Plant Cell Organelles - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956767, 9780323158138

Plant Cell Organelles

1st Edition

Editors: J Pridham
eBook ISBN: 9780323158138
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 276
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Description

Plant Cell Organelles contains the proceedings of the Phytochemical Group Symposium held in London on April 10-12, 1967. Contributors explore most of the ideas concerning the structure, biochemistry, and function of the nuclei, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles, and other organelles of plant cells.
This book is organized into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of the enzymology of plant cell organelles and the localization of enzymes using cytochemical techniques. The text then discusses the structure of the nuclear envelope, chromosomes, and nucleolus, along with chromosome sequestration and replication. The next chapters focus on the structure and function of the mitochondria of higher plant cells, biogenesis in yeast, carbon pathways, and energy transfer function. The book also considers the chloroplast, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi bodies, and the microtubules. The final chapters discuss protein synthesis in cell organelles; polysomes in plant tissues; and lysosomes and spherosomes in plant cells. This book is a valuable source of information for postgraduate workers, although much of the material could be used in undergraduate courses.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

Chapter 1 The Enzymology of Cell Organelles

I. Introduction

II. The Investigation of the Intracellular Locations of Enzymes

A. Preparation of Homogenates and Separation of Particles

B. Assessment of Contamination and Damage

C. The Presence of Bacteria

D. Assay of the Enzymes

III. Localization of Enzymes by Cytochemical Techniques

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter 2 The Structure, Function and Development of the Nucleus

I. Introduction

II. Structure

A. Nuclear Envelope

B. Chromosomes

C. Nucleolus

D. Macromolecular Composition of the Nucleus

III. Function

A. Sequestration of the Chromosomes

B. Replication of the Chromosomes

C. Division of the Chromosomes: Formation of the Spindle

D. Transcription of the Genes: RNA Synthesis

E. Translation of the Genie Information: Protein Synthesis

F. Formation and Release of Morphogenetic Substances

IV. Development

A. Development of the Nucleus

B. Regulation of Gene Action

References

Chapter 3 The Structure and Possible Function of the Vacuole

I. Structure and Origin

II. Ion Transport

III. Function

References

Chapter 4 Structure, Function and Developmental Changes in Mitochondria of Higher Plant Cells

I. Introduction

II. Observations with the Light Microscope

III. Fine Structure

IV. Properties of Isolated Mitochondria

A. Isolation Methods

B. Chemical Composition

C. Metabolic Activities

V. Mitochondrial Activities in the Cell

A. Respiratory Functions

B. Non-respiratory Functions

VI. Origin, Growth and Inheritance

A. De Novo Formation

B. Division

C. Formation from Other Organelles

VII. Final Comments

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 5 Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Yeast

I. Introduction

II. Studies with Respiratory Mutants

A. UV Induction of Respiratory Deficiency

B. The gi Mutant

C. Induction of Respiratory Deficiency with Acridines

III. Nucleic Acids in Yeast Mitochondria

A. DNA

B. RNA

IV. Protein Synthesis in Isolated Mitochondria

V. Effects of Antibiotics on Mitochondrial Synthesis

References

Chapter 6 Carbon Pathways in Mitochondria with Special Reference to Fruit Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

III. The Glyoxylate Cycle

IV. Other Systems Producing Organic Acids

V. Metabolism of Fatty Acids in Mitochondria

A. Synthesis of Fatty Acids

B. Degradation of Fatty Acids

VI. Metabolism of Amino Acids and Proteins

VII. Other Biosynthetic Pathways

VIII. General Control Mechanisms

IX. The Role of Oxaloacetic Acid in Controlling the Krebs Cycle in Apple Mitochondria

X. Routes for the Utilization of Oxaloacetic Acid by Apple Mitochondria

References

Chapter 7 The Energy Transfer Function of Mitochondria

I. Introduction

II. Oxidative Phosphorylation

A. Rearrangement of Carbon Compounds Associated with the Generation of Electron Donors

B. Oxidation of Electron Donors

C. Conservation of Energy Liberated during Electron Transport

III. Energy Utilizing Activity of the Mitochondria

A. Reversal of Electron Transport

B. Absorption of Ions

C. Volume Changes

D. Transhydrogenation

E. Other Energy Transfer Functions Associated with Mitochondria

IV. Conclusion

References

Chapter 8 The Chloroplast Inside and Outside the Cell

I. Introduction

II. The Structure of the Mature Chloroplast Inside the Cell

A. The Chloroplast Envelope

B. The Stroma

C. The Plastoglobuli (Osmiophilic Globules)

D. The Lipoprotein Complex

III. The Chloroplast Outside the Cell

IV. The Chloroplast as an Autonomonous Unit

A. Algae

B. Leaves of Higher Plants

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9 The Function and Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Acyl Lipids in Chloroplasts

I. Introduction

II. Acyl Lipids of Chloroplasts

III. Fatty Acids of Chloroplasts

IV. Biosynthesis of the Acyl Lipids

A. Galactosyl Diglycerides

B. Sulphoquinovosyl Diglyceride

C. Phosphatidyl Glycerol

V. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

A. Monoenoic Acids

B. Polyunsaturated Acids

VI. Function of Lipids in Chloroplasts

A. Structural Function

B. Metabolic Function

References

Chapter 10 The Organization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum, the Golgi Bodies and Microtubules during Cell Division and Subsequent Growth

I. Introduction

II. Mitosis and Cytokinesis

III. Xylem Vessels

IV. Phloem Sieve Tubes and Companion Cells

V. Outer Root Cap Cells

VI. Polysaccharide Synthesis

VII. Control of Differentiation

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 11 Protein Synthesis in Cell Organelles

I. Introduction

II. Incorporating Systems

III. Comparison of in Vivo and in Vitro Protein Synthesis Rates

IV. Sites and Control of Protein Synthesis

References

Chapter 12 The Occurrence and Properties of Polysomes in Plant Tissues

I. General Properties of Polysomes

II. Detection of Polysomes in Situ

III. Methods of Isolation of Polysomes

A. Homogenization of the Tissue

B. Analysis of Polysomes by Centrifugation

IV. Properties of Plant Polysomes

A. Examples from Several Species

B. The Effects of Inhibition of Protein Synthesis

C. The Control of Polysomes during Growth

V. Polysomes in Chloroplasts

References

Chapter 13 Lysosomes

I. The Lysosome Concept

II. Lysosomes in Plant Cells

A. Biochemical Studies

B. Cytochemical Studies

III. Lysosomes and Spherosomes

IV. Formation and Function of Spherosomes

V. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Author Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
276
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1968
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323158138

About the Editor

J Pridham