Plant Biotechnology

Plant Biotechnology

Biotechnology

1st Edition - January 24, 1989

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  • Editors: Shain-dow Kung, Charles J. Arntzen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483192604

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Description

Plant Biotechnology provides an introduction to the fundamental life processes and reviews topics relevant to plant biotechnology. This book discusses the manipulation of biological systems to solve practical problems in industry or agriculture. Organized into four parts encompassing 18 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental techniques essential to plant biotechnology. This text then describes the various aspects of the regulation of gene expression in plants and reviews the molecular architecture of plant genes. Other chapters consider chloroplast genome from various organisms and present the practical examples of the significance and uses of biotechnology in crop improvement. This book discusses as well the methods for inducing plant gene expression in heterologous prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The final chapter deals with the potential for using gene transfer technology for crop improvement. This book is a valuable resource for plant physiologists, biochemists, plant scientists, genetic engineers, and evolutionary biologists.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    Part I. Basic Techniques in Plant Biotechnology

    1. Vectors for Gene Transfer in Higher Plants

    1.1 Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    1.2 Agrobacterium Vectors

    1.3 Uses of Agrobacterium Vectors

    1.4 Host Range of Agrobacterium

    1.5 Alternative DNA Transfer Methods

    1.6 Conclusions

    References

    2. Methods for Transforming Plant Cells

    2.1 Transformation of Dicotyledenous Plants

    2.2 Transformation of Monocotyledenous Plants

    2.3 Conclusions and Future Prospects

    Addendum

    References

    3. Techniques in Plant Cell and Tissue Culture

    3.1 Clonal Propagation

    3.2 Somaclonal Variation

    3.3 Gametoclonal Variation

    3.4 In Vitro Cell Selection—Mutant Isolation

    3.5 Protoplast Fusion

    3.6 Synthesis of Secondary Products

    3.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    4. Selected Topics in the Genetic Manipulation of the Nuclear Genome

