Plant Factory - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128166918, 9780128166925

Plant Factory

2nd Edition

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

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Editors: Toyoki Kozai Genhua Niu Michiko Takagaki
Paperback ISBN: 9780128166918
eBook ISBN: 9780128166925
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th November 2019
Page Count: 516
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Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production, Second Edition presents a comprehensive look at the implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops for both improved food security and environmental sustainability. Edited and authored by leading experts in PF and controlled environment agriculture (CEA), the book is divided into five sections, including an Overview and the Concept of Closed Plant Production Systems (CPPS), the Basics of Physics and Physiology – Environments and Their Effects, System Design, Construction, Cultivation and Management and Plant Factories in Operation.

In addition to new coverage on the rapid advancement of LED technology and its application in indoor vertical farming, other revisions to the new edition include updated information on the status of business R&D and selected commercial PFALs (plant factory with artificial lighting). Additional updates include those focused on micro and mini-PFALs for improving the quality of life in urban areas, the physics and physiology of light, the impact of PFAL on the medicinal components of plants, and the system design, construction, cultivation and management issues related to transplant production within closed systems, photoautotrophic micro-propagation and education, training and intensive business forums on PFs.

Key Features

  • Includes coverage of LED technology
  • Presents case-studies for real-world insights and application
  • Addresses PF from economics and planning, to operation and lifecycle assessment


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, Food security

Table of Contents

Part 1: Overview and concept of closed plant production system (CPPS)
1. Introduction
2. Role of the plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL) in urban areas
3. PFAL business and R&D in Asia and North America: Status and perspectives
4. Vertical farming in Europe: Present status and outlook
5. Plant factory as a resource-efficient closed plant production system
6. Micro- and mini-PFALs for improving the quality of life in urban areas
7. Rooftop plant production systems in urban areas

Part 2: Basics of physics and physiology - Environments and their effects
8. Light sources
9. Plant responses to light
10. LED advancements for plant-factory artificial lighting
11. Physical environmental factors and their properties
12. Photosynthesis and respiration
13. Growth, development, transpiration, and translocation as affected by abiotic environmental factors
14. Nutrition and nutrient uptake in soilless culture systems
15. Tipburn
16. Functional components in leafy vegetables
17. Medicinal components
18. Production of pharmaceuticals in a specially designed plant factory

Part 3: System design, construction, cultivation and management
19. Plant production process, floor plan, and layout of PFAL
20. Hydroponic systems
21. Seeding, seedling production and transplanting
22. Transplant production in closed systems
23. Photoautotrophic micropropagation
24. Biological factor management
25. Design and management of PFALs
26. Automated technology in plant factories with artificial lighting
27. Life cycle assessment
28. Education, training, and business workshops and forums  on plant factories

Part 4: PFALs in operation and its perspectives
29. Selected PFALs in the United States, the Netherlands, and China
30. Selected PFALs in Japan
31. Representative plant factories in Taiwan
32. Challenges for the next-generation PFALs
33. Conclusions: Resource-saving and resource-consuming characteristics of PFALs


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2020
6th November 2019
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Toyoki Kozai

With over 270 original papers, 140 review papers, 159 other papers, 171 books or book chapters, and 7 translations of books from English to Japanese, 20 active patents with 50 approved in total, Toyoki Kozai is an award winning scientist who has made significant contributions to the advancement of technology and agriculture, particularly plant factory science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus of Chiba University and Honorary President of Japan Plant Factory Association - Chiba, Japan

Genhua Niu

Dr. Genhua Niu is a professor in Urban Agriculture at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in Dallas. Her research focuses on development of culture information and best management practices related to urban agriculture, which is the idea of crop production in an urban setting, including peri-urban greenhouses and indoor vertical farms in the middle of a city. Prior to this position, Dr. Niu was a professor in urban landscape water conservation at Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in El Paso. Dr. Niu has published 129 refereed journal papers, 18 book chapters, 49 proceedings papers, and 23 technical extension articles and edited 3 books. She has received several awards from American Society for Horticultural Science, USDA-NIFA, and Texas A&M University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas AgriLife Research at Dallas, Texas A&M University - Dallas, TX, USA

Michiko Takagaki

Dr. Takagaki is Professor at the Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, assigned to the University Farm, and has engaged in education and research. In charge of foreign student affairs since 1997 and of international affairs in general since 2006. She holds a concurrent assignment as the Director of the Center for Environment, Health and Fields Sciences since 2009 (2009-2015, 2018-present). Engaging with research and experiments in Agronomy of Tropical Agriculture with major fields in Thailand, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries, Dr. Takagaki has done research and taught in the fields of tropical agriculture, environmental control, protected horticulture and training of basic horticulture.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University – Chiba, Japan

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