F. Matthews