Plant Pests and Their Control

Plant Pests and Their Control

1st Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Author: P. G. Fenemore
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182865

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Description

Plant Pests and Their Control covers all phases of the science of applied entomology. It aims to provide students, practicing agriculturalists and horticulturalists, and other interested persons with a basic introduction to insects as living organisms and to the principles and practice of pest control. This book is organized into 13 chapters that deal with topics essential to the training and continuing education of agriculturalists and horticulturists. These include the types of harmful and beneficial insects; the types of predators, parasites and pathogens and attack specific plants; the concept, principles and practices of pest management; and the information required when dealing with a pest problem. This volume also provides a catalog of insecticides and acaricides. This book will be of interest to students, practicing agriculturalists and horticulturalists, and others interested in pest management.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    List of Tables

    List of Figures

    Chapter 1 — Introduction

    What is Entomology?

    What are Insects?

    The Biological Success of Insects

    (a) Large Number of Species

    (b) Large Numbers of Individuals

    (c) Great Variety f Habitats

    (d) Long Geological History

    Some Possible Reasons for Insects' Success

    (a) Power of Flight

    (b) Adaptability

    (c) Possession of an External Skeleton

    (d) Small Size

    (e) Rapid Reproduction

    Conclusion

    Chapter 2 — The Practical Importance of Insects

    Man and Insects

    Harmful Insect Activities

    Beneficial Insect Activities

    (a) Natural Enemies of Pest Species

    (b) Pollinators of Cultivated Plants

    (c) Producers of Useful Materials

    Neutral Insect Activities

    Selected References

    Chapter 3 — Insect Structure and Function

    External Anatomy

    (a) Segmentation

    (b) The Head

    (c) The Thorax

    (d) The Abdomen

    Internal Anatomy

    (a) Skeletal System

    (b) Circulatory System

    (c) Digestive and Excretory Systems

    (d) Respiratory System

    (e) Nervous System

    (f) Reproductive System

    (g) Fat Body

    Insect Mouthparts

    (a) Biting and Chewing Mouthparts

    (b) Piercing and Sucking Mouthparts

    (c) Rasping Mouthparts

    (d) Other Mouthpart Patterns

    Insect Sense Organs

    (a) Touch

    (b) Hearing

    (c) Smell and Taste

    (d) Sight

    Selected References

    Chapter 4 — Growth, Development, Metamorphosis

    Amount of Growth

    Factors Affecting Growth Rate

    Moulting (Ecdysis)

    Metamorphosis

    Selected References

    Chapter 5 — Reproduction and Life Cycles

    The Normal Sexual Reproductive Cycle

    1. Sexually Mature Adults

    2. Locating the Opposite Sex

    3. Mating

    4. Pre-Oviposition Period

    5. Egg Laying (Oviposition)

    6. Egg Hatch

    7. Development of Immature Stages to Adulthood

    Life Cycle Diagrams

    Variations to The Normal Pattern of Reproduction

    (a) Parthenogenesis

    (b) Viviparity

    (c) Parthenogenesis and Viviparity

    (d) Polyembryony

    Generations a Year

    Overwintering

    The Practical Relevance of Knowledge of Life Cycles

    Selected References

    Chapter 7 — Mites, and Other Non-Insect Pests

    Mites

    (a) General Features

    (b) Mouthparts

    (c) Respiratory System

    (d) Life Cycles

    (e) Main Types of Mites

    (f ) Biology of a Typical Phytophagous Mite

    (g) Plant Injury Caused by Mites

    Millipedes and Centipedes

    Symphilids

    Slaters (Woodlice)

