Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123564054, 9780323146227

Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise

1st Edition

How Plants Defend Themselves

Editors: James G. Horsfall
eBook ISBN: 9780323146227
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th July 1980
Page Count: 556
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Plant Disease An Advanced Treatise, Volume V: How Plants Defend Themselves describes the active, passive, physical, chemical, mechanical, and physiological defense systems of plants against the pathogens. Divided into 23 chapters, this volume discusses theories, experimental approaches, and ways to help plant defend themselves.
The opening chapters of this volume deal with certain general aspects of plant defense, such as the theories of “tolerance to disease” and “the time sequence of defense”, including a dynamic model of defense. A chapter discusses how plant populations defend themselves in natural ecosystem and the implications of disease management on agroecosystems. Considerable chapters examine the defense by the host by analogy with defense of a medieval castle, such as perimeter, internal, and chemical defenses. Discussions on the defenses triggered by the invading pathogen; recognition and compatibility phenomena; the concept of hypersensitivity; the role of phytoalexins in defense; and the metabolic detoxification done by plants to suffer less damage from toxins are provided. This volume also discusses the theory and mechanisms of hypovirulence and hyperparasitism. The concluding chapters summarize the effects of numerous nutrients on disease and the mechanisms involved.

This volume is an invaluable source for plant pathologists, mycologists, advanced researches, and graduate students.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1 Prologue: How Plants Defend Themselves

I. Introduction

II. Defense in Plants is Analogous to Defense of a Medieval Castle

III. Plant Disease Constantly Changes

IV. The Concept of Aegricorpus or Pathosystem

V. Premunite, Cross-Protection, and Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders

VI. The Dynamics of Defense as Affected by the Continuum of Health, Stress, Disease, Senescence, and Death

VII. How about Systems Analysis?

VIII. Some Highlights of Volume V

IX. An Overview of the Treatise


Chapter 2 Escape from Disease

I. Introduction

II. Nature of Disease Escape

III. Objectives of This Chapter

IV. Effect of Time Differentials on Escape

V. Effect of Space Differentials on Escape

VI. Host Factors That Promote Escape

VII. Pathogen Factors That Promote Escape

VIII. Environmental Factors That Promote Escape

IX. Applications of Disease Escape

X. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 3 Tolerance to Disease

I. Introduction

II. Working Definitions for Host-Pathogen Interactions

III. Natural Trends toward Tolerance in Host-Parasite Systems

IV. Functional Levels of Tolerance

V. Identifying Tolerance

VI. Utilization of Tolerance


Chapter 4 The Time Sequence of Defense

I. Introduction

II. Patterns of Sequential Changes in Defense

III. Alteration of Sequential Changes in Defense

IV. Causes of Sequences in Defense

V. A Dynamic Model of Defense


Chapter 5 How Plant Populations Defend Themselves in Natural Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Types of Genetic Defense

III. Gene Management Systems

IV. Intensity of Plant Diseases in Natural Ecosystems

V. Population Structures in Natural Stands of Wild, Predominantly Self-Pollinated Plants

VI. Defense of Plant Populations against Diseases in Natural Ecosystems outside Israel

VII. Defense of Plant Populations against Diseases in Natural Ecosystems Undisturbed by Man in Israel

VIII. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 6 Defense at the Perimeter: The Outer Walls and the Gates

I. Introduction

II. The Structure and Function of Plant Surfaces

III. The Theory of Defense

IV. Defenses outside the Walls—Appendages

V. Defenses outside the Walls—The Surface Coverings

VI. Assistance in Defense by Other Surface Organisms

VII. Defenses at the Walls

VIII. Defenses at the Gates and Breaches in the Walls

IX. Conclusions


Chapter 7 Defense at the Perimeter: Extruded Chemicals

I. Introduction

II. General Nature of Extruded Chemicals

III. Zones of Plant Influence

IV. Nature of Extruded Toxic Chemicals

V. Direct Toxicity of Extruded Chemicals in Plant Defense

VI. Indirect Effects through Stimulating Surface Antagonists

VII. Potential for Disease Control through Altering Host Physiology to Favor Antagonists

VIII. Conclusions

References 13

Chapter 8 Preformed Internal Physical Defenses

I. Introduction

II. Preformed Physical Barricades

III. Discussion


Chapter 9 Preformed Internal Chemical Defenses

I. Introduction

II. Lack of Essential Factors

III. Enzyme Inhibitors

IV. Hydrolytic Enzymes

V. Antifungal Compounds

VI. Role of Preformed Chemical Defenses

VII. Chances of Overcoming Preformed Chemical Barriers

VIII. Epilogue


Chapter 10 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Recognition and Compatibility Phenomena

