Plant Factory - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128017753, 9780128018484

Plant Factory

1st Edition

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

Editors: Toyoki Kozai Genhua Niu Michiko Takagaki
Paperback ISBN: 9780128017753
eBook ISBN: 9780128018484
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th October 2015
Page Count: 432
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production provides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply.

As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electric) lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs.

With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.

Key Features

  • Provides full-scope insight on plant farm, from economics and planning to life-cycle assessment
  • Presents state-of-the-art plant farm science, written by global leaders in plant farm advancements
  • Includes case-study examples to provide real-world insights


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulation

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1: Overview and Concept of Closed Plant Production System (CPPS)
    • Chapter 1: Introduction
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
    • Chapter 2: Role of the Plant Factory With Artificial Lighting (PFAL) in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Interrelated Global Issues to be Solved Concurrently
      • Resource Inflow and Waste Outflow in Urban Areas
      • Energy and Material Balance in Urban Ecosystems
      • Growing Social Needs and Interest in PFALs
      • Criticisms of PFALs and Responses to Them
      • Towards a Sustainable PFAL
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: PFAL Business and R&D in the World: Current Status and Perspectives
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Japan
      • Taiwan
      • Korea
      • China
      • North America
      • Europe (England, The Netherlands, and Others)
    • Chapter 4: Plant Factory as a Resource-Efficient Closed Plant Production System
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition and Principal Components of PFAL
      • Definition of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Water Use Efficiency
      • CO2 Use Efficiency
      • Light Energy Use Efficiency of Lamps and Plant Community
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Lighting
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Heat Pumps for Cooling
      • Inorganic Fertilizer Use Efficiency
      • Representative Values of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Electricity Consumption and Cost
      • Improving Light Energy Use Efficiency
      • Estimation of Rates of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water and Nutrient Uptake
      • Coefficient of Performance of Heat Pump
    • Chapter 5: Micro- and Mini-PFALs for Improving the Quality of Life in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics and Types of m-PFAL
      • Various Applications of m-PFALs
      • Design Concept of m-PFALs
      • m-PFALs Connected to the Internet
      • Advanced Uses of m-PFALs Connecting with a Virtual m-PFAL
      • m-PFAL Connected with Other Biosystems as a Model Ecosystem
      • Light Source and Lighting System Design
    • Chapter 6: Rooftop Plant Production Systems in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Rooftop Plant Production
      • Building Integration
  • Part 2: Basics of Physics and Physiology—Environments and Their Effects
    • Chapter 7: Light
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Physical Properties of Light and Its Measurement
      • Light Sources
    • Chapter 8: Physical Environmental Factors and Their Properties
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Temperature, Energy, and Heat
      • Water Vapor
      • Moist Air Properties
      • CO2 Concentration
      • Air Current Speed
      • Number of Air Exchanges Per Hour
    • Chapter 9: Photosynthesis and respiration
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Photosynthesis
      • C3, C4 and CAM Photosynthesis
      • Respiration
      • Photorespiration
      • LAI and Light Penetration
      • Single Leaf and Canopy
    • Chapter 10: Growth, Development, Transpiration and Translocation as Affected by Abiotic Environmental Factors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Shoot and Root Growth
      • Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Growth and Development
      • Development (Photoperiodism and Temperature Affecting Flower Development)
      • Transpiration
      • Translocation
    • Chapter 11: Nutrition and Nutrient Uptake in Soilless Culture Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Essential Elements
      • Beneficial Elements
      • Nutrient Uptake and Movement
      • Nutrient Solution
      • Solution pH and Nutrient Uptake
      • Nitrogen Form
      • New Concept: Quantitative Management
    • Chapter 12: Tipburn
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cause of Tipburn
      • Countermeasure
    • Chapter 13: Functional Components in Leafy Vegetables
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Low-Potassium Vegetables
      • Low-Nitrate Vegetables
      • Improving the Quality of Leafy Vegetables by Controlling Light Quality
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 14: Medicinal Components
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Growing Medicinal Plants Under Controlled Environments: Medicinal Components and Environmental Factors
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Production of Pharmaceuticals in a Specially Designed Plant Factory
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Candidate Crops for PMPs
      • Construction of GM Plant Factories
      • Optimization of Environment Conditions for Plant Growth
      • Concluding Remarks
  • Part 3: System Design, Construction, Cultivation and Management
    • Chapter 16: Plant Production Process, Floor Plan, and Layout of PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Motion Economy and PDCA Cycle
      • Plant Production Process
      • Layout
      • Sanitation Control
    • Chapter 17: Hydroponic Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Hydroponic System
      • Sensors and Controllers
      • Nutrient Management Systems
      • Ion-Specific Nutrient Management
      • Sterilization System
    • Chapter 18: Seeding, Seedling Production and Transplanting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Preparation
      • Seeding
      • Seedling Production and Transplanting
    • Chapter 19: Transplant Production in Closed Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Main Components and Their Functions
      • Ecophysiology of Transplant Production
      • Photosynthetic Characteristics of Vegetable and Medicinal Transplants as Affected by Light Environment
      • Blueberry
      • Propagation and Production of Strawberry Transplants
    • Chapter 20: Photoautotrophic Micropropagation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Development of PAM
      • Advantages and Disadvantages of PAM for Growth Enhancement of In Vitro Plants
      • Natural Ventilation System Using Different Types of Small Culture Vessels
      • Forced Ventilation System for Large Culture Vessels
      • Potential for Secondary Metabolite Production of In Vitro Medicinal Plants by Using PAM
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 21: Biological Factor Management
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Controlling Algae
      • Microorganism Management
    • Chapter 22: Design and Management of PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Structure and Function of the PFAL-D&M System
      • PFAL-D (Design) Subsystem
      • PFAL-M Subsystem
      • Design of Lighting System
      • Electricity Consumption and Its Reduction
      • Three-Dimensional Distribution of Air Temperature
      • Plant Growth Measurement, Analysis, and Control
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 23: Automated Technology in Plant Factories with Artificial Lighting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Seeding Device
      • Seedling Selection Robot System
      • Shuttle-Type Transfer Robot
      • Cultivation Panel Washer
    • Chapter 24: Life Cycle Assessment
      • Abstract
      • Standard of LCA
      • Remarks for the Assessment of PFAL
      • Summary and Outlook
    • Chapter 25: Education, Training, and Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Plant Factories in the Center
      • Plant Environment Designing Program
      • Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
      • JPFA’s Business Workshops
  • Part 4: PFALs in Operation and its Perspectives
    • Chapter 26: Selected Commercial PFALs in Japan and Taiwan
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Representative PFALs in Taiwan
      • Spread Co., Ltd.
      • Mirai Co., Ltd.
      • Japan Dome House Co., Ltd.
      • Internationally Local & Company (InLoCo)
      • Sci Tech Farm Co., Ltd.
      • Berg Earth Co., Ltd.
    • Chapter 27: Challenges for the Next-Generation PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Lighting System
      • Breeding and Seed Propagation
      • Cultivation
      • PFAL with Solar Cells
    • Chapter 28: Conclusions: Resource-Saving and Resource-Consuming Characteristics of PFALs
      • Abstract
      • Roles of PFALs in Urban Areas
      • Benefits of Producing Fresh Vegetables Using PFALs in Urban Areas
      • Resource-Saving Characteristics of PFALs
      • Possible Reductions in Electricity Consumption and Initial Investment
      • Challenges
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Toyoki Kozai

