Plant Cell Organelles

Plant Cell Organelles

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Editor: J Pridham
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158138

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Plant Cell Organelles contains the proceedings of the Phytochemical Group Symposium held in London on April 10-12, 1967. Contributors explore most of the ideas concerning the structure, biochemistry, and function of the nuclei, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles, and other organelles of plant cells. This book is organized into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of the enzymology of plant cell organelles and the localization of enzymes using cytochemical techniques. The text then discusses the structure of the nuclear envelope, chromosomes, and nucleolus, along with chromosome sequestration and replication. The next chapters focus on the structure and function of the mitochondria of higher plant cells, biogenesis in yeast, carbon pathways, and energy transfer function. The book also considers the chloroplast, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi bodies, and the microtubules. The final chapters discuss protein synthesis in cell organelles; polysomes in plant tissues; and lysosomes and spherosomes in plant cells. This book is a valuable source of information for postgraduate workers, although much of the material could be used in undergraduate courses.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 The Enzymology of Cell Organelles

    I. Introduction

    II. The Investigation of the Intracellular Locations of Enzymes

    A. Preparation of Homogenates and Separation of Particles

    B. Assessment of Contamination and Damage

    C. The Presence of Bacteria

    D. Assay of the Enzymes

    III. Localization of Enzymes by Cytochemical Techniques

    IV. Conclusions


    Chapter 2 The Structure, Function and Development of the Nucleus

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure

    A. Nuclear Envelope

    B. Chromosomes

    C. Nucleolus

    D. Macromolecular Composition of the Nucleus

    III. Function

    A. Sequestration of the Chromosomes

    B. Replication of the Chromosomes

    C. Division of the Chromosomes: Formation of the Spindle

    D. Transcription of the Genes: RNA Synthesis

    E. Translation of the Genie Information: Protein Synthesis

    F. Formation and Release of Morphogenetic Substances

    IV. Development

    A. Development of the Nucleus

    B. Regulation of Gene Action


    Chapter 3 The Structure and Possible Function of the Vacuole

    I. Structure and Origin

    II. Ion Transport

    III. Function


    Chapter 4 Structure, Function and Developmental Changes in Mitochondria of Higher Plant Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Observations with the Light Microscope

    III. Fine Structure

    IV. Properties of Isolated Mitochondria

    A. Isolation Methods

    B. Chemical Composition

    C. Metabolic Activities

    V. Mitochondrial Activities in the Cell

    A. Respiratory Functions

    B. Non-respiratory Functions

    VI. Origin, Growth and Inheritance

    A. De Novo Formation

    B. Division

    C. Formation from Other Organelles

    VII. Final Comments



    Chapter 5 Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Yeast

    I. Introduction

    II. Studies with Respiratory Mutants

    A. UV Induction of Respiratory Deficiency

    B. The gi Mutant

    C. Induction of Respiratory Deficiency with Acridines

    III. Nucleic Acids in Yeast Mitochondria

    A. DNA

    B. RNA

    IV. Protein Synthesis in Isolated Mitochondria

    V. Effects of Antibiotics on Mitochondrial Synthesis


    Chapter 6 Carbon Pathways in Mitochondria with Special Reference to Fruit Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. The Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

    III. The Glyoxylate Cycle

    IV. Other Systems Producing Organic Acids

    V. Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Mitochondria

    A. Synthesis of Fatty Acids

    B. Degradation of Fatty Acids

    VI. Metabolism of Amino Acids and Proteins

    VII. Other Biosynthetic Pathways

    VIII. General Control Mechanisms

    IX. The Role of Oxaloacetic Acid in Controlling the Krebs Cycle in Apple Mitochondria

    X. Routes for the Utilization of Oxaloacetic Acid by Apple Mitochondria


    Chapter 7 The Energy Transfer Function of Mitochondria

    I. Introduction

    II. Oxidative Phosphorylation

    A. Rearrangement of Carbon Compounds Associated with the Generation of Electron Donors

    B. Oxidation of Electron Donors

    C. Conservation of Energy Liberated during Electron Transport

    III. Energy Utilizing Activity of the Mitochondria

    A. Reversal of Electron Transport

    B. Absorption of Ions

    C. Volume Changes

    D. Transhydrogenation

    E. Other Energy Transfer Functions Associated with Mitochondria

    IV. Conclusion


    Chapter 8 The Chloroplast Inside and Outside the Cell

    I. Introduction

    II. The Structure of the Mature Chloroplast Inside the Cell

    A. The Chloroplast Envelope

    B. The Stroma

    C. The Plastoglobuli (Osmiophilic Globules)

    D. The Lipoprotein Complex

    III. The Chloroplast Outside the Cell

    IV. The Chloroplast as an Autonomonous Unit

    A. Algae

    B. Leaves of Higher Plants



    Chapter 9 The Function and Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Acyl Lipids in Chloroplasts

    I. Introduction

    II. Acyl Lipids of Chloroplasts

    III. Fatty Acids of Chloroplasts

    IV. Biosynthesis of the Acyl Lipids

    A. Galactosyl Diglycerides

    B. Sulphoquinovosyl Diglyceride

    C. Phosphatidyl Glycerol

    V. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

    A. Monoenoic Acids

    B. Polyunsaturated Acids

    VI. Function of Lipids in Chloroplasts

    A. Structural Function

    B. Metabolic Function


    Chapter 10 The Organization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, the Golgi Bodies and Microtubules during Cell Division and Subsequent Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Mitosis and Cytokinesis

    III. Xylem Vessels

    IV. Phloem Sieve Tubes and Companion Cells

    V. Outer Root Cap Cells

    VI. Polysaccharide Synthesis

    VII. Control of Differentiation



    Chapter 11 Protein Synthesis in Cell Organelles

    I. Introduction

    II. Incorporating Systems

    III. Comparison of in Vivo and in Vitro Protein Synthesis Rates

    IV. Sites and Control of Protein Synthesis


    Chapter 12 The Occurrence and Properties of Polysomes in Plant Tissues

    I. General Properties of Polysomes

    II. Detection of Polysomes in Situ

    III. Methods of Isolation of Polysomes

    A. Homogenization of the Tissue

    B. Analysis of Polysomes by Centrifugation

    IV. Properties of Plant Polysomes

    A. Examples from Several Species

    B. The Effects of Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

    C. The Control of Polysomes during Growth

    V. Polysomes in Chloroplasts


    Chapter 13 Lysosomes

    I. The Lysosome Concept

    II. Lysosomes in Plant Cells

    A. Biochemical Studies

    B. Cytochemical Studies

    III. Lysosomes and Spherosomes

    IV. Formation and Function of Spherosomes

    V. Conclusions



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 276
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158138

About the Editor

J Pridham

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