Plant Factory Basics, Applications and Advances

Plant Factory Basics, Applications and Advances

1st Edition - November 16, 2021

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  • Editors: Toyoki Kozai, Genhua Niu, Joseph Masabni
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323859226
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851527

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Plant Factory Basics, Applications, and Advances takes the reader from an overview of the need for and potential of plant factories with artificial lighting (PFALs) in enhancing food production and security to the latest advances and benefits of this agriculture environment. Edited by leading experts Toyoki Kozai, Genhua Niu, and Joseph Masabni, this book aims to provide a platform of PFAL technology and science, including ideas on its extensive business and social applications towards the next-generation PFALs. The book is presented in four parts: Introduction, Basics, Applications, and Advanced Research. Part 1 covers why PFALs are necessary for urban areas, how they can contribute to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, and a definition of PFAL in relation to the term "indoor vertical farm." Part 2 presents SI units and radiometric, photometric, and photonmetric quantities, types, components, and performance of LED luminaires, hydroponics and aquaponics, and plant responses to the growing environment in PFALs. Part 3 describes the indexes and definition of various productivity aspects of PFAL, provides comparisons of the productivity of the past and the present operation of any given PFALs, and compares PFALs with one another from the productivity standpoint by applying the common indexes. Part 4 describes the advances in lighting and their effects on plant growth, breeding of indoor and outdoor crops, production of fruiting vegetables and head vegetables, and concluding with a focus on a human-centered perspective of urban agriculture. Providing real-world insights and experience, Plant Factory Basics, Applications, and Advances is the ideal resource for those seeking to take the next step in understanding and applying PFAL concepts.

Key Features

  • Provides the most in-depth assessment of PFAL available
  • Compares PFAL to “indoor vertical farming” and provides important insights into selecting optimal choice
  • Presents insights to inspire design and management of the next generation of PFALs


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, food security

Table of Contents

  • PART 1. Introduction

    1. Why plant factories with artificial lighting (PFALs) are necessary

    2. Terms related to PFALs

    3. Role and characteristics of PFALs

    4. Contribution of PFALs to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Beyond

    PART 2. Basics

    5. Photonmetric quantities and their application

    6. LED product terminology and performance description of LED luminaires

    7. Photon efficacy in horticulture: turning LED packages into LED luminaires

    8. Balances and use efficiencies of CO2, water and energy

    9. Hydroponics

    10. Aquaponics

    11. Plant responses to environments

    PART 3. Applications

    12. Productivity: Definition and application

    13. How to integrate and optimize productivity

    14. Emerging economics and profitability of PFALs

    15. Business models and cost performance of downtown mini-plant factories

    16. Indoor production of tomatoes

    SECTION 4. Advanced Research in PFALs and Indoor Farms

    17. Toward an optimal spectrum for photosynthesis and plant morphology in LED-based crop cultivation

    18. Indoor lighting effects on plant nutritional compounds and mineral elements

    19. Indoor Production of Ornamental Seedlings, Vegetable Transplants, and Microgreens

    20. Molecular breeding of miraculin-accumulating tomatoes with suitable traits for cultivation in PFALs and the optimization of cultivation methods

    21. Environmental control of PFAL

    22. Human-Centered Perspective on Urban Agriculture

    23. Towards commercial production of head vegetables in plant factories with artificial lighting (PFALs)

    24. Concluding remarks

Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: November 16, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323859226
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323851527

About the Editors

Toyoki Kozai

Toyoki Kozai Ph.D, is the president of The Agricultural Academy of Japan. After establishing his early work on greenhouse light environments, energy savings, ventilation, and computer applications, his scientific interest was extended to in-vitro environments and their control for sugar-free medium micro-propagation and transplant production in closed systems using artificial lighting. He served as President of the Japan Plant Factory Association (a non-profit organization) and is leading the research and development of controlled environmental greenhouses using heat pumps, artificial lighting, fogging, CO2 enrichment, and nutrient solution control systems. Selected awards are Lifetime Achievement Award (2009) from Society of In Vitro Biology, USA. The 2002 Purple Ribbon Award from Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Japan Prize of Agricultural Sciences from Association of Japanese Agricultural Scientific Societies, 2018 honorary PhD degree from Mahidol University, Thailand ‘The Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold and Silver Star’ from Japanese Government 2019.

Affiliations and Expertise

Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO), Chiba, Japan

Genhua Niu

Dr. Genhua is a professor in urban horticulture with Texas A&M AgriLife Research at Dallas and Department of Horticultural Sciences. Her area of expertise is controlled environment agriculture and plant stress physiology. Her current research focuses on hydroponics, nutrition management, LED lighting, optimization of growing environment, and development of best management practices related to urban controlled environment agriculture. She is the co-editor and author of the book “Plant Factory - Indoor Vertical Farming for Efficient Quality Food Production” (1st & 2nd edition). Dr. Niu received several awards from Texas A&M University for her service and research, American Society for Horticultural Science, and USDA-NIFA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Dallas, Texas A&M University System, Dallas, TX, USA

Joseph Masabni

Dr. Masabni is the small-acreage extension vegetable specialist with Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service. His extension effort focuses on small-acreage vegetable production and urban horticulture including traditional open field vegetable production and high tunnels for season extension. Dr. Masabni’s outreach and interaction with vegetable producers has helped identify and focus research needs in sustainable vegetable production. Thus, his recent research and extension interests have expanded to soilless cultivation, hydroponics, and aquaponics in high tunnels and greenhouses. Dr. Masabni organizes webinars and annual workshops. He has designed three online self-paced educational courses as a teaching resource to the public. He writes extension articles on a regular basis and has delivered hundreds of presentations at international, national, and regional scientific and grower conferences, and to the public.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Dallas, Texas A&M University System, Dallas, TX, USA

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