Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123564023, 9780323149679

Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise

1st Edition

How Disease Develops in Populations

Editors: James G. Horsfall
eBook ISBN: 9780323149679
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th August 1978
Page Count: 456
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Description

Plant Disease An Advanced Treatise, Volume II: How Disease Develops in Populations deals with the epidemiological aspect of disease in population of plants. Comprised of 18 chapters, this volume discusses the comparative anatomy, methods of research, instrumentation, computer simulation, and genetic basis of epidemics.
After briefly discussing the sociology of plant pathology, the book presents the comparative anatomy of epidemics in terms of their structure, patterns of development, and dynamics. This volume describes the rational processes of epidemiological research and how they differ from the processes used to investigate disease in individual plants. A chapter examines the instrumentation for measuring the weather component, including temperature, humidity, air movement, and irradiance. Other chapters discuss the measurement of disease on whole living plants; the theory and measurement of inoculum potential; the dispersal of pathogens in both time and space; and the movement and maintenance of infectivity by pathogens that operate below ground. This volume also deals with computer simulators of plant disease and the use of predictive models to forecast epidemics for management decision making. It describes some general patterns of changes in plant-part susceptibility with time for various groups of diseases caused by fungi or viruses. A discussion on the problems of genetic uniformity and susceptibility and the breeding and deployment strategies needed to cope with these problems is included. Other chapters examine the influence of climate and weather on epidemics; the analysis of the geographical and climatic distribution of plants in various parts of the world; and the hazardous practices that have favored epidemics. Lastly, the probabilities of success for quarantines against diseases of various types are provided.
This volume is an invaluable source for plant epidemiologists and pathologists, botanists, and researchers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of other Volumes

Tentative Contents of other Volumes

Chapter 1 Prologue: How Disease Develops in Populations

I. Introduction

II. What is an Epidemic?

III. The Elements of an Epidemic

IV. Three Phases of Thinking about Plant Disease

V. An Overview of the Treatise

VI. Some Highlights of Volume II

References

Chapter 2 Some Epidemics Man Has Known

I. Impact of Plant Disease Epidemics on War

II. Impact of War on Plant Disease Epidemics

III. Impact of Plant Disease Epidemics on Human Culture

IV. Man Encourages His Own Epidemics

V. One Epidemic Leads to Another

References

Chapter 3 Comparative Anatomy of Epidemics

I. Comparative Epidemiology

II. Structures of Epidemics

III. Pattern of Epidemics

IV. Dynamics of Epidemics

V. Epilogue

References

Chapter 4 Methodology of Epidemiological Research

I. Introduction

II. The Methodology-Technology Interaction in Historical Perspective

III. The Need for Methodology

IV. The Tools of the Trade

V. Formalized Inquisitiveness—The Hypothesis

VI. The Empirical Cycle

VII. Facts: How Objective are They?

VIII. Theory

IX. Verification and Falsification

X. Methodological Handholds

XI. Quantitative Aspects

XII. The Art of Designing an Experiment

XIII. Playing with Time

XIV. Analysis and Synthesis

References

Chapter 5 Instrumentation for Epidemiology

I. Introduction

II. Importance of Measurement

III. Measuring Temperature

IV. Measuring Humidity

V. Measuring Air Movement

VI. Measuring Irradiance

VII. Acquiring Meteorological Data

Suggested References

Chapter 6 Pathometry: The Measurement of Plant Disease

I. Why Measure Disease?

II. Scope of the Chapter

III. Our Ignorance is Profound

IV. Why is our Ignorance so Profound?

V. The Worm is Turning

VI. The Parameters to be Measured

VII. Measuring Intensity by Visual Observation

VIII. Relating Intensity to Loss

IX. Where Next?

References

Chapter 7 Inoculum Potential

I. The Concept

II. The Inoculum

III. Inoculum and Infections

IV. The Equation for Inoculum Potential

V. Applications

References

Chapter 8 Dispersal in Time and Space: Aerial Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. How Spores are Liberated

III. How Spores are Transported through the Atmosphere

IV. How Spores are Deposited

V. Integration

VI. Challenges

References

Chapter 9 Dispersal in Time and Space: Soil Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. The Ecological Significance of Dispersal

III. The Environment of the Soil Pathogen

IV. The Mobility of Pathogens in Soil

V. The Maintenance of Infectivity

VI. Dispersal above Soil Level

VII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 10 Computer Simulation of Epidemics

I. Introduction

II. Using Multiplication and a Limit to Compose Models

III. Distilling a Model from History

IV. Micromodels, Environment, and Physiology of Pathogens

V. Host and Vector

VI. Conclusion

References

Chapter 11 Forecasting of Epidemics

I. Introduction

II. The Purpose of Forecasting

III. Some Early Forecasting Procedures

IV. Use of Mathematical Models in Forecasting

V. Analogy with a Road Map

VI. Preplanting Forecasts

VII. After-Planting Forecasts

VIII. Holistic versus Systems Analytic Models

IX. Forecasting for Farmers

References

Chapter 12 Changes in Host Susceptibility with Time

I. Introduction

II. Choices and Constraints in Methodology

III. Susceptibility Changes with Age and Time of Year

IV. Susceptibility Changes with Time of Day

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 13 The Genetic Base of Epidemics

I. Perspective

II. Genetic Uniformity

III. The Genetics of Susceptibility

IV. Choosing Strategies

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 14 Diseases in Forest Ecosystems: The Importance of Functional Diversity

I. Introduction

II. Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

III. Some Forest Tree Diseases which Exemplify Functional Diversity

IV. Functional Diversity and Disease Management in Forest Ecosystems

References

Chapter 15 Climatic and Weather Influences on Epidemics

I. Introduction

II. Influence of Weather Factors on Airborne Pathogens

III. Habitat of Airborne Diseases

IV. Habitat of Soil-Borne Diseases

V. The Hypothesis of Compensation

References

Chapter 16 Geophytopathology

I. Introduction

II. The Value of Maps

III. Distribution Patterns of Plant Diseases

IV. Role of Environment in Distribution Patterns

V. Planning of Crop Protection

References

Chapter 17 Agricultural and Forest Practices that Favor Epidemics

I. Introduction

II. Factors that Favor Epidemics

III. Specific Management Practices that Favor Epidemics

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter 18 People-Placed Pathogens: The Emigrant Pests

I. Introduction

II. Objective of this Chapter

III. The Arrival of Immigrant Species

IV. Defining the Threat

V. Exotic Pests and Diseases

VI. Quarantine Programs

References

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
456
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149679

About the Editor

James G. Horsfall