Plant Biochemistry

Plant Biochemistry

3rd Edition - December 28, 1976

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  • Editors: James Bonner, Joseph Varner
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139540

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Plant Biochemistry, Third Edition examines the fundamental aspects of plant biochemistry and biology, including taxonomy, morphology, ecology, horticulture, agronomy, and phytopathology. It discusses the substructures and subfunctions of plant cells, the basic metabolism of plants, and the mechanism and regulation as well as physiological significance of various pathways of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation. Comprised of 26 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the subcellular components of the plant cell, the overall logic or strategy that the cell uses, and the operation of individual subcellular systems. It discusses the plant ribosomes and nuclei, biosynthesis and assembly of cell membranes in plants, distribution and functional roles of microbodies in plants, photosynthesis and the general biology of chloroplasts, and plant microtubules. The remaining chapters focus on the biochemistry and functions of vacuoles, the primary cell wall and its biogenesis, the regulation of enzyme activity in metabolic pathways, the monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, and the lipid metabolism. The book concludes with a chapter on biological nitrogen fixation and its practical applications in agriculture. This book is a valuable resource for biochemists and plant biologists as well as advanced students or professional workers in plant sciences.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    I Plant Cell: Substructures and Subfunctions

    1 Cell and Subcell

    I. Introduction

    II. The Subcellular Components of the Plant Cell

    III. The Logic of Cell Life

    IV. Methods of Cell Fractionation

    V. Separation of the Golgi Apparatus

    VI. Cell as a Community

    General References

    2 Ribosomes

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Ribosomes

    III. The Ribosome Cycle

    IV. Ribosome Hybrids

    V. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Ribosomes


    3 The Nucleus

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparative Procedures

    III. Findings

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    4 Cell Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Composition of Cell Membranes

    III. Structure of Cell Membranes

    IV. Properties of Specific Cell Membranes

    General References


    5 Microbodies

    I. Introduction

    II. General Description and Nomenclature

    III. Isolation of Microbodies from Plants

    IV. Distribution of Microbodies

    V. Functional Roles

    VI. Biogenesis of Microbodies

    General References


    6 The Chloroplast

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Studies of the Photosynthetic Process

