Plant Factory

Plant Factory

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

1st Edition - October 2, 2015

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  • Editors: Toyoki Kozai, Genhua Niu, Michiko Takagaki
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128018484
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128017753

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Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production provides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply. As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electric) lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs. With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.

Key Features

  • Provides full-scope insight on plant farm, from economics and planning to life-cycle assessment
  • Presents state-of-the-art plant farm science, written by global leaders in plant farm advancements
  • Includes case-study examples to provide real-world insights


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulation

Table of Contents

    • Preface
      • Acknowledgments
    • Part 1: Overview and Concept of Closed Plant Production System (CPPS)
      • Chapter 1: Introduction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 2: Role of the Plant Factory With Artificial Lighting (PFAL) in Urban Areas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Interrelated Global Issues to be Solved Concurrently
        • Resource Inflow and Waste Outflow in Urban Areas
        • Energy and Material Balance in Urban Ecosystems
        • Growing Social Needs and Interest in PFALs
        • Criticisms of PFALs and Responses to Them
        • Towards a Sustainable PFAL
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 3: PFAL Business and R&D in the World: Current Status and Perspectives
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Japan
        • Taiwan
        • Korea
        • China
        • North America
        • Europe (England, The Netherlands, and Others)
      • Chapter 4: Plant Factory as a Resource-Efficient Closed Plant Production System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Definition and Principal Components of PFAL
        • Definition of Resource Use Efficiency
        • Water Use Efficiency
        • CO2 Use Efficiency
        • Light Energy Use Efficiency of Lamps and Plant Community
        • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Lighting
        • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Heat Pumps for Cooling
        • Inorganic Fertilizer Use Efficiency
        • Representative Values of Resource Use Efficiency
        • Electricity Consumption and Cost
        • Improving Light Energy Use Efficiency
        • Estimation of Rates of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water and Nutrient Uptake
        • Coefficient of Performance of Heat Pump
      • Chapter 5: Micro- and Mini-PFALs for Improving the Quality of Life in Urban Areas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Characteristics and Types of m-PFAL
        • Various Applications of m-PFALs
        • Design Concept of m-PFALs
        • m-PFALs Connected to the Internet
        • Advanced Uses of m-PFALs Connecting with a Virtual m-PFAL
        • m-PFAL Connected with Other Biosystems as a Model Ecosystem
        • Light Source and Lighting System Design
      • Chapter 6: Rooftop Plant Production Systems in Urban Areas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Rooftop Plant Production
        • Building Integration
    • Part 2: Basics of Physics and Physiology—Environments and Their Effects
      • Chapter 7: Light
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Physical Properties of Light and Its Measurement
        • Light Sources
      • Chapter 8: Physical Environmental Factors and Their Properties
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Temperature, Energy, and Heat
        • Water Vapor
        • Moist Air Properties
        • CO2 Concentration
        • Air Current Speed
        • Number of Air Exchanges Per Hour
      • Chapter 9: Photosynthesis and respiration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Photosynthesis
        • C3, C4 and CAM Photosynthesis
        • Respiration
        • Photorespiration
        • LAI and Light Penetration
        • Single Leaf and Canopy
      • Chapter 10: Growth, Development, Transpiration and Translocation as Affected by Abiotic Environmental Factors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Shoot and Root Growth
        • Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Growth and Development
        • Development (Photoperiodism and Temperature Affecting Flower Development)
        • Transpiration
        • Translocation
      • Chapter 11: Nutrition and Nutrient Uptake in Soilless Culture Systems
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Essential Elements
        • Beneficial Elements
        • Nutrient Uptake and Movement
        • Nutrient Solution
        • Solution pH and Nutrient Uptake
        • Nitrogen Form
        • New Concept: Quantitative Management
      • Chapter 12: Tipburn
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cause of Tipburn
        • Countermeasure
      • Chapter 13: Functional Components in Leafy Vegetables
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Low-Potassium Vegetables
        • Low-Nitrate Vegetables
        • Improving the Quality of Leafy Vegetables by Controlling Light Quality
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 14: Medicinal Components
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Growing Medicinal Plants Under Controlled Environments: Medicinal Components and Environmental Factors
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 15: Production of Pharmaceuticals in a Specially Designed Plant Factory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Candidate Crops for PMPs
        • Construction of GM Plant Factories
        • Optimization of Environment Conditions for Plant Growth
        • Concluding Remarks
    • Part 3: System Design, Construction, Cultivation and Management
      • Chapter 16: Plant Production Process, Floor Plan, and Layout of PFAL
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Motion Economy and PDCA Cycle
        • Plant Production Process
        • Layout
        • Sanitation Control
      • Chapter 17: Hydroponic Systems
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Hydroponic System
        • Sensors and Controllers
        • Nutrient Management Systems
        • Ion-Specific Nutrient Management
        • Sterilization System
      • Chapter 18: Seeding, Seedling Production and Transplanting
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Preparation
        • Seeding
        • Seedling Production and Transplanting
      • Chapter 19: Transplant Production in Closed Systems
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Main Components and Their Functions
        • Ecophysiology of Transplant Production
        • Photosynthetic Characteristics of Vegetable and Medicinal Transplants as Affected by Light Environment
        • Blueberry
        • Propagation and Production of Strawberry Transplants
      • Chapter 20: Photoautotrophic Micropropagation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of PAM
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of PAM for Growth Enhancement of In Vitro Plants
        • Natural Ventilation System Using Different Types of Small Culture Vessels
        • Forced Ventilation System for Large Culture Vessels
        • Potential for Secondary Metabolite Production of In Vitro Medicinal Plants by Using PAM
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 21: Biological Factor Management
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Controlling Algae
        • Microorganism Management
      • Chapter 22: Design and Management of PFAL
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structure and Function of the PFAL-D&M System
        • PFAL-D (Design) Subsystem
        • PFAL-M Subsystem
        • Design of Lighting System
        • Electricity Consumption and Its Reduction
        • Three-Dimensional Distribution of Air Temperature
        • Plant Growth Measurement, Analysis, and Control
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 23: Automated Technology in Plant Factories with Artificial Lighting
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Seeding Device
        • Seedling Selection Robot System
        • Shuttle-Type Transfer Robot
        • Cultivation Panel Washer
      • Chapter 24: Life Cycle Assessment
        • Abstract
        • Standard of LCA
        • Remarks for the Assessment of PFAL
        • Summary and Outlook
      • Chapter 25: Education, Training, and Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Plant Factories in the Center
        • Plant Environment Designing Program
        • Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
        • JPFA’s Business Workshops
    • Part 4: PFALs in Operation and its Perspectives
      • Chapter 26: Selected Commercial PFALs in Japan and Taiwan
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Representative PFALs in Taiwan
        • Spread Co., Ltd.
        • Mirai Co., Ltd.
        • Japan Dome House Co., Ltd.
        • Internationally Local & Company (InLoCo)
        • Sci Tech Farm Co., Ltd.
        • Berg Earth Co., Ltd.
      • Chapter 27: Challenges for the Next-Generation PFAL
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Lighting System
        • Breeding and Seed Propagation
        • Cultivation
        • PFAL with Solar Cells
      • Chapter 28: Conclusions: Resource-Saving and Resource-Consuming Characteristics of PFALs
        • Abstract
        • Roles of PFALs in Urban Areas
        • Benefits of Producing Fresh Vegetables Using PFALs in Urban Areas
        • Resource-Saving Characteristics of PFALs
        • Possible Reductions in Electricity Consumption and Initial Investment
        • Challenges
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 432
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: October 2, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128018484
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128017753

