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Planning and Evaluation of Irrigation Projects - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128117484, 9780128118566

Planning and Evaluation of Irrigation Projects

1st Edition

Methods and Implementation

Authors: Raveendra Rai Vijay Singh Alka Upadhyay
Paperback ISBN: 9780128117484
eBook ISBN: 9780128118566
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th April 2017
Page Count: 678
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Planning and Evaluation of Irrigation Projects: Methods and Implementation presents the considerations, options and factors necessary for effective implementation of irrigation strategies, going further to provide methods for evaluating the efficiency of systems-in-place for remedial correction as needed.

As the first book to take this lifecycle approach to agricultural irrigation, it includes real-world examples not only on natural resource availability concerns, but also on financial impacts and measurements.

With 21 chapters divided into two sections, this book is a valuable resource for agricultural and hydrology engineers, conservation scientists and anyone seeking to implement and maintain irrigation systems.

Key Features

  • Uses real-world examples to present practical insights
  • Incorporates both planning and evaluation for full-scope understanding and application
  • Illustrates both potential benefits and limitations of irrigation solutions
  • Provides potential means to increase crop productivity that can result in improved farm income


Researchers and engineers in agricultural resource management, hydrology, water resources, graduate students in irrigation/water resource engineering

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

  • 1.1. Irrigation: Definition, Functions, Advantages, and Disadvantages
  • 1.2. Irrigation Planning
  • 1.3. Need of Evaluation: Benchmarking and Water Auditing
  • 1.4. Organization of This Book

Chapter 2. Irrigation Project Planning

  • 2.1. Planning Stages
  • 2.2. Investigation Phases and Data Collection
  • 2.3. Scope of Work for Planning or Prefeasibility Report Stage
  • 2.4. Scope of Work for Detailed Investigation or Detailed Project Report Stage
  • 2.5. Factors Affecting the Development of Irrigation Facilities

Chapter 3. Basic Hydraulic Computations

  • 3.1. Basic Terminology
  • 3.2. Conservation Laws
  • 3.3. Hydraulic Jump
  • 3.4. Computation of Critical Depth
  • 3.5. Uniform Flow Computation
  • 3.6. Gradually Varied Flow
  • 3.7. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4. Hydrologic Computations

  • 4.1. Analyses of Rainfall Data
  • 4.2. Hydrologic Cycle
  • 4.3. Hydrologic Equation and Water Balance
  • 4.4. Estimation of Reservoir Inflow Using Observed Data
  • 4.5. Estimate of Catchment Yield Using Rainfall–Runoff Modeling
  • 4.6. Inflow Estimation in Multi-Reservoir Case
  • 4.7. Design-Flood Estimation for Fixing the Spillway Capacity
  • 4.8. Reservoir Sizing
  • 4.9. Reservoir Sedimentation
  • 4.10. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 5. Estimation of Lake Evaporation and Potential Evapotranspiration

  • 5.1. Estimation of Lake Evaporation
  • 5.2. Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration
  • 5.3. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 6. Estimating Irrigation Design Parameters

  • 6.1. Estimation of Crop Water Requirement
  • 6.2. Irrigation Water Requirement
  • 6.3. Irrigation Efficiency
  • 6.4. Irrigation Command Area
  • 6.5. Determination of Irrigated Command Area, Project Duty, Duty at Outlet Head and Canal Head, Water Allowance, and Canal Capacity

Chapter 7. Design of Irrigation Canals

  • 7.1. Typical Canal Geometry
  • 7.2. Design of Lined Canals
  • 7.3. Design of Stable Unlined Canals Using the Regime Theory
  • 7.4. Design of Unlined Canal Using Tractive Force Approach
  • 7.5. Determining L-Section of the Canal
  • 7.6. Development of Draw-Off Statement for the Canal
  • 7.7. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8. Design of Canal Outlets and Their Calibration

  • 8.1. Classification of Outlets
  • 8.2. Performance of Module or Outlet
  • 8.3. Design of Outlets: Discharge Through Outlets
  • 8.4. Calibration of Outlet
  • 8.5. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 9. Canal Architecture

  • 9.1. Canal Classification
  • 9.2. Command Area Survey
  • 9.3. Canal Alignment
  • 9.4. Marking and Finalization of Area Proposed to Be Irrigated by Each Channel
  • 9.5. Design of Canal
  • 9.6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 10. Irrigation Methods

