Plant Biochemistry

Plant Biochemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Editors: James Bonner, J. E. Varner
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483267807

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Plant Biochemistry focuses on the biological processes involved in plants, particularly noting metabolism, electron transport, biogenesis, and germination. The manuscript first offers information on the substructures and subfunctions of plant cell, including cell and subcell, enzymes, ribosomes, nucleus, cellular membranes, mitochondria and electron transport, chloroplast, and the substructure and function of the cell wall. The text then elaborates on basic metabolism. Enzymology, the path of carbon in respiratory metabolism, mono- and oligosaccharides, starch, insulin, and other reserve polysaccharides, and the biogenesis of the cell wall are discussed. The publication explains plant metabolism and control. Discussions focus on plant acids, alkaloid biogenesis, coumarins, phenylpropanes, and lignin, ethylene and polyacetylenes, steroids, and seed development and germination. The book is a valuable source of information for students or professional workers in the plant sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    List of contributors


    Part I The Plant Cell: Substructures and Subfunctions

    Chapter 1. Cell and Subcell

    I. Introduction

    II. The Subcellular Components of the Plant Cell

    III. The Logic of Cell Life

    IV. Methods of Cell Fractionation

    V. Assignment of Enzyme Activities to Individual Subnuclear Fractions

    VI. Cell as Community


    Chapter 2. Enzymes



    Chapter 3. Ribosomes

    I. History

    II. Nomenclature

    III. Isolation

    IV. Composition of Ribosomes

    V. Physical Properties of Ribosomes

    VI. Ribosomal RNA

    VII. Structure of the Ribosome

    VIII. Interaction of Ribosome and Messenger RNA : Polysomes

    IX. Membrane-Bound Ribosomes

    X. Ribosomes of the Chloroplast


    Chapter 4. The Nucleus

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparative Procedures

    III. Findings


    Chapter 5. Cellular Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Components of Membranes

    III. Properties of Specific Membrane Systems

    IV. Summary and Conclusions

    References Chapter

    6. Mitochondria and Electron Transport

    I. Introduction

    II. Properties of Mitochondria

    III. Isolation of Mitochondria

    IV. Oxidative Activities of Isolated Mitochondria

    V. The Origin of Organic Acids

    VI. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

    VII. Components of the Respiratory Chain

    VIII. The Respiratory Chain of Animal Mitochondria

    IX. Sequence of Reactions in the Respiratory Chain

    X. The Respiratory Chain in Plant Mitochondria

    XI. Cyanide- and Carbon Monoxide-Insensitive Respiration

    XII. Energy-Linked Functions of Mitochondria


    Chapter 7. The Chloroplast

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Studies of the Photosynthetic Process

    III. The Localization of the Light and Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis within the Chloroplast and Their Association with

    Specific Chloroplast Structures

    IV. The Photosynthetic Unit, Its Physiological and Morphological Expression

    V. The General Biology of Chloroplasts


    Chapter 8. The Substructure and Function of the Cell Wall

    I. Introduction

    II. Formation of the Primary Cell Wall

    III. The Primary Cell Wall and Its Growth

    IV. Differentiation of the Primary Wall

    V. Secondary Cell Walls

    VI. Extracellular Excretions

    VII. The Cell Wall as a Barrier against Infection


    Part II Basic Metabolism

    Chapter 9. Enzymology

    I. Early Observations and Ideas

    II. General Properties of Enzymes

    III. Thermodynamics

    IV. Specificity

    V. Kinetics

    VI. Mechanisms


    Chapter 10. The Path of Carbon in Respiratory Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Glycolysis

    III. The Pentose Shunt Pathway

    IV. Regulation of Glycolysis

    V. Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle


    Chapter 11. Mono- and Oligosaccharides

    I. Introduction

    II. Monosaccharide Interconversion

    III. Free Disaccharides

    IV. Higher Oligosaccharides

    V. Oligosaccharides in Heterosides


    Chapter 12. Starch, Inulin, and Other Reserve Polysaccharides

    I. Akazawa

    I. Starch

    II. Inulin and Polyfructosans

    III. Mannans

    IV. Protozoal and Algal Polysaccharides


    Chapter 13. Biogenesis of the Cell Wall

    I. Introduction

    II. The Polysaccharide Building Blocks

    III. Formation of the Building Blocks

    IV. Polysaccharides

    V. Lignin

    VI. Conclusion


    Chapter 14. Lipid Metabolism

    I. Chemical Composition of Lipids

    II. Dual Reactivity of Acetyl CoA

    III. Degradation of Fatty Acids

    IV. Biosynthesis of Malonyl CoA

    V. Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

    VI. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids


    Chapter 15. Protein Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. General Outline of Protein Synthesis

