Plant Nematode Biopesticides

Plant Nematode Biopesticides

1st Edition - May 26, 2022

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  • Authors: Anwar Bilgrami, Anish Khan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128229972
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230060

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Plant Nematode Biopesticides presents the most current knowledge on various categories of biopesticides used in the management of nematode pests of crops or those that have significant potential as biological control agents. This book presents an exploratory and investigatory compilation and explanation of the actions and potentials of predatory nematodes, microbial agents, plant and other organic products, nanobiopesticides, and predatory invertebrates as biopesticides of nematode pests of agricultural crops. It is of unique importance and value as the only currently available single-volume resource focusing on plant parasitic nematodes as the pests and biopesticides. In addition, the book addresses common reservations in using biopesticides, either alone or in integrated pest management programs, providing advanced insights on various biopesticidal agents and products. Biopesticides may be microbial (nematodes, bacteria, fungi, virus, herbs etc.), plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), plant products (citronella oil, neem oil, capsaicin, pyrethrin etc.), synthetic biochemical molecules, pheromones, semio-chemicals, plant extracts, or nanobiopesticides.  

Key Features

  • Includes emerging areas of nanobiopesticides, chemical aspects of biopesticides and plant exudates
  • Presents strategies for researching nematodal biological control
  • Addresses problems related to the mass production, manufacture and formation of biopesticides from both animal and plant products