I. Introduction

II. The Recognition Phenomenon

III. Recognition at the Leaf Surface

IV. Recognition at the Root Surface

V. Recognition at the Mesophyll Cell Wall Surface

VI. Recognition at the Host Cell Membrane

VII. Concluding Remarks—A Look into the Future


Chapter 11 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Hypersensitivity

I. Basic Concepts

II. Different Forms of Hypersensitivity

III. Mechanism of the Hypersensitive Reaction in Physiological/Biochemical Terms

IV. Phytoalexins and the Hypersensitive Reaction

V. Hypersensitivity—Cause or Consequence of Disease Resistance

VI. Hypersensitivity—A Symptom Associated with Plant Disease Resistance


Chapter 12 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Physical Defenses

I. Introduction

II. The Occurrence of Structural Changes

III. The Molecular Basis for Structural Changes

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 13 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Chemical Defenses

I. Introduction

II. Definitions

III. Techniques Used to Study Phytoalexins

IV. Problems Associated with in Vitro Analysis and Assessment of in Vivo Phenomena

V. Comments of Isolation and Characterization of Elicitors

VI. Elicitors: Activation and Control of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis

VII. Rigid Proof of a Role for Phytoalexins in Disease Resistance—A General Discussion


Chapter 14 Defenses Triggered by the Invader: Detoxifying the Toxins

I. Introduction

II. Role of Detoxification in Symptom Reduction and in Pathogenic Establishment in Plant Tissues

III. Metabolic Alterations of Pathogenic Toxins by Plant Tissues

IV. Discussion and Concluding Remarks


Chapter 15 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Viruses

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Previous Virus Infection upon Subsequent Virus Infection

III. Virus-Induced Protection—Definitions

IV. Possible Defense Mechanisms

V. Practical Use of Virus-Induced Protection

VI. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 16 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Immunity Induced by Bacteria

III. Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects of Induced Immunity

IV. Migration of Inducer to Host Receptor and Ultimate Host Response


Chapter 17 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Fungi

I. Introduction

II. Defenses Triggered by Foliar Fungal Pathogens

III. Protection by Previous Fungal Invaders

IV. Defenses Triggered by Soil-Borne Fungal Pathogens

V. Practical Implications of Induced Resistance and Antagonism

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 18 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders: Nematodes and Insects

I. Introduction: Nematodes

II. Simultaneous Inoculation

III. Sequential Inoculation

IV. Split-Root Inoculation

V. Induced Protection

VI. Mode of Action

VII. Conclusions: Nematodes

VIII. Introduction: Insects

IX. Plant Responses to Insect Attack

X. Glucosides and Plant Resistance to Insects

XI. Proteinase Inhibitors

XII. Host-Parasite Interactions and the Effect on Insects

XIII. Conclusions: Insects


Chapter 19 Defenses Triggered by Previous Invaders

I. Introduction

II. Objectives

III. Diverse Inducers against Viral Challengers

IV. Viral Inducers against Diverse Challengers

V. Diverse Inducers against Diverse Challengers

VI. Some Possible Mechanisms of Induced Protection

VII. A Point of View


Chapter 20 Hypovirulence and Hyperparasitism

I. Introduction

II. Examples of Hypovirulence

III. The Probable Cause of Hypovirulence

IV. Speculations on Sources of Hypovirulence Agents

V. Biocontrol with Hyperparasites

VI. Useful Attributes for Hyperparasites

VII. The Quest for Hyperparasites


Chapter 21 The Role of Mineral Nutrition in Defense

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Individual Nutrients on Defense

III. Mechanisms by Which Nutrients Facilitate Defense

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 22 Allocation of Resources to Defense and Repair

I. Introduction

II. Concepts in Resource Allocation

III. The Relationship of Carbon Metabolism to Carbon Allocation

IV. The Relationship of Allocation to Defense and Repair

V. Major Defense Mechanisms That Result in Measurable Changes in Resource Allocation

VI. Whole-Plant Costs of Allocation Strategies

Future Prospects


Chapter 23 Epilogue: Anent Philosophy of Plant Pathology

I. Introduction

II. About Science and Research

III. About Scientists

IV. About Plant Pathology

V. About Basic (Pure) and Useful (Impure) Research

VI. About Peer Review

VII. About Thinking

VIII. About Writing

IX. About Institutions

X. About Science and Public Policy

XI. The Philosophy of This Treatise


Author Index

Subject Index

Cumulative Index of Major Concepts, Volumes I-V

Cumulative Index of Major Principles, Volumes I-V


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

James G. Horsfall

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