Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123564047, 9780323148405

Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise

1st Edition

How Pathogens Induce Disease

Editors: James G. Horsfall
eBook ISBN: 9780323148405
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th November 1979
Page Count: 488
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Plant Disease An Advanced Treatise, Volume IV: How Pathogens Induce Disease describes the mechanisms of induction of various types of plant dysfunction by parasites and pathogens. Comprised of 22 chapters, this volume focuses on the effects of major group of pathogens on plant, including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, mycoplasmas, ricketssia, insects, and parasitic seed plants.

This volume begins with a series of theoretical and analytical discussions on the evolution and energetics of pathogens, predisposition phenomena, multiple pathogen interactions, and the penetration and colonization of hosts by pathogens. Considerable chapters describe the unique features and special adaptations of each major group of pathogens. This text includes discussions on the special relationships the mycoplasmas and rickettsia have developed with insects and viruses; their effects on growth and differentiation of the plant hosts; and the origin and evolutionary development of these pathogens. This volume also describes what is known about plant disease induction in other plants with toxic chemicals and the role of toxic residues in plant refuse and in the “sickness” phenomenon. A chapter examines a series of iatrogenic diseases and the mechanisms by which they are induced. The concluding chapters deal with the effect of diseased plants and plant pathogens in livestock and human beings.
This volume is an invaluable source for plant pathologists, mycologists, advanced researches, and graduate students.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Other Volumes

Tentative Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 1 Prologue: How Pathogens Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. The Battlefield of Attack and Defense

III. The Perspective of the Pathogen in Plant Disease

IV. What is a Pathogen?

V. The Concept of Induction

VI. Communication about Pathogenic and Environmental Stress Factors in Plants

VII. The Stimulatory and Inhibitory Influences of Koch's Postulates

VIII. The Tactical Weapons of Offense

IX. Some Highlights of Volume IV

X. An Overview of the Treatise


Chapter 2 The Evolution of Parasitic Fitness

I. Introduction

II. What is Parasitic Fitness?

III. Measuring Parasitic Fitness

IV. Parasitic Fitness and Genetic Complexity

V. Whence Comest Thou?

VI. What Hast Thou Been Up To?

VII. Whither Goest Thou?

VIII. Epilogue

Suggested References

Chapter 3 The energetics of Parasitism, Pathogenism, and Resistance in Plant Disease

I. Introduction

II. Types of Localization of Energy Sources in Host Cells

III. Energetics from the Pathogen Perspective

IV. Competition between Pathogen and Host for Carbohydrates in Host Cells

V. Change in Energy Metabolism in Host Cells in Response to Infection with Pathogens

VI. A Speculative Look to the Future


Chapter 4 Predisposition by the Environment

I. Development of the Concept

II. Definition of the Term "Predisposition by the Environment"

III. Terms Considered Comparable with Predisposition

IV. Environmental Factors Bringing about Predisposition

V. Interaction of Factors

VI. Significance of Predisposition in Plant Pathology


Chapter 5 External Synergisms among Organisms Inducing Disease

I. Introduction

II. Synergism

III. Problems Faced by Pathogens in Spreading from Plant to Plant

IV. Qualitative Aspects of the External Relationships between Pathogens and Other Organisms

V. Conclusions


Chapter 6 Internal Synergisms among Organisms Inducing Disease

I. Introduction

II. Components of a Synergistic Relationship

III. Possible Mechanisms of Internal Synergism

IV. Selected Examples of Internal Synergism

V. Some Thoughts about Experimental Approaches

VI. Reflections


Chapter 7 How the Defenses are Breached

I. Introduction

II. Events before the Penetration Process

III. Mode of Penetration

IV. Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter 8 How the Beach Head is Widened

I. Introduction

II. Attack Mechanisms

III. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 9 How Fungi Induced Disease

I. Introduction

II. Conceptualization of Fungal Pathogenesis

III. Receptive and Response Host Components

IV. The Fungal Arsenal

V. Pathogenesis


Chapter 10 How Bacteria Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Initial Interactions between Bacteria and Plants

III. Opportunistic Bacteria and Synergistic Relationships

IV. Mechanisms of Disease Induction

V. Areas for Future Research


Chapter 11 How Mycoplasmas and Rickettsias Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Etiology

III. Ecological Factors

IV. Insect Vectors

V. Mode of Action

VI. Viruses Associated with MLOs and RLOs

VII. Unsolved Problems

VIII. Origin and Evolution of MLOs and RLOs

IX. Conclusions and Summary


Chapter 12 How Nematodes Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Cyto- and Histopathology

III. Chemical and Physiological Pathology

IV. Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

V. A Vision of the Future

VI. Summary


Chapter 13 How insects Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Insect-Derived Phytoallactins

III. Insects as Components of Phytopathogenic Symbiotic Complexes

IV. Summary


Chapter 14 How Viruses and Viroids Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Disease

III. Factors Influencing Symptom Expression

IV. Earlier Speculations on Disease Induction

V. Products of Virus and Viroid Infection That May Induce Disease

VI. Which Products are Involved?

VII. The Lessons from Viroids and Satellite RNAs

VIII. Current Speculations on Disease Induction

IX. Conclusions


Chapter 15 How Air Pollutants Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Questions Being Posed by Air Pollution Phytotoxicologists

III. Interactions of Air Pollutants with the Plant

IV. Questions Air Pollution Phytotoxicologists have Answered

V. Conclusions


Chapter 16 How Parasitic Seed Plants Induce Disease in Other Plants

I. Introduction

II. An Overview

III. The Invading Parasite

IV. Disease Induced by the Parasite

V. A Nitrogen Starvation Hypothesis of Pathogenicity

VI. Summary


Chapter 17 Allelopathy

I. Introduction and Terminology

II. Historical Background

III. Allelopathic Interactions in Natural Ecosystems

IV. Allelopathic Interactions in Managed Ecosystems

V. Source and Release of Allelopathic Chemicals

VI. Chemical Nature of Allelopathic Compounds

VII. Mechanisms of Action of Allelopathic Chemicals

VIII. Path of Allelopathic Chemicals in the Environment


Chapter 18 Self-Induce Disease

I. Introduction

II. Site-Bound Self-Induced Diseases

III. Plant-Bound Self-Induced Diseases

IV. Discussion


Chapter 19 Iatrogenic Disease: Mechanisms of Action

I. Introduction

II. Reduced Resistance of the Host

III. Increased Inoculum Potential of the Pathogen

IV. Altered Microclimate to Favor Disease

V. Future Prospects


Chapter 20 Mycotoxins and Their Medical and Veterinary Effects

I. Introduction

II. Veterinary Mycotoxicoses

III. Human Mycotoxicoses

IV. Suspected Mycotoxin-Related Syndromes

V. Prospects for Future Research and Control


Chapter 21 The Epidemiology and Management of Aflatoxins and Other Mycotoxins

I. Introduction

II. The Challenges of Research on Mycotoxin Diseases

III. Disease Management

IV. Epidemiological Considerations

V. Summary


Chapter 22 The Effects of Plant Parasitic and Other Fungi on Man

I. Field and Storage Fungi

II. Toxic Mushrooms

III. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

IV. Fungus Spores and Respiratory Allergy


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

James G. Horsfall

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