With over 270 original papers, 140 review papers, 159 other papers, 171 books or book chapters, and 7 translations of books from English to Japanese, 20 active patents with 50 approved in total, Toyoki Kozai is an award winning scientist who has made significant contributions to the advancement of technology and agriculture, particularly plant factory science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Chiba University and Chief Director, Japan Plant Factory Association – Chiba, Japan

Genhua Niu

Dr. Genhua Niu is an associate professor at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center at Dallas with 100% Research Appointment. Her areas of special expertise are in environmental stress physiology and plant production in controlled environment. Her current research areas include identifying drought and salt tolerant low water use plant materials for urban landscape, quantifying growth and physiological responses of crops to drought, salt and heat stresses, and determining the minimum water requirement for urban landscape plants for maintaining a healthy landscape while conserving water.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Dallas – Dallas, Texas, USA

Michiko Takagaki

Dr. Takagaki is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, assigned to the University Farm, and has engaged in education and research. In charge of foreign student affairs since 1997 and of international affairs in general since 2006 he holds a concurrent assignment as a Deputy Director of the Center for Environment, Health and Fields Sciences. Engaging with research and experiments in Agronomy of Tropical Agriculture with major fields in Thailand, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries, Dr. Takagaki has done research and taught in the fields of tropical agriculture, vegetable science, environmental control, protected horticulture and training of basic horticulture.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University – Chiba, Japan


"Plant Factory is very useful for a beginner interested to venture into crop production using plant factory system. It provides a comprehensive information from all aspects of crop production under a housing or factory system, inclusive the design of the structure and lighting and their mantainance. I would recommend it to be used as a textbook for horticulture course on vegetables production system where land is limited such as in urban areas. The science or technical know-how is very strong as a lot of research has been conducted to support the claims. It is quite unusual for a book to even provide information on the training centre whereby a trainee can register himself or herself. As it mentioned, this system of vegetables production is rather costly and the economics or cost-benefit analysis should be included as one of the main topic in the book. Also, the risk or probability of failure of the entrepreneur investing in this system to succeed or make money should also be highlighted. Also, it will be quite useful to know the perception of customers or how to convince the customers to pay more for the vegetables produced in the plant factory." -- Prof. Dr. Che Fauziah Ishak, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Ratings and Reviews