Plant Biotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409900682, 9781483192604

Plant Biotechnology

1st Edition


Editors: Shain-dow Kung Charles J. Arntzen
eBook ISBN: 9781483192604
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 24th January 1989
Page Count: 448
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Plant Biotechnology provides an introduction to the fundamental life processes and reviews topics relevant to plant biotechnology. This book discusses the manipulation of biological systems to solve practical problems in industry or agriculture.

Organized into four parts encompassing 18 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental techniques essential to plant biotechnology. This text then describes the various aspects of the regulation of gene expression in plants and reviews the molecular architecture of plant genes. Other chapters consider chloroplast genome from various organisms and present the practical examples of the significance and uses of biotechnology in crop improvement. This book discusses as well the methods for inducing plant gene expression in heterologous prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The final chapter deals with the potential for using gene transfer technology for crop improvement.

This book is a valuable resource for plant physiologists, biochemists, plant scientists, genetic engineers, and evolutionary biologists.

Table of Contents



Part I. Basic Techniques in Plant Biotechnology

1. Vectors for Gene Transfer in Higher Plants

1.1 Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

1.2 Agrobacterium Vectors

1.3 Uses of Agrobacterium Vectors

1.4 Host Range of Agrobacterium

1.5 Alternative DNA Transfer Methods

1.6 Conclusions


2. Methods for Transforming Plant Cells

2.1 Transformation of Dicotyledenous Plants

2.2 Transformation of Monocotyledenous Plants

2.3 Conclusions and Future Prospects



3. Techniques in Plant Cell and Tissue Culture

3.1 Clonal Propagation

3.2 Somaclonal Variation

3.3 Gametoclonal Variation

3.4 In Vitro Cell Selection—Mutant Isolation

3.5 Protoplast Fusion

3.6 Synthesis of Secondary Products

3.7 Concluding Remarks


4. Selected Topics in the Genetic Manipulation of the Nuclear Genome

4.1 Chromosome Transfer

4.2 Microcell Transfer

4.3 Microinjection

4.4 Conclusion


5. Regulation and Expression of Plant Genes in Microorganisms

5.1 Recognition of Plant Sequences that Function as Promoters of Transcription in Microorganisms

5.2 Increasing the Rate of Transcription of Cloned Genes

5.3 Translational Features of Plant Gene Expression and Regulation

5.4 Recognition of Plant Signal Peptides

5.5 Assembly of Multisubunit Plant Proteins

5.6 Production of Proteins for Commercial Applications and Analytical Studies

5.7 Synthesis of Plant Proteins for Screening and Clone Identification

5.8 Complementation of Bacterial Mutations

5.9 Protein Stability, Solubility, and Accumulation

5.10 Expression in Other Bacterial Species


Part II. Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants

6. The Molecular Architecture of Plant Genes and their Regulation

6.1 The Elements of Primary Structure

6.2 The Analysis of Primary Structure

6.3 Functional Organization of Genes

6.4 The Use of Computers in Structural Analyses

6.5 Storage Protein Genes

6.6 Light-Induced Genes

6.7 Stress-Induced Genes

6.8 Nodulation Genes

6.9 Housekeeping Genes

6.10 Conclusion


7. Induction, Commitment, and Progression of Plant Embryogenesis

7.1 Developmental Biology of Embryogenesis

7.2 Somatic Embryogenesis

7.3 Gene Expression in Carrot Culture

7.4 Immunological Approach to the Identification of Developmentally Regulated Genes

7.5 Conclusion


8. Photoregulation of Gene Expression in Plants

8.1 Effects of Light on rRNA Gene Expression

8.2 Effects of Light on Transcript Abundance

8.3 Effects of Plant Hormones

8.4 Chloroplast Transcript Accumulation

8.5 Plastid Development and Nuclear Gene Expression

8.6 Gene Transfer Experiments

8.7 Trans-Acting Factors and Transcription In Vitro

8.8 Conclusion


9. Hormonal and Stress Regulation of Gene Expression in Cereal Aleurone Layers

9.1 The Cereal Aleurone Layers

9.2 Effect of Gibberellins on Gene Expression

9.3 Effect of ABA on Gene Expression

9.4 Summary and Perspective


10. Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression in Plants

10.1 Enhancement of Specific Translational Products by IAA in Pea Tissue

10.2 Isolation of DNA Sequences Complementary to Some IAA-Regulated mRNAs in Pea

10.3 Characterization of the Hormonal Response

10.4 Dose Response Curve

10.5 Model for Regulation of the Auxin Genes

10.6 Conclusions and Future Directions


11. Cytokinin-Modulated Macromolecular Synthesis and Gene Expression

11.1 Active Forms of Cytokinins

11.2 Cytokinin-Regulated Synthesis of Macromolecules

11.3 The Complex Nature of Cytokinin-Regulated Gene Expression

11.4 Regulation of Gene Expression by Combinations of Hormones

11.5 Enhancement of Light-Regulated Gene Expression by Cytokinin

11.6 Cytokinin-Binding Molecules

11.7 Concluding Remarks


12. Organization and Expression of Genes for Photosynthetic Pigments-Protein Complexes in Photosynthetic Bacteria

12.1 Metabolic Versatility

12.2 Photosynthetic Apparatus

12.3 Organization of Genes Coding for LH, RC, and Pigment Biosynthetic Enzymes and Cytochromes

12.4 Regulation of Expression of the Genes Coding for LH, RC, Bchl, and Crt Biosynthesis

12.5 Conclusion


Part III. Prospects for Manipulation of Chloroplast Genomes

13. Organization and Expression of the Nicotiana Chloroplast Genome

13.1 Chloroplast DNA

13.2 Genes for rRNAs

13.3 Genes for tRNAs

13.4 Genes for Stromal Polypeptides

13.5 Genes for Thylakoid Polypeptides

13.6 Gene Expression

13.7 Conclusions


14. Genetic Manipulation of the Chloroplast Genome

14.1 Chloroplast Transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

14.2 The Chloroplast Genome

14.3 Introduction of DNA into Plastids

14.4 Integration of Foreign Genes into Chloroplast DNA

14.5 Autonomously Replicating Plasmids

14.6 Selectable Markers for Chloroplast Transformation

14.7 Prospects


15. A Perspective on the Biotechnology of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

15.1 Properties of Rubisco

15.2 Fixing Rubisco

15.3 Molecular Analysis of Rubisco Function

15.4 Cloning and Expression of Hexadecameric Rubisco

15.5 Fixing Plants

15.6 Some Critical Reservations

15.7 Alternative Biological Strategies for Enhancing Photosynthesis



16. Applications of Nucleic Acid Electron Microscopy and In Situ Hybridization Techniques in the Study of Plant Genomes

16.1 Electron Microscopy of Organelle Genomes

16.2 DNA-DNA Heteroduplex Analysis

16.3 Electron Microscopy of DNA-RNA Hybrids

16.4 Localization of DNA Replication Initiation Sites by Electron Microscopy

16.5 Chromosomal Localization of Cloned Genes by In Situ Hybridization


17. Molecular Evolution of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

17.1 Chloroplast Genomes

17.2 Commonality and Diversity of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

17.3 Molecular Evolution of Nicotiana Chloroplast Genomes

17.4 Concluding Remarks


Part IV. Applications of Biotechnology in Plant Systems

18. Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement

18.1 Plant Transformation

18.2 Crop Improvement

18.3 Conclusions




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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Shain-dow Kung

Affiliations and Expertise

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong and The University of Maryland, College Park, U.S.A.

Charles J. Arntzen