    4.1 Chromosome Transfer

    4.2 Microcell Transfer

    4.3 Microinjection

    4.4 Conclusion

    References

    5. Regulation and Expression of Plant Genes in Microorganisms

    5.1 Recognition of Plant Sequences that Function as Promoters of Transcription in Microorganisms

    5.2 Increasing the Rate of Transcription of Cloned Genes

    5.3 Translational Features of Plant Gene Expression and Regulation

    5.4 Recognition of Plant Signal Peptides

    5.5 Assembly of Multisubunit Plant Proteins

    5.6 Production of Proteins for Commercial Applications and Analytical Studies

    5.7 Synthesis of Plant Proteins for Screening and Clone Identification

    5.8 Complementation of Bacterial Mutations

    5.9 Protein Stability, Solubility, and Accumulation

    5.10 Expression in Other Bacterial Species

    References

    Part II. Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants

    6. The Molecular Architecture of Plant Genes and their Regulation

    6.1 The Elements of Primary Structure

    6.2 The Analysis of Primary Structure

    6.3 Functional Organization of Genes

    6.4 The Use of Computers in Structural Analyses

    6.5 Storage Protein Genes

    6.6 Light-Induced Genes

    6.7 Stress-Induced Genes

    6.8 Nodulation Genes

    6.9 Housekeeping Genes

    6.10 Conclusion

    References

    7. Induction, Commitment, and Progression of Plant Embryogenesis

    7.1 Developmental Biology of Embryogenesis

    7.2 Somatic Embryogenesis

    7.3 Gene Expression in Carrot Culture

    7.4 Immunological Approach to the Identification of Developmentally Regulated Genes

    7.5 Conclusion

    References

    8. Photoregulation of Gene Expression in Plants

    8.1 Effects of Light on rRNA Gene Expression

    8.2 Effects of Light on Transcript Abundance

    8.3 Effects of Plant Hormones

    8.4 Chloroplast Transcript Accumulation

    8.5 Plastid Development and Nuclear Gene Expression

    8.6 Gene Transfer Experiments

    8.7 Trans-Acting Factors and Transcription In Vitro

    8.8 Conclusion

    References

    9. Hormonal and Stress Regulation of Gene Expression in Cereal Aleurone Layers

    9.1 The Cereal Aleurone Layers

    9.2 Effect of Gibberellins on Gene Expression

    9.3 Effect of ABA on Gene Expression

    9.4 Summary and Perspective

    References

    10. Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression in Plants

    10.1 Enhancement of Specific Translational Products by IAA in Pea Tissue

    10.2 Isolation of DNA Sequences Complementary to Some IAA-Regulated mRNAs in Pea

    10.3 Characterization of the Hormonal Response

    10.4 Dose Response Curve

    10.5 Model for Regulation of the Auxin Genes

    10.6 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    11. Cytokinin-Modulated Macromolecular Synthesis and Gene Expression

    11.1 Active Forms of Cytokinins

    11.2 Cytokinin-Regulated Synthesis of Macromolecules

    11.3 The Complex Nature of Cytokinin-Regulated Gene Expression

    11.4 Regulation of Gene Expression by Combinations of Hormones

    11.5 Enhancement of Light-Regulated Gene Expression by Cytokinin

    11.6 Cytokinin-Binding Molecules

    11.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    12. Organization and Expression of Genes for Photosynthetic Pigments-Protein Complexes in Photosynthetic Bacteria

    12.1 Metabolic Versatility

    12.2 Photosynthetic Apparatus

    12.3 Organization of Genes Coding for LH, RC, and Pigment Biosynthetic Enzymes and Cytochromes

    12.4 Regulation of Expression of the Genes Coding for LH, RC, Bchl, and Crt Biosynthesis

    12.5 Conclusion

    References

    Part III. Prospects for Manipulation of Chloroplast Genomes

    13. Organization and Expression of the Nicotiana Chloroplast Genome

    13.1 Chloroplast DNA

    13.2 Genes for rRNAs

    13.3 Genes for tRNAs

    13.4 Genes for Stromal Polypeptides

    13.5 Genes for Thylakoid Polypeptides

    13.6 Gene Expression

    13.7 Conclusions

    References

    14. Genetic Manipulation of the Chloroplast Genome

    14.1 Chloroplast Transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    14.2 The Chloroplast Genome

    14.3 Introduction of DNA into Plastids

    14.4 Integration of Foreign Genes into Chloroplast DNA

    14.5 Autonomously Replicating Plasmids

    14.6 Selectable Markers for Chloroplast Transformation

    14.7 Prospects

    References

    15. A Perspective on the Biotechnology of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

    15.1 Properties of Rubisco

    15.2 Fixing Rubisco

    15.3 Molecular Analysis of Rubisco Function

    15.4 Cloning and Expression of Hexadecameric Rubisco

    15.5 Fixing Plants

    15.6 Some Critical Reservations

    15.7 Alternative Biological Strategies for Enhancing Photosynthesis

    Addendum

    References

    16. Applications of Nucleic Acid Electron Microscopy and In Situ Hybridization Techniques in the Study of Plant Genomes

    16.1 Electron Microscopy of Organelle Genomes

    16.2 DNA-DNA Heteroduplex Analysis

    16.3 Electron Microscopy of DNA-RNA Hybrids

    16.4 Localization of DNA Replication Initiation Sites by Electron Microscopy

    16.5 Chromosomal Localization of Cloned Genes by In Situ Hybridization

    References

    17. Molecular Evolution of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

    17.1 Chloroplast Genomes

    17.2 Commonality and Diversity of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

    17.3 Molecular Evolution of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

    17.4 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Part IV. Applications of Biotechnology in Plant Systems

    18. Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement

    18.1 Plant Transformation

    18.2 Crop Improvement

    18.3 Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 448
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
  • Published: January 24, 1989
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483192604

About the Editors

Shain-dow Kung

Affiliations and Expertise

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong and The University of Maryland, College Park, U.S.A.

Charles J. Arntzen

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