Plant Pests and Their Control - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409600872, 9781483182865

Plant Pests and Their Control

1st Edition

Authors: P. G. Fenemore
eBook ISBN: 9781483182865
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 290
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Description

Plant Pests and Their Control covers all phases of the science of applied entomology. It aims to provide students, practicing agriculturalists and horticulturalists, and other interested persons with a basic introduction to insects as living organisms and to the principles and practice of pest control. This book is organized into 13 chapters that deal with topics essential to the training and continuing education of agriculturalists and horticulturists. These include the types of harmful and beneficial insects; the types of predators, parasites and pathogens and attack specific plants; the concept, principles and practices of pest management; and the information required when dealing with a pest problem. This volume also provides a catalog of insecticides and acaricides. This book will be of interest to students, practicing agriculturalists and horticulturalists, and others interested in pest management.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of Tables

List of Figures

Chapter 1 — Introduction

What is Entomology?

What are Insects?

The Biological Success of Insects

(a) Large Number of Species

(b) Large Numbers of Individuals

(c) Great Variety f Habitats

(d) Long Geological History

Some Possible Reasons for Insects' Success

(a) Power of Flight

(b) Adaptability

(c) Possession of an External Skeleton

(d) Small Size

(e) Rapid Reproduction

Conclusion

Chapter 2 — The Practical Importance of Insects

Man and Insects

Harmful Insect Activities

Beneficial Insect Activities

(a) Natural Enemies of Pest Species

(b) Pollinators of Cultivated Plants

(c) Producers of Useful Materials

Neutral Insect Activities

Selected References

Chapter 3 — Insect Structure and Function

External Anatomy

(a) Segmentation

(b) The Head

(c) The Thorax

(d) The Abdomen

Internal Anatomy

(a) Skeletal System

(b) Circulatory System

(c) Digestive and Excretory Systems

(d) Respiratory System

(e) Nervous System

(f) Reproductive System

(g) Fat Body

Insect Mouthparts

(a) Biting and Chewing Mouthparts

(b) Piercing and Sucking Mouthparts

(c) Rasping Mouthparts

(d) Other Mouthpart Patterns

Insect Sense Organs

(a) Touch

(b) Hearing

(c) Smell and Taste

(d) Sight

Selected References

Chapter 4 — Growth, Development, Metamorphosis

Amount of Growth

Factors Affecting Growth Rate

Moulting (Ecdysis)

Metamorphosis

Selected References

Chapter 5 — Reproduction and Life Cycles

The Normal Sexual Reproductive Cycle

1. Sexually Mature Adults

2. Locating the Opposite Sex

3. Mating

4. Pre-Oviposition Period

5. Egg Laying (Oviposition)

6. Egg Hatch

7. Development of Immature Stages to Adulthood

Life Cycle Diagrams

Variations to The Normal Pattern of Reproduction

(a) Parthenogenesis

(b) Viviparity

(c) Parthenogenesis and Viviparity

(d) Polyembryony

Generations a Year

Overwintering

The Practical Relevance of Knowledge of Life Cycles

Selected References

Chapter 7 — Mites, and Other Non-Insect Pests

Mites

(a) General Features

(b) Mouthparts

(c) Respiratory System

(d) Life Cycles

(e) Main Types of Mites

(f ) Biology of a Typical Phytophagous Mite

(g) Plant Injury Caused by Mites

Millipedes and Centipedes

Symphilids

Slaters (Woodlice)

Slugs and Snails

Selected References

Chapter 8 — Insects and Plants

Plant Feeding Insects

(a) Plant Host Range

(b) Types of Insect Injury

(c) Relationship of Pest Injury to Yield and Quality of Produce

(d) Insects and Plant Disease

Pollinating Insects

(a) Honeybees

(b) Bumblebees

(c) Alkali Bee

(d) Lucerne Leafcutter Bee

Selected References

Chapter 9 — Predators, Parasites and Pathogens

Predators

(a) The Main Groups of Insect Predators and Their Prey

(b) Feeding Behavior of Predatory Insects

(c) Range of Prey Attacked

Chapter 6 — Insect Identification and Classification

Insect Names

Means of Identifying Insects

(a) Use of Keys

(b) Identification Services

(c) Visual Recognition

Higher and "Lower Categories (Than Species)

The Orders of Insects

Selected References

Parasites

(a) The Main Groups of Parasitic Insects

(b) Species and Stages of Hosts Attacked

(c) Life Cycle of a Typical Parasite

Pathogens

(a) Proof of Pathogenicity

(b) The Main Groups of Pathogenic Micro-Organisms

(c) Routes of Entry and Methods of Dispersal

(d) Environmental Conditions for Infection

(e) Specificity

Selected References

Chapter 10 — The Ecological Background to Pest Control

The Reproductive Potential of Insects

Environmental Factors Restricting Increase of Insect Populations

The Structure of Insect Populations

The Nature and Origin of Pest Problems

Some Possible Solutions to Pest Problems

Selected References

Chapter 11 — Pest Control Principles and Practices

Introduction

Categories of Crop Pests

(a) Key Pests

(b) Occasional Pests

(c) Potential Pests

Pest Control Procedures — The Main Options

Cultural Control

(a) Crop Rotation

(b) Cultivation

(c) Time of Sowing

(d) Irrigation

(e) Cultural Control in Perennial Crops and in Pastures

Cultural Control — Some Conclusions

Plant Resistance

(a) Pest Resistant Plant Species

(b) Pest Resistant Cultivars

(c) Mechanisms of Plant Resistance to Pests

(d) Pest Biotypes

Plant Resistance to Pests — Some Conclusions

Biological Control

(a) Biological Control Procedures

(b) Biological Control by Insect Pathogens

Biological Control — Some Conclusions

Chemical Control

(a) Origin of Chemical Control

(b) Discovery and Development of Insecticides

(c) Chemistry

(d) Nomenclature

(e) Mode of Action

(g) Spectrum of Activity

(g) Persistence

(h) Toxicity (To Higher Animals)

(i) Ecological Hazards

(j) Phytotoxicity

(k) Formulation

(l) Compatibility

(m) Application Equipment

(n) Resistance

(o) Residues and Tolerances

(p) Attractants, Repellents and Pheromones

(q) Feeding Deterrents

(r) Chemosterilants

(s) Registration and Labeling

Plant and Animal Quarantine

Miscellaneous Control Procedures

(a) Mechanical Control

(b) Physical Control

(c) The Sterility Principle in Pest Control

The Economics of Pest Control

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Pest Control Procedures

Selected References

Chapter 12 — The Pest Management Concept

Terminology

The Essential Components of Pest Management

(a) Understanding of the Factors That Regulate Pest Numbers

(b) Determination of Pest Damage Thresholds

(c) Monitoring Populations of Pests and Natural Enemies

(d) A Decision Making Framework to Determine Action to be Taken

(e) Methods of Selectively Manipulating Pest Populations

Discussion and Conclusions

Selected References

Chapter 13 — Information Required in Dealing with a Pest Problem

1. Identify the Pest

2. Obtain Information About

(a) Life Cycle

(b) Habits

(c) Plant Host Range

(d) Natural Controlling Factors

(e) Mobility and Capacity for Re-Infestation

3. Decide the Need for Control Measures

4. Select Control Measures

Epilogue

General References

Appendix 1 — Catalogue of Insecticides and Acaricides

Appendix 2 — Glossary

Index


Details

No. of pages:
290
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483182865

About the Author

P. G. Fenemore