Plant Biochemistry - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780121148607, 9780323139540

Plant Biochemistry

3rd Edition

Editors: James Bonner Joseph Varner
eBook ISBN: 9780323139540
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1976
Page Count: 925
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Description

Plant Biochemistry, Third Edition examines the fundamental aspects of plant biochemistry and biology, including taxonomy, morphology, ecology, horticulture, agronomy, and phytopathology. It discusses the substructures and subfunctions of plant cells, the basic metabolism of plants, and the mechanism and regulation as well as physiological significance of various pathways of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation. Comprised of 26 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the subcellular components of the plant cell, the overall logic or strategy that the cell uses, and the operation of individual subcellular systems. It discusses the plant ribosomes and nuclei, biosynthesis and assembly of cell membranes in plants, distribution and functional roles of microbodies in plants, photosynthesis and the general biology of chloroplasts, and plant microtubules. The remaining chapters focus on the biochemistry and functions of vacuoles, the primary cell wall and its biogenesis, the regulation of enzyme activity in metabolic pathways, the monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, and the lipid metabolism. The book concludes with a chapter on biological nitrogen fixation and its practical applications in agriculture. This book is a valuable resource for biochemists and plant biologists as well as advanced students or professional workers in plant sciences.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

I Plant Cell: Substructures and Subfunctions

1 Cell and Subcell

I. Introduction

II. The Subcellular Components of the Plant Cell

III. The Logic of Cell Life

IV. Methods of Cell Fractionation

V. Separation of the Golgi Apparatus

VI. Cell as a Community

General References

2 Ribosomes

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Ribosomes

III. The Ribosome Cycle

IV. Ribosome Hybrids

V. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Ribosomes

References

3 The Nucleus

I. Introduction

II. Preparative Procedures

III. Findings

IV. Concluding Remarks

References

4 Cell Membranes

I. Introduction

II. Composition of Cell Membranes

III. Structure of Cell Membranes

IV. Properties of Specific Cell Membranes

General References

References

5 Microbodies

I. Introduction

II. General Description and Nomenclature

III. Isolation of Microbodies from Plants

IV. Distribution of Microbodies

V. Functional Roles

VI. Biogenesis of Microbodies

General References

References

6 The Chloroplast

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Studies of the Photosynthetic Process

III. Localization of Light and Dark Reactions within the Chloroplast; Association with Specific Chloroplast Structures

IV. The Photosynthetic Unit, Its Physiological and Morphological Expression

V. The General Biology of Chloroplasts

General References

References

7 Plant Microtubules

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Microtubules

III. Composition and Assembly of Microtubules

IV. The Spindle Apparatus: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

V. The Spindle Pole : Planes of Division

VI. Mechanism of Mitosis

VII. Cortical Microtubules

VIII. Conclusion and Prospect

References

8 Vacuoles

I. Introduction

II. Biochemistry of Vacuoles

III. Functions of Vacuoles

IV. Ontogeny of the Vacuome

General References

References

9 The Primary Cell Wall

I. Introduction

II. The Noncellulosic Structural Components of Primary Cell Walls

III. The Connections between the Structural Components of a Primary Cell Wall

IV. A Tentative Molecular Structure of the Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells

V. The Nonstructural Components of Primary Cell Walls

VI. What Does All This Tell Us about the Mechanism of Cell Wall Extension?

References

II Basic Metabolism

10 Regulation of Enzyme Activity in Metabolic Pathways

I. Introduction

II. Modulation of Enzyme Activity by Small Metabolites

III. Regulation of Enzyme Activity by Chemical Modification

IV. Regulation of "Futile Cycles" between Enzymes Involved in Gluconeogenesis and Glycolysis

V. Control of Metabolism by Adenylate Energy Charge

VI. Kinetic Properties of Allosteric Enzymes

VII. Regulation of Enzymes Involved in Carbon Metabolism during Photosynthesis

VIII. Regulation of the Biosynthesis of Starch in Photosynthetic Tissues

IX. Regulation in Higher Plant Nonchlorophyllous Tissue

X. Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism

XI. Summary

General References

References

11 Mono- and Oligosaccharides

I. Introduction

II. Transformations of Sugar Phosphates

III. 1-L-myo-Inositol Metabolism

IV. L-Ascorbate Biosynthesis

V. Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis

VI. Polyols, Monosaccharides, and Oligosaccharides in Lichen

VII. Concluding Remarks

General References

References

12 Polysaccharides

I. Starch

II. Inulin, Mannan, and Other Reserve Polysaccharides

General References

References

13 Cell Wall Biogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Cell Wall Language

III. Synthesis of Compounds Used as Substrates for the Formation of Wall Polymers

IV. Enzyme Systems Which Catalyze the Synthesis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides

V. Intermediates in the Synthesis of Polysaccharides

VI. Cytological Location of Polysaccharide Synthesis

VII. Synthesis of the Cell Wall Glycoprotein, Extensin

VIII. Alterations of Cell Wall Polymers Which Occur Outside the Plasma Membrane

IX. Conclusion

References

14 Lipid Metabolism

I. Chemical Composition of Lipids

II. Degradation of Fatty Acids

III. Biosynthesis of Malonyl-CoA

IV. Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

V. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

VI. Conclusion: A Discussion of the Interrelationship between Acyl-ACP's and Acyl-CoA's

References

15 Nucleic Acid Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Enzymology of DNA Replication

III. Enzymology of RNA Biosynthesis

IV. Characterization and Properties of DNA

V. RNA Metabolism

References

16 Protein Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Transcription

III. Translation

IV. The Genetic Code and Messenger RNA

V. Synthesis of Aminoacyl-tRNA

VI. Amino Acid Polymerization

VII. Chain Termination

VIII. Formation of Completed Proteins

IX. Regulation

General References

References

17 Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Its Regulation

I. Introduction

II. Origin and Mobilization of Amino Acid Precursors

III. Synthesis of Individual Amino Acids

IV. General Conclusions

General References

References

18 Mineral Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Essentiality

III. Specific Function of Essential Nutrients

IV. Other Nutrients

References

19 Sulfate Reduction

I. Introduction

II. Sulfate Activation

III. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Fungi and Bacteria

IV. Sulfate Reduction in Algae and Higher Plants

V. Cysteine Biosynthesis

VI. Methionine Biosynthesis

References

20 Nitrate Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Nitrate Reduction

III. Nitrite Reduction

References

21 Phytochrome

I. Introduction

II. A Chronology

III. Phytochrome, The Molecule

IV. Biological Display

V. Conclusions

General References

References

22 Hormones

I. Ethylene

II. Cytokinins

III. Auxins

IV. Abscisic Acid and Related Compounds

V. Gibberellins

General References

References

23 Senescence

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of Senescence

III. Biochemical Changes during Senescence

IV. Reversal of Senescence

V. Conclusions

References

III Autotrophy

24 Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon

I. Introduction

II. Pathways of CO2 Fixation

III. Regulation of Photosynthesis

vIV. Photorespiration and the Glycolate Pathway

V. Photosynthetic Pathways and Other Characteristics

References

25 Photosynthesis: The Path of Energy

I. Introduction

II. Early Events

vIII. Quantum Capture and Distribution

IV. The Photosystems

V. Photophosphorylation

VI. Energetics and Kinetics

References

26 Nitrogen Fixation

I. History

II. The Nitrogen Cycle

III. Biological Agents That Fix N2

IV. Biochemistry of N2 Fixation

References

Index








Details

No. of pages:
925
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323139540

About the Editor

James Bonner

Affiliations and Expertise

California Institute of Technology

Joseph Varner

Affiliations and Expertise

Washington University