    III. Localization of Light and Dark Reactions within the Chloroplast; Association with Specific Chloroplast Structures

    IV. The Photosynthetic Unit, Its Physiological and Morphological Expression

    V. The General Biology of Chloroplasts

    General References


    7 Plant Microtubules

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Microtubules

    III. Composition and Assembly of Microtubules

    IV. The Spindle Apparatus: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

    V. The Spindle Pole : Planes of Division

    VI. Mechanism of Mitosis

    VII. Cortical Microtubules

    VIII. Conclusion and Prospect


    8 Vacuoles

    I. Introduction

    II. Biochemistry of Vacuoles

    III. Functions of Vacuoles

    IV. Ontogeny of the Vacuome

    General References


    9 The Primary Cell Wall

    I. Introduction

    II. The Noncellulosic Structural Components of Primary Cell Walls

    III. The Connections between the Structural Components of a Primary Cell Wall

    IV. A Tentative Molecular Structure of the Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells

    V. The Nonstructural Components of Primary Cell Walls

    VI. What Does All This Tell Us about the Mechanism of Cell Wall Extension?


    II Basic Metabolism

    10 Regulation of Enzyme Activity in Metabolic Pathways

    I. Introduction

    II. Modulation of Enzyme Activity by Small Metabolites

    III. Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Chemical Modification

    IV. Regulation of "Futile Cycles" between Enzymes Involved in Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis

    V. Control of Metabolism by Adenylate Energy Charge

    VI. Kinetic Properties of Allosteric Enzymes

    VII. Regulation of Enzymes Involved in Carbon Metabolism during Photosynthesis

    VIII. Regulation of the Biosynthesis of Starch in Photosynthetic Tissues

    IX. Regulation in Higher Plant Nonchlorophyllous Tissue

    X. Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism

    XI. Summary

    General References


    11 Mono- and Oligosaccharides

    I. Introduction

    II. Transformations of Sugar Phosphates

    III. 1-L-myo-Inositol Metabolism

    IV. L-Ascorbate Biosynthesis

    V. Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis

    VI. Polyols, Monosaccharides, and Oligosaccharides in Lichen

    VII. Concluding Remarks

    General References


    12 Polysaccharides

    I. Starch

    II. Inulin, Mannan, and Other Reserve Polysaccharides

    General References


    13 Cell Wall Biogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Wall Language

    III. Synthesis of Compounds Used as Substrates for the Formation of Wall Polymers

    IV. Enzyme Systems Which Catalyze the Synthesis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    V. Intermediates in the Synthesis of Polysaccharides

    VI. Cytological Location of Polysaccharide Synthesis

    VII. Synthesis of the Cell Wall Glycoprotein, Extensin

    VIII. Alterations of Cell Wall Polymers Which Occur Outside the Plasma Membrane

    IX. Conclusion


    14 Lipid Metabolism

    I. Chemical Composition of Lipids

    II. Degradation of Fatty Acids

    III. Biosynthesis of Malonyl-CoA

    IV. Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

    V. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    VI. Conclusion: A Discussion of the Interrelationship between Acyl-ACP's and Acyl-CoA's


    15 Nucleic Acid Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzymology of DNA Replication

    III. Enzymology of RNA Biosynthesis

    IV. Characterization and Properties of DNA

    V. RNA Metabolism


    16 Protein Biosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Transcription

    III. Translation

    IV. The Genetic Code and Messenger RNA

    V. Synthesis of Aminoacyl-tRNA

    VI. Amino Acid Polymerization

    VII. Chain Termination

    VIII. Formation of Completed Proteins

    IX. Regulation

    General References


    17 Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Its Regulation

    I. Introduction

    II. Origin and Mobilization of Amino Acid Precursors

    III. Synthesis of Individual Amino Acids

    IV. General Conclusions

    General References


    18 Mineral Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Essentiality

    III. Specific Function of Essential Nutrients

    IV. Other Nutrients


    19 Sulfate Reduction

    I. Introduction

    II. Sulfate Activation

    III. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Fungi and Bacteria

    IV. Sulfate Reduction in Algae and Higher Plants

    V. Cysteine Biosynthesis

    VI. Methionine Biosynthesis


    20 Nitrate Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Nitrate Reduction

    III. Nitrite Reduction


    21 Phytochrome

    I. Introduction

    II. A Chronology

    III. Phytochrome, The Molecule

    IV. Biological Display

    V. Conclusions

    General References


    22 Hormones

    I. Ethylene

    II. Cytokinins

    III. Auxins

    IV. Abscisic Acid and Related Compounds

    V. Gibberellins

    General References


    23 Senescence

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of Senescence

    III. Biochemical Changes during Senescence

    IV. Reversal of Senescence

    V. Conclusions


    III Autotrophy

    24 Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon

    I. Introduction

    II. Pathways of CO2 Fixation

    III. Regulation of Photosynthesis

    vIV. Photorespiration and the Glycolate Pathway

    V. Photosynthetic Pathways and Other Characteristics


    25 Photosynthesis: The Path of Energy

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Events

    vIII. Quantum Capture and Distribution

    IV. The Photosystems

    V. Photophosphorylation

    VI. Energetics and Kinetics


    26 Nitrogen Fixation

    I. History

    II. The Nitrogen Cycle

    III. Biological Agents That Fix N2

    IV. Biochemistry of N2 Fixation



Product details

  • No. of pages: 925
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: December 28, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139540

About the Editors

James Bonner

Affiliations and Expertise

California Institute of Technology

Joseph Varner

Affiliations and Expertise

Washington University

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