Plant Biochemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232430, 9781483267807

Plant Biochemistry

1st Edition

Editors: James Bonner J. E. Varner
eBook ISBN: 9781483267807
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 1072
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Plant Biochemistry focuses on the biological processes involved in plants, particularly noting metabolism, electron transport, biogenesis, and germination.
The manuscript first offers information on the substructures and subfunctions of plant cell, including cell and subcell, enzymes, ribosomes, nucleus, cellular membranes, mitochondria and electron transport, chloroplast, and the substructure and function of the cell wall. The text then elaborates on basic metabolism. Enzymology, the path of carbon in respiratory metabolism, mono- and oligosaccharides, starch, insulin, and other reserve polysaccharides, and the biogenesis of the cell wall are discussed.
The publication explains plant metabolism and control. Discussions focus on plant acids, alkaloid biogenesis, coumarins, phenylpropanes, and lignin, ethylene and polyacetylenes, steroids, and seed development and germination.
The book is a valuable source of information for students or professional workers in the plant sciences.

Table of Contents


List of contributors


Part I The Plant Cell: Substructures and Subfunctions

Chapter 1. Cell and Subcell

I. Introduction

II. The Subcellular Components of the Plant Cell

III. The Logic of Cell Life

IV. Methods of Cell Fractionation

V. Assignment of Enzyme Activities to Individual Subnuclear Fractions

VI. Cell as Community


Chapter 2. Enzymes



Chapter 3. Ribosomes

I. History

II. Nomenclature

III. Isolation

IV. Composition of Ribosomes

V. Physical Properties of Ribosomes

VI. Ribosomal RNA

VII. Structure of the Ribosome

VIII. Interaction of Ribosome and Messenger RNA : Polysomes

IX. Membrane-Bound Ribosomes

X. Ribosomes of the Chloroplast


Chapter 4. The Nucleus

I. Introduction

II. Preparative Procedures

III. Findings


Chapter 5. Cellular Membranes

I. Introduction

II. Structural Components of Membranes

III. Properties of Specific Membrane Systems

IV. Summary and Conclusions

References Chapter

6. Mitochondria and Electron Transport

I. Introduction

II. Properties of Mitochondria

III. Isolation of Mitochondria

IV. Oxidative Activities of Isolated Mitochondria

V. The Origin of Organic Acids

VI. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

VII. Components of the Respiratory Chain

VIII. The Respiratory Chain of Animal Mitochondria

IX. Sequence of Reactions in the Respiratory Chain

X. The Respiratory Chain in Plant Mitochondria

XI. Cyanide- and Carbon Monoxide-Insensitive Respiration

XII. Energy-Linked Functions of Mitochondria


Chapter 7. The Chloroplast

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Studies of the Photosynthetic Process

III. The Localization of the Light and Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis within the Chloroplast and Their Association with

Specific Chloroplast Structures

IV. The Photosynthetic Unit, Its Physiological and Morphological Expression

V. The General Biology of Chloroplasts


Chapter 8. The Substructure and Function of the Cell Wall

I. Introduction

II. Formation of the Primary Cell Wall

III. The Primary Cell Wall and Its Growth

IV. Differentiation of the Primary Wall

V. Secondary Cell Walls

VI. Extracellular Excretions

VII. The Cell Wall as a Barrier against Infection


Part II Basic Metabolism

Chapter 9. Enzymology

I. Early Observations and Ideas

II. General Properties of Enzymes

III. Thermodynamics

IV. Specificity

V. Kinetics

VI. Mechanisms


Chapter 10. The Path of Carbon in Respiratory Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Glycolysis

III. The Pentose Shunt Pathway

IV. Regulation of Glycolysis

V. Krebs Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle


Chapter 11. Mono- and Oligosaccharides

I. Introduction

II. Monosaccharide Interconversion

III. Free Disaccharides

IV. Higher Oligosaccharides

V. Oligosaccharides in Heterosides


Chapter 12. Starch, Inulin, and Other Reserve Polysaccharides

I. Akazawa

I. Starch

II. Inulin and Polyfructosans

III. Mannans

IV. Protozoal and Algal Polysaccharides


Chapter 13. Biogenesis of the Cell Wall

I. Introduction

II. The Polysaccharide Building Blocks

III. Formation of the Building Blocks

IV. Polysaccharides

V. Lignin

VI. Conclusion


Chapter 14. Lipid Metabolism

I. Chemical Composition of Lipids

II. Dual Reactivity of Acetyl CoA

III. Degradation of Fatty Acids

IV. Biosynthesis of Malonyl CoA

V. Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

VI. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids


Chapter 15. Protein Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. General Outline of Protein Synthesis