Agriculturists, Botanists, Biologists, Zoologists, Parasitologist, Horticulturists, Plant Pathologists, Nematologists, Soil Ecologists, Environmentalists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Foreword 1
  • Foreword 2
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • History and definitions of biopesticides
  • Types of biopesticides
  • Components of biological control
  • Possible ways of application of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Augmentative plant nematode biocontrol
  • Classical plant nematode biocontrol
  • Inundative plant nematode biocontrol
  • Manipulative plant nematode biocontrol
  • Restorative plant nematode biocontrol
  • Conservation plant nematode biocontrol
  • Why is biological control important?
  • Benefits of biopesticides
  • Market trends
  • Policy issues
  • Chapter 2. Evolution and future trends
  • Agrobacterium radiobacter
  • Exploitation of natural enemies
  • Evolution of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Major aspects of testing biopesticidal products
  • Evolution of plant nematode biopesticides during the next 20 years
  • Current and future trends
  • Chapter 3. Types of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Plant-incorporated protectants
  • Bacterial plant nematode biopesticides
  • Baculovirus as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Predatory nematodes as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Nematophagous fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Toxin-producing fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Opportunistic or egg parasitic fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Endoparasitic fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Predacious fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Tardigrades as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Turbellarians as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Enchytraeids as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Collembolans as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Predatory soil mites as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Earthworms as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Biofertilizers as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Biostimulants as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Nanoparticles as plant nematode biopesticides
  • RNAi-based nano plant nematode biopesticides
  • Biochemicals as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Animal exudates as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Plant exudates as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Pheromones as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Plants and plant products as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Advantages of biopesticides
  • Chapter 4. Host-specific and generalist biopesticides
  • Host/prey specificity
  • Broad-spectrum biopesticides
  • Determining prey/host choices
  • Strike rate of a predators
  • Prey resistance to predation
  • Prey susceptibility to predation
  • Interactions and competitions
  • Mutualism
  • Omnivory
  • Effect of flexible behavior
  • Switching behavior
  • Chapter 5. Attributes of successful biopesticides
  • Importation
  • Conservation
  • Augmentation
  • Easy culture conditions
  • High reproductive potentials
  • Prolonged longevity
  • Easy applicability
  • Adaptability
  • Safety to nontarget organisms
  • Strong prey detection capabilities
  • Ecological compatibility
  • Temporal compatibility
  • Environmental adaptability
  • Persistence capability
  • Dispersal capacity
  • Pest control potential
  • Biological competitiveness
  • Broad prey/host spectrum efficiency
  • Capability to produce toxic metabolites
  • Hyperparasitism
  • Effectiveness against pests
  • Resistance
  • Residues
  • Shelf life
  • Speed to market
  • Short handling time
  • Survival at low host/prey densities
  • Low costs of mass rearing
  • Easy transportation
  • Prey/host searching ability
  • Synchronized host and prey life cycles
  • Aggregation behavior
  • Organic and biodegradable
  • Chapter 6. Biopesticidal potentials of predatory nematodes
  • Types of predatory nematodes
  • Biocontrol potential of mononchs
  • Biopesticidal potentials of predatory aphelenchids
  • Biocontrol potential of diplogasterid predators
  • Prey catching and feeding mechanisms of predatory nematodes
  • Attack response
  • Attack
  • Extracorporeal digestion
  • Ingestion
  • Prey resistance and susceptibility to predation
  • Prey preference
  • Prospects of using predatory nematodes as biopesticides
  • Constraints in using predatory nematodes as plant nematode biopeptides
  • Ecology
  • Culture
  • Conservation
  • Chapter 7. Biopesticidal potentials of microbial organisms
  • Biopesticidal potentials of bacteria
  • Bacteria as plant nematode biopesticides
  • New cry toxins
  • Bacillus thuringiensis formulations
  • Applications
  • Bacterial biopesticidal products used against plant-parasitic nematodes
  • Prospects of using bacteria as plant nematode biopesticide
  • Constraints in using bacteria as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Biopesticidal potentials of viruses
  • Prospects of using viruses as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Constraints of using viruses as plant nematode biopesticide
  • Biopesticidal potentials of protozoans
  • Prospects of using protozoans as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Constraints in using protozoans as plant nematode biopeptides
  • Chapter 8. Biopesticidal potential of soil invertebrates
  • Biopesticidal potentials of tardigrades
  • Biopesticidal potentials of turbellarians
  • Biopesticidal potentials of collembolans
  • Biopesticidal potentials of enchytraeids
  • Biopesticidal potentials of earthworms
  • Nematode communities affected by earthworms
  • Interaction between earthworms and nematodes during vermicomposting
  • Role of vermicomposting and byproducts in nematode biocontrol
  • Earthworms' nematode interactions in the soil
  • Biopesticidal potentials of soil mites
  • Prospects of using soil invertebrates as biopesticides
  • Constraints
  • Chapter 9. Biopesticidal potentials of predaceous and parasitic fungi
  • Types of trapping fungi
  • Nematode-trapping fungi
  • Adhesive hyphae
  • Adhesive branches
  • Adhesive nets
  • Adhesive knobs
  • Nonconstricting rings
  • Constricting rings
  • Nematode infection mechanisms in nematophagous fungi
  • Endoparasitic fungi
  • Egg parasites
  • Toxin-producing fungi
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
  • Opportunistic fungi
  • Modes of action of fungal biopesticides
  • Ecology and distribution of nematophagous fungi
  • Biopesticidal potentials of predaceous fungi
  • Biopesticidal potentials of endozoic fungi
  • Biopesticidal products based on nematophagous fungi
  • Mass production of fungi-based plant nematode biopesticides
  • Solid state fermentation
  • Formulations of biopesticides
  • Prospects of using fungi as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Constraints in using fungi as plant nematode biopeptides
  • Chapter 10. Biopesticidal potentials of antagonistic plants and plant products
  • Biopesticidal potentials of Tagetes
  • Biopesticidal potentials of mustard
  • Biopesticidal potentials of Asparagus
  • Biopesticidal potentials of grasses
  • Biopesticidal potentials of Crotalaria
  • Biopesticidal potentials of neem (Azadirachta indica)
  • Nematicidal activities of plant extracts
  • Nematicidal activities of plant oil cakes
  • Chitosan
  • Advantages of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Benefits of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Prospects of using plants and plant products as biopesticides
  • Constraints in using plants and plant products as biopeptides
  • Chapter 11. Biopesticidal potentials of animal and plant exudates and chemical communicators
  • Plant exudates
  • Biopesticidal potentials of plant exudates
  • Chemical communicators
  • Semiochemicals
  • Pheromones
  • Sex pheromones
  • Epideictic pheromones
  • Aggregation pheromones
  • Allelochemicals
  • Allomones
  • Synomones
  • Apneumones
  • Kairomones
  • Role of kairomones in host searching and food-finding behaviors
  • Random movement
  • Exploration and probing
  • Switch response
  • Coordinated locomotion
  • Chemotactic response
  • Role of kairomones in eliciting responses of biopesticidal organisms
  • Role of fecal matters and excretory nitrogenous compounds as kairomones
  • Role of plant root and leaf extracts as kairomones
  • Application of chemical communicators as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Prospects of using chemical communicators as plant nematode biopesticides
  • Constraints in using plant and animal exudates as biopesticides
  • Chapter 12. Biopesticidal potentials of nanobiopesticides
  • Background of nanobiopesticides
  • Role of nanobiopesticides
  • RNAi as the functional base product of dsRNA
  • The role of RNAi in crop protection
  • Application of nanoparticles in agriculture
  • Nanobiopesticides for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes
  • Chapter 13. Merits, demerits, risks, and restrictions of biopesticides
  • Benefits of biopesticides
  • Demerits of biopesticides
  • Environmental benefits and risks
  • Risks of testing and releasing biopesticides
  • New tools and approaches
  • Growth restrictions in the biopesticide market
  • Biopesticides lead to sustainable agriculture
  • Merits of biopesticides over chemical pesticides
  • Regulatory barriers in the commercialization of biopesticides
  • Advantages of using biopesticides in integrated pest management
  • Chapter 14. Conclusions, prospects, and opportunities
  • Plant nematode biopesticides
  • Factors affecting the efficiency of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Commercialization of biopesticides
  • Barriers in commercialization of biopesticides
  • Role of biopesticides in integrated nematode management
  • The attitude of farmers toward biopesticides
  • The attitude of governmental agencies toward biopesticides
  • The attitude of the biological control community to biopesticides
  • The current state of biopesticides
  • Future directions of plant nematode biopesticides
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: May 26, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128229972
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230060