    Slugs and Snails

    Selected References

    Chapter 8 — Insects and Plants

    Plant Feeding Insects

    (a) Plant Host Range

    (b) Types of Insect Injury

    (c) Relationship of Pest Injury to Yield and Quality of Produce

    (d) Insects and Plant Disease

    Pollinating Insects

    (a) Honeybees

    (b) Bumblebees

    (c) Alkali Bee

    (d) Lucerne Leafcutter Bee

    Selected References

    Chapter 9 — Predators, Parasites and Pathogens

    Predators

    (a) The Main Groups of Insect Predators and Their Prey

    (b) Feeding Behavior of Predatory Insects

    (c) Range of Prey Attacked

    Chapter 6 — Insect Identification and Classification

    Insect Names

    Means of Identifying Insects

    (a) Use of Keys

    (b) Identification Services

    (c) Visual Recognition

    Higher and "Lower Categories (Than Species)

    The Orders of Insects

    Selected References

    Parasites

    (a) The Main Groups of Parasitic Insects

    (b) Species and Stages of Hosts Attacked

    (c) Life Cycle of a Typical Parasite

    Pathogens

    (a) Proof of Pathogenicity

    (b) The Main Groups of Pathogenic Micro-Organisms

    (c) Routes of Entry and Methods of Dispersal

    (d) Environmental Conditions for Infection

    (e) Specificity

    Selected References

    Chapter 10 — The Ecological Background to Pest Control

    The Reproductive Potential of Insects

    Environmental Factors Restricting Increase of Insect Populations

    The Structure of Insect Populations

    The Nature and Origin of Pest Problems

    Some Possible Solutions to Pest Problems

    Selected References

    Chapter 11 — Pest Control Principles and Practices

    Introduction

    Categories of Crop Pests

    (a) Key Pests

    (b) Occasional Pests

    (c) Potential Pests

    Pest Control Procedures — The Main Options

    Cultural Control

    (a) Crop Rotation

    (b) Cultivation

    (c) Time of Sowing

    (d) Irrigation

    (e) Cultural Control in Perennial Crops and in Pastures

    Cultural Control — Some Conclusions

    Plant Resistance

    (a) Pest Resistant Plant Species

    (b) Pest Resistant Cultivars

    (c) Mechanisms of Plant Resistance to Pests

    (d) Pest Biotypes

    Plant Resistance to Pests — Some Conclusions

    Biological Control

    (a) Biological Control Procedures

    (b) Biological Control by Insect Pathogens

    Biological Control — Some Conclusions

    Chemical Control

    (a) Origin of Chemical Control

    (b) Discovery and Development of Insecticides

    (c) Chemistry

    (d) Nomenclature

    (e) Mode of Action

    (g) Spectrum of Activity

    (g) Persistence

    (h) Toxicity (To Higher Animals)

    (i) Ecological Hazards

    (j) Phytotoxicity

    (k) Formulation

    (l) Compatibility

    (m) Application Equipment

    (n) Resistance

    (o) Residues and Tolerances

    (p) Attractants, Repellents and Pheromones

    (q) Feeding Deterrents

    (r) Chemosterilants

    (s) Registration and Labeling

    Plant and Animal Quarantine

    Miscellaneous Control Procedures

    (a) Mechanical Control

    (b) Physical Control

    (c) The Sterility Principle in Pest Control

    The Economics of Pest Control

    The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Pest Control Procedures

    Selected References

    Chapter 12 — The Pest Management Concept

    Terminology

    The Essential Components of Pest Management

    (a) Understanding of the Factors That Regulate Pest Numbers

    (b) Determination of Pest Damage Thresholds

    (c) Monitoring Populations of Pests and Natural Enemies

    (d) A Decision Making Framework to Determine Action to be Taken

    (e) Methods of Selectively Manipulating Pest Populations

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Selected References

    Chapter 13 — Information Required in Dealing with a Pest Problem

    1. Identify the Pest

    2. Obtain Information About

    (a) Life Cycle

    (b) Habits

    (c) Plant Host Range

    (d) Natural Controlling Factors

    (e) Mobility and Capacity for Re-Infestation

    3. Decide the Need for Control Measures

    4. Select Control Measures

    Epilogue

    General References

    Appendix 1 — Catalogue of Insecticides and Acaricides

    Appendix 2 — Glossary

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 290
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182865

About the Author

P. G. Fenemore

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