  • 10.1. Methods of Irrigation
  • 10.2. Factors Affecting the Selection of Irrigation Method
  • 10.3. Layout of Basin Irrigation
  • 10.4. Layout for Furrow Irrigation
  • 10.5. Layout of Border Irrigation
  • 10.6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 11. Optimal Cropping Pattern

  • 11.1. Linear Programming
  • 11.2. LP Formulation for Optimal Crop Planning
  • 11.3. LP-Based Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources
  • 11.4. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12. Irrigation Scheduling

  • 12.1. Simple Calculation of Irrigation Scheduling (FAO, 1989)
  • 12.2. Water Balance Method
  • 12.3. Warabandi Scheduling
  • 12.4. Process of Warabandi
  • 12.5. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 13. Benchmarking of Irrigation Projects

  • 13.1. Benchmarking Domains
  • 13.2. Benchmarking Process
  • 13.3. Data Required for Benchmarking
  • 13.4. Indicators of Benchmarking
  • 13.5. Computational Methods for Indicators
  • 13.6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14. Performance Evaluation of Irrigation Projects

  • 14.1. System Delivery Performance
  • 14.2. Productive Performance
  • 14.3. Financial Performance
  • 14.4. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 15. Water Auditing of Irrigation Projects

  • 15.1. Definition of Water Auditing
  • 15.2. Data Collection for Water Auditing
  • 15.3. Indicators of Water Audit
  • 15.4. Brief Description of Indicators
  • 15.5. Estimation of Water Auditing Indicators
  • 15.6. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 16. Flow Measurement in Canals

  • 16.1. Flow Measuring Structures
  • 16.2. Area–Velocity Method
  • 16.3. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 17. Soil Analysis

  • 17.1. Soil and Its Physical Properties
  • 17.2. Soil-Water Constants
  • 17.3. Protocol for Soil Moisture Analysis Using Gravimetric Method
  • 17.4. Measurement of Soil Moisture at Field
  • 17.5. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 18. Scheme Irrigation Efficiency

  • 18.1. Scheme Irrigation Efficiency
  • 18.2. Field Application Efficiency (Ea)
  • 18.3. Conveyance Efficiency (Ec)
  • 18.4. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 19. Environmental Aspects of Irrigation Projects

  • 19.1. Environment and Ecosystem Processes
  • 19.2. Biodiversity
  • 19.3. Environmental Aspects of Water Resources Development
  • 19.4. Environmental Impact of Development of Irrigation Projects
  • 19.5. Environmental Impact Assessment and Management
  • 19.6. Policy Background
  • 19.7. Clearances Required for River Valley or Irrigation Projects in India
  • 19.8. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 20. Financial Appraisal of Irrigation Projects

  • 20.1. Benefits and Costs of the Project
  • 20.2. Benefit–Cost Analysis
  • 20.3. Appraisal of the Project
  • 20.4. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 21. Way Forward to Improve Irrigation Efficiency

  • 21.1. Feasible Solution to Improve System Technical Efficiency
  • 21.2. Feasible Solution to Improve Productive Efficiency
  • 21.3. Feasible Solution to Improve Financial Efficiency
  • 21.4. Feasible Solution to Improve Distribution Efficiency
  • 21.5. Concluding Remarks


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© Academic Press 2017
7th April 2017
Academic Press
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About the Authors

Raveendra Rai

Dr. Rai has more than fifteen years of working experience in the field of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering. His key specialty areas are: Hydrological & Hydraulic Modelling; Sediment Modelling and Management Planning, Development of Rainfall-Runoff-Erosion Models for small and mid-sized catchments; Integrated Water Resources Planning and Management; Catchment Planning, Diversion Studies; Stormwater Drainage Design and Modelling; Irrigation and Hydropower Planning; and Planning and Evaluation of Irrigation Project.

Affiliations and Expertise

WEES Engineering Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Vijay Singh

An academician and professional engineer in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering & Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, Prof. Singh is a distinguished professor, and Caroline and William N. Lehrer Distinguished Chair in Water Engineering. He has more than 40 years of experience in the field of hydrology and water resources engineering

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Alka Upadhyay

Chief Environment Specialist with more than seventeen years of working experience in the field Environmental impact and management of aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity, environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of water resource projects, water quality assessment and modelling, environmental flow, biodiversity analysis; integrated water resources management, decision support system for water quality and project management. Dr. Alka has been involved in various national and international consultancy projects of varying scope in different roles funded by Central and State Governments, European Union, World Bank, JICA, and Asian Development Bank.

Affiliations and Expertise

WEES Engineering Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

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