Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise

Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise

How Plants Defend Themselves

1st Edition - July 28, 1980

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  • Editor: James G. Horsfall
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146227

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Plant Disease An Advanced Treatise, Volume V: How Plants Defend Themselves describes the active, passive, physical, chemical, mechanical, and physiological defense systems of plants against the pathogens. Divided into 23 chapters, this volume discusses theories, experimental approaches, and ways to help plant defend themselves. The opening chapters of this volume deal with certain general aspects of plant defense, such as the theories of “tolerance to disease” and “the time sequence of defense”, including a dynamic model of defense. A chapter discusses how plant populations defend themselves in natural ecosystem and the implications of disease management on agroecosystems. Considerable chapters examine the defense by the host by analogy with defense of a medieval castle, such as perimeter, internal, and chemical defenses. Discussions on the defenses triggered by the invading pathogen; recognition and compatibility phenomena; the concept of hypersensitivity; the role of phytoalexins in defense; and the metabolic detoxification done by plants to suffer less damage from toxins are provided. This volume also discusses the theory and mechanisms of hypovirulence and hyperparasitism. The concluding chapters summarize the effects of numerous nutrients on disease and the mechanisms involved. This volume is an invaluable source for plant pathologists, mycologists, advanced researches, and graduate students.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Contents of Other Volumes

    Chapter 1 Prologue: How Plants Defend Themselves

    I. Introduction

    II. Defense in Plants is Analogous to Defense of a Medieval Castle

    III. Plant Disease Constantly Changes

    IV. The Concept of Aegricorpus or Pathosystem

    V. Premunite, Cross-Protection, and Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders

    VI. The Dynamics of Defense as Affected by the Continuum of Health, Stress, Disease, Senescence, and Death

    VII. How about Systems Analysis?

    VIII. Some Highlights of Volume V

    IX. An Overview of the Treatise


    Chapter 2 Escape from Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Nature of Disease Escape

    III. Objectives of This Chapter

    IV. Effect of Time Differentials on Escape

    V. Effect of Space Differentials on Escape

    VI. Host Factors That Promote Escape

    VII. Pathogen Factors That Promote Escape

    VIII. Environmental Factors That Promote Escape

    IX. Applications of Disease Escape

    X. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 3 Tolerance to Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Working Definitions for Host-Pathogen Interactions

    III. Natural Trends toward Tolerance in Host-Parasite Systems

    IV. Functional Levels of Tolerance

    V. Identifying Tolerance

    VI. Utilization of Tolerance


    Chapter 4 The Time Sequence of Defense

    I. Introduction

    II. Patterns of Sequential Changes in Defense

    III. Alteration of Sequential Changes in Defense

    IV. Causes of Sequences in Defense

    V. A Dynamic Model of Defense


    Chapter 5 How Plant Populations Defend Themselves in Natural Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Genetic Defense

    III. Gene Management Systems

    IV. Intensity of Plant Diseases in Natural Ecosystems

    V. Population Structures in Natural Stands of Wild, Predominantly Self-Pollinated Plants

    VI. Defense of Plant Populations against Diseases in Natural Ecosystems outside Israel

    VII. Defense of Plant Populations against Diseases in Natural Ecosystems Undisturbed by Man in Israel

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 6 Defense at the Perimeter: The Outer Walls and the Gates

    I. Introduction

    II. The Structure and Function of Plant Surfaces

    III. The Theory of Defense

    IV. Defenses outside the Walls—Appendages

    V. Defenses outside the Walls—The Surface Coverings

    VI. Assistance in Defense by Other Surface Organisms

    VII. Defenses at the Walls

    VIII. Defenses at the Gates and Breaches in the Walls

    IX. Conclusions


    Chapter 7 Defense at the Perimeter: Extruded Chemicals

    I. Introduction

    II. General Nature of Extruded Chemicals

    III. Zones of Plant Influence

    IV. Nature of Extruded Toxic Chemicals

    V. Direct Toxicity of Extruded Chemicals in Plant Defense

    VI. Indirect Effects through Stimulating Surface Antagonists

    VII. Potential for Disease Control through Altering Host Physiology to Favor Antagonists

    VIII. Conclusions

    References 13

    Chapter 8 Preformed Internal Physical Defenses

    I. Introduction

    II. Preformed Physical Barricades

    III. Discussion


    Chapter 9 Preformed Internal Chemical Defenses

    I. Introduction

    II. Lack of Essential Factors

    III. Enzyme Inhibitors

    IV. Hydrolytic Enzymes

    V. Antifungal Compounds

    VI. Role of Preformed Chemical Defenses

    VII. Chances of Overcoming Preformed Chemical Barriers

    VIII. Epilogue


    Chapter 10 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Recognition and Compatibility Phenomena