About the Authors

Anwar Bilgrami

Professor Anwar L. Bilgrami, an American Citizen is currently working as a Professor and Scientific Research Consultant in the Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. Professor Bilgrami, specializing on behavior of nematodes and biological control of pests and parasites, has obtained PhD and DSc degrees in 1983 and 1995 respectively. He has, so far, published more than 130 original research papers in highly reputed journals, three books and contributed more than 20 chapters to the books edited by renowned subject experts. Professor Bilgrami has received several important academic awards, research grants and accolades from around the worlds. He has served various international journals as reviewer, co-editor and international adviser besides being the subject expert to review international research grant applications, career advancement credentials and academic programs of various universities. Professor Bilgrami has widely travelled across the globe for various academic and scientific engagements. He has been invited to more than 40 countries to collaborate research, as a visiting professor, speaker, coordinator, consultant etc. Professor Bilgrami is a member of several international scientific and academic bodies, including Fellow of the Japanese Society for Promotion of Science, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biology and Scientific Research Consultant, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Visiting Scholar, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Anish Khan

Dr. Anish Khan is Currently working as Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materais Research (CEAMR), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ph.D. from Aligarh Muslim University, India from 2010. Research experience of working in the field of synthetic polymers, organic-inorganic electrically conducting nano-composites. Complete Postdoctoral from School of Chemical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia (USM) electroanalytical chemistry in 2010-2011. Research and teaching experiance, more than 100 research papers published in reffered international journal. More then 20 international conferences/ workshop and 3 books published 6 in Progress and 12 Book chapters. Around 20 research project completed. Manageriel Editor of Chemical and Environmental Research (CER) Journal, Member of American Nano Society, Field of specialization is polymer nano composite/cation-exchanger/chemical sensor/microbiosensor/nanotechnology, application of nano materials in electroanalytical chemistry, material chemistry, ion-exchange chromatography and electro-analytical chemistry, dealing with the synthesis, characterization (using different analytical techniques) and derivatization of inorganic ion-exchanger by the incorporation of electrically conducting polymers. Preparation and characterization of hybrid nano composite materials and their applications, Polymeric inorganic cation –exchange materials, Electrically conducting polymeric, materials, Composite material use as Sensors, Green chemistry by remediation of pollution, Heavy metal ion selective membrane electrode, Biosensor on neurotransmitter.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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