    III. Amino Acid-Activating Enzymes (Amino Acyl-Transfer RNA Synthetases)

    IV. Transfer RNA's

    V. Ribosomes

    VI. Messenger RNA and the RNA Code

    VII. Peptide Bond Formation

    VIII. Formation of Completed Protein Molecules

    IX. Glutathione Synthesis

    X. Plant Proteolytic Enzymes


    Chapter 16. Origins of the Amino Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Protein Amino Acids

    III. Nonprotein Amino Acids


    Chapter 17. The Biosynthesis of Coenzymes

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A

    III. Biosynthesis of Biotin, Enzyme-Biotin, and N-Carboxybiotin-Enzyme

    IV. Biosynthesis of Derivatives of Nicotinic Acid

    V. Biosynthesis of Vitamin Bi2 and the Cobamide Coenzymes

    VI. Biosynthesis of Thiamine and Cocarboxylase

    VII. Biosynthesis of Folic Acid Derivatives

    VIII. Biosynthesis of Riboflavine and Its Coenzymes


    Chapter 18. Mineral Metabolism

    I. Essentiality of Mineral Elements

    II. Functionally Alternative Elements and Antimetabolism

    III. Ion Transport

    IV. Mineral Depositions


    Chapter 19. Biological Reduction of Sulfate and Nitrate

    I. Introduction

    II. Comparative Biochemistry of Sulfur and Nitrogen

    III. Reduction of Sulfate to Sulfide

    IV. Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia

    V. Conclusions


    Part III Some Plant Metabolism

    Chapter 20. The Plant Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Occurrence

    III. Metabolism in Fruits and Other Organs

    IV. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Dark C02 Fixation

    V. Enzymes of Acid Metabolism

    VI. Active and Storage Pools; Compartmentation


    Chapter 21. Alkaloid Biogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Pyridine and Piperidine Alkaloids

    III. Polyacetyl Alkaloids

    IV. Pyrrolidine and Tropane Alkaloids

    V. Isoquinoline Alkaloids

    VI. Indole Alkaloids


    Chapter 22. The Tannins

    I. Introduction

    II. The Hydrolyzable Tannins

    III. The Condensed Tannins

    IV. The Distribution of Tannins and Their Function


    Chapter 23. Coumarins, Phenylpropanes, and Lignin

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure and Occurrence

    III. Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    IV. Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Relation to Evolution of Plants


    Chapter 24. Flavonoid Pigments

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure and Distribution

    III. Inheritance

    IV. Biosynthesis

    V. Function


    Chapter 25. Ethylene and Polyacetylenes

    I. Ethylene

    II. Polyacetylenes


    Chapter 26. The Isoprenoids

    I. Introduction

    II. Basic Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

    III. Essential Oils: The Terpenes

    IV. Triterpenes: Squalene

    V. Carotenoids

    VI. Rubber


    Chapter 27. Steroids

    I. Sterols

    II. Sapogenins

    III. Alkaloids

    IV. Cardiac Glycosides

    V. Other Plant Steroids


    Chapter 28. Porphyrins and Bile Pigments

    I. Porphyrins

    II. Phycobiliproteins

    III. The Control of Porphyrin Metabolism


    Part IV Control

    Chapter 29. Seed Development and Germination

    I. Introduction

    II. Development

    III. Dormancy

    IV. Germination


    Chapter 30. Fruit Ripening

    I. Introduction

    II. Respiration during Fruit Ripening

    III. Chemical and Physical Changes Associated with Fruit Ripening

    IV. Factors That Affect Fruit Ripening

    V. Summary of the Present Status of Knowledge about Fruit Ripening. Its Metabolic Significance


    Chapter 31. Cell Extension

    I. Cell Growth

    II. Forces on the Cell Wall

    III. Deformation and Flow of Polymers

    IV. Yield of the Cell Wall

    V. Water Movement

    VI. A Physical Description of Cell Elongation

    VII. Influence of Certain Environmental Factors on Cell Extension


    Chapter 32. Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Constancy of DNA

    III. All Genetic Information Contained in All Cells

    IV. Cells Are Different in Enzyme Content

    V. Chromosomal Control of Enzyme Differences

    VI. Unit Genetic Switch

    VII. Developmental Pathways

    VIII. Switching Networks


    Chapter 33. Death



    Part V Autotrophy

    Chapter 34. Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for Mapping the Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    III. Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    IV. The Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle

    V. Secondary Carbon Reduction Pathways

    VI. Areas of Future Discovery


    Chapter 35. Photosynthesis: The Path of Energy

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption, Fluorescence

    III. Evidence for Two Light Reactions

    IV. Chloroplast Reactions

    V. Photophosphorylation

    VI. Various Photo Processes in Whole Cells

    VII. Kinetics and Energetics of Photosynthesis


    Chapter 36. Nitrogen Fixation

    I. History

    II. The Nitrogen Cycle

    III. Biological Agents That Fix N2

    IV. Biochemistry of N2 Fixation

    V. Intermediates in N2 Fixation


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1072
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483267807

About the Editors

James Bonner

Affiliations and Expertise

California Institute of Technology

J. E. Varner

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