    I. Introduction

    II. The Recognition Phenomenon

    III. Recognition at the Leaf Surface

    IV. Recognition at the Root Surface

    V. Recognition at the Mesophyll Cell Wall Surface

    VI. Recognition at the Host Cell Membrane

    VII. Concluding Remarks—A Look into the Future


    Chapter 11 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Hypersensitivity

    I. Basic Concepts

    II. Different Forms of Hypersensitivity

    III. Mechanism of the Hypersensitive Reaction in Physiological/Biochemical Terms

    IV. Phytoalexins and the Hypersensitive Reaction

    V. Hypersensitivity—Cause or Consequence of Disease Resistance

    VI. Hypersensitivity—A Symptom Associated with Plant Disease Resistance


    Chapter 12 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Physical Defenses

    I. Introduction

    II. The Occurrence of Structural Changes

    III. The Molecular Basis for Structural Changes

    IV. Conclusions


    Chapter 13 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Chemical Defenses

    I. Introduction

    II. Definitions

    III. Techniques Used to Study Phytoalexins

    IV. Problems Associated with in Vitro Analysis and Assessment of in Vivo Phenomena

    V. Comments of Isolation and Characterization of Elicitors

    VI. Elicitors: Activation and Control of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis

    VII. Rigid Proof of a Role for Phytoalexins in Disease Resistance—A General Discussion


    Chapter 14 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Detoxifying the Toxins

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of Detoxification in Symptom Reduction and in Pathogenic Establishment in Plant Tissues

    III. Metabolic Alterations of Pathogenic Toxins by Plant Tissues

    IV. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 15 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects of Previous Virus Infection upon Subsequent Virus Infection

    III. Virus-Induced Protection—Definitions

    IV. Possible Defense Mechanisms

    V. Practical Use of Virus-Induced Protection

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 16 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Immunity Induced by Bacteria

    III. Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects of Induced Immunity

    IV. Migration of Inducer to Host Receptor and Ultimate Host Response


    Chapter 17 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Fungi

    I. Introduction

    II. Defenses Triggered by Foliar Fungal Pathogens

    III. Protection by Previous Fungal Invaders

    IV. Defenses Triggered by Soil-Borne Fungal Pathogens

    V. Practical Implications of Induced Resistance and Antagonism

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 18 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Nematodes and Insects

    I. Introduction: Nematodes

    II. Simultaneous Inoculation

    III. Sequential Inoculation

    IV. Split-Root Inoculation

    V. Induced Protection

    VI. Mode of Action

    VII. Conclusions: Nematodes

    VIII. Introduction: Insects

    IX. Plant Responses to Insect Attack

    X. Glucosides and Plant Resistance to Insects

    XI. Proteinase Inhibitors

    XII. Host-Parasite Interactions and the Effect on Insects

    XIII. Conclusions: Insects


    Chapter 19 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders

    I. Introduction

    II. Objectives

    III. Diverse Inducers against Viral Challengers

    IV. Viral Inducers against Diverse Challengers

    V. Diverse Inducers against Diverse Challengers

    VI. Some Possible Mechanisms of Induced Protection

    VII. A Point of View


    Chapter 20 Hypovirulence and Hyperparasitism

    I. Introduction

    II. Examples of Hypovirulence

    III. The Probable Cause of Hypovirulence

    IV. Speculations on Sources of Hypovirulence Agents

    V. Biocontrol with Hyperparasites

    VI. Useful Attributes for Hyperparasites

    VII. The Quest for Hyperparasites


    Chapter 21 The Role of Mineral Nutrition in Defense

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of Individual Nutrients on Defense

    III. Mechanisms by Which Nutrients Facilitate Defense

    IV. Conclusions


    Chapter 22 Allocation of Resources to Defense and Repair

    I. Introduction

    II. Concepts in Resource Allocation

    III. The Relationship of Carbon Metabolism to Carbon Allocation

    IV. The Relationship of Allocation to Defense and Repair

    V. Major Defense Mechanisms That Result in Measurable Changes in Resource Allocation

    VI. Whole-Plant Costs of Allocation Strategies

    Future Prospects


    Chapter 23 Epilogue: Anent Philosophy of Plant Pathology

    I. Introduction

    II. About Science and Research

    III. About Scientists

    IV. About Plant Pathology

    V. About Basic (Pure) and Useful (Impure) Research

    VI. About Peer Review

    VII. About Thinking

    VIII. About Writing

    IX. About Institutions

    X. About Science and Public Policy

    XI. The Philosophy of This Treatise


    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Cumulative Index of Major Concepts, Volumes I-V

    Cumulative Index of Major Principles, Volumes I-V

Product details

  • No. of pages: 556
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: July 28, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146227

About the Editor

James G. Horsfall

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