About the Editors

Toyoki Kozai

Toyoki Kozai Ph.D, is the president of The Agricultural Academy of Japan. After establishing his early work on greenhouse light environments, energy savings, ventilation, and computer applications, his scientific interest was extended to in-vitro environments and their control for sugar-free medium micro-propagation and transplant production in closed systems using artificial lighting. He served as President of the Japan Plant Factory Association (a non-profit organization) and is leading the research and development of controlled environmental greenhouses using heat pumps, artificial lighting, fogging, CO2 enrichment, and nutrient solution control systems. Selected awards are Lifetime Achievement Award (2009) from Society of In Vitro Biology, USA. The 2002 Purple Ribbon Award from Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Japan Prize of Agricultural Sciences from Association of Japanese Agricultural Scientific Societies, 2018 honorary PhD degree from Mahidol University, Thailand ‘The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star’ from Japanese Government 2019.

Affiliations and Expertise

Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO), Chiba, Japan

Genhua Niu

Dr. Genhua is a professor in urban horticulture with Texas A&M AgriLife Research at Dallas and Department of Horticultural Sciences. Her area of expertise is controlled environment agriculture and plant stress physiology. Her current research focuses on hydroponics, nutrition management, LED lighting, optimization of growing environment, and development of best management practices related to urban controlled environment agriculture. She is the co-editor and author of the book “Plant Factory - Indoor Vertical Farming for Efficient Quality Food Production” (1st & 2nd edition). Dr. Niu received several awards from Texas A&M University for her service and research, American Society for Horticultural Science, and USDA-NIFA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Dallas, Texas A&M University System, Dallas, TX, USA

Michiko Takagaki

Dr. Takagaki is Professor at the Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, assigned to the University Farm, and has engaged in education and research. In charge of foreign student affairs since 1997 and of international affairs in general since 2006. She holds a concurrent assignment as the Director of the Center for Environment, Health and Fields Sciences since 2009 (2009-2015, 2018-present). Engaging with research and experiments in Agronomy of Tropical Agriculture with major fields in Thailand, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries, Dr. Takagaki has done research and taught in the fields of tropical agriculture, environmental control, protected horticulture and training of basic horticulture.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University – Chiba, Japan

Ratings and Reviews

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  • ClintonWidjaja Mon Oct 15 2018

    Good book

    Good book

  • Hossein F. Mon May 14 2018

    Dr, Hossein Farraji

    This book is a real scientific and practical book that you can use it for lecturing as well as handbook for using in a plant Factory.