III. Amino Acid-Activating Enzymes (Amino Acyl-Transfer RNA Synthetases)

IV. Transfer RNA's

V. Ribosomes

VI. Messenger RNA and the RNA Code

VII. Peptide Bond Formation

VIII. Formation of Completed Protein Molecules

IX. Glutathione Synthesis

X. Plant Proteolytic Enzymes


Chapter 16. Origins of the Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Protein Amino Acids

III. Nonprotein Amino Acids


Chapter 17. The Biosynthesis of Coenzymes

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A

III. Biosynthesis of Biotin, Enzyme-Biotin, and N-Carboxybiotin-Enzyme

IV. Biosynthesis of Derivatives of Nicotinic Acid

V. Biosynthesis of Vitamin Bi2 and the Cobamide Coenzymes

VI. Biosynthesis of Thiamine and Cocarboxylase

VII. Biosynthesis of Folic Acid Derivatives

VIII. Biosynthesis of Riboflavine and Its Coenzymes


Chapter 18. Mineral Metabolism

I. Essentiality of Mineral Elements

II. Functionally Alternative Elements and Antimetabolism

III. Ion Transport

IV. Mineral Depositions


Chapter 19. Biological Reduction of Sulfate and Nitrate

I. Introduction

II. Comparative Biochemistry of Sulfur and Nitrogen

III. Reduction of Sulfate to Sulfide

IV. Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia

V. Conclusions


Part III Some Plant Metabolism

Chapter 20. The Plant Acids

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence

III. Metabolism in Fruits and Other Organs

IV. Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Dark C02 Fixation

V. Enzymes of Acid Metabolism

VI. Active and Storage Pools; Compartmentation


Chapter 21. Alkaloid Biogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Pyridine and Piperidine Alkaloids

III. Polyacetyl Alkaloids

IV. Pyrrolidine and Tropane Alkaloids

V. Isoquinoline Alkaloids

VI. Indole Alkaloids


Chapter 22. The Tannins

I. Introduction

II. The Hydrolyzable Tannins

III. The Condensed Tannins

IV. The Distribution of Tannins and Their Function


Chapter 23. Coumarins, Phenylpropanes, and Lignin

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Occurrence

III. Biosynthesis and Metabolism

IV. Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Relation to Evolution of Plants


Chapter 24. Flavonoid Pigments

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Distribution

III. Inheritance

IV. Biosynthesis

V. Function


Chapter 25. Ethylene and Polyacetylenes

I. Ethylene

II. Polyacetylenes


Chapter 26. The Isoprenoids

I. Introduction

II. Basic Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

III. Essential Oils: The Terpenes

IV. Triterpenes: Squalene

V. Carotenoids

VI. Rubber


Chapter 27. Steroids

I. Sterols

II. Sapogenins

III. Alkaloids

IV. Cardiac Glycosides

V. Other Plant Steroids


Chapter 28. Porphyrins and Bile Pigments

I. Porphyrins

II. Phycobiliproteins

III. The Control of Porphyrin Metabolism


Part IV Control

Chapter 29. Seed Development and Germination

I. Introduction

II. Development

III. Dormancy

IV. Germination


Chapter 30. Fruit Ripening

I. Introduction

II. Respiration during Fruit Ripening

III. Chemical and Physical Changes Associated with Fruit Ripening

IV. Factors That Affect Fruit Ripening

V. Summary of the Present Status of Knowledge about Fruit Ripening. Its Metabolic Significance


Chapter 31. Cell Extension

I. Cell Growth

II. Forces on the Cell Wall

III. Deformation and Flow of Polymers

IV. Yield of the Cell Wall

V. Water Movement

VI. A Physical Description of Cell Elongation

VII. Influence of Certain Environmental Factors on Cell Extension


Chapter 32. Development

I. Introduction

II. Constancy of DNA

III. All Genetic Information Contained in All Cells

IV. Cells Are Different in Enzyme Content

V. Chromosomal Control of Enzyme Differences

VI. Unit Genetic Switch

VII. Developmental Pathways

VIII. Switching Networks


Chapter 33. Death



Part V Autotrophy

Chapter 34. Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Mapping the Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

III. Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

IV. The Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle

V. Secondary Carbon Reduction Pathways

VI. Areas of Future Discovery


Chapter 35. Photosynthesis: The Path of Energy

I. Introduction

II. Absorption, Fluorescence

III. Evidence for Two Light Reactions

IV. Chloroplast Reactions

V. Photophosphorylation

VI. Various Photo Processes in Whole Cells

VII. Kinetics and Energetics of Photosynthesis


Chapter 36. Nitrogen Fixation

I. History

II. The Nitrogen Cycle

III. Biological Agents That Fix N2

IV. Biochemistry of N2 Fixation

V. Intermediates in N2 Fixation


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1965
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

James Bonner

Affiliations and Expertise

California Institute of Technology

J. E. Varner

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