Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123838674, 9780123838544

Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual

1st Edition

Authors: E. Shashi Menon
Paperback ISBN: 9780123838674
eBook ISBN: 9780123838544
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 12th May 2011
Page Count: 576
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Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual aims to guide engineers and technicians in the processes of planning, designing, and construction of a pipeline system, as well as to provide the necessary tools for cost estimations, specifications, and field maintenance. The text includes understandable pipeline schematics, tables, and DIY checklists. This source is a collaborative work of a team of experts with over 180 years of combined experience throughout the United States and other countries in pipeline planning and construction.

Comprised of 21 chapters, the book walks readers through the steps of pipeline construction and management. The comprehensive guide that this source provides enables engineers and technicians to manage routine auditing of technical work output relative to technical input and established expectations and standards, and to assess and estimate the work, including design integrity and product requirements, from its research to completion.

Design, piping, civil, mechanical, petroleum, chemical, project production and project reservoir engineers, including novices and students, will find this book invaluable for their engineering practices.

Key Features

  • Back-of-the envelope calculations
  • Checklists for maintenance operations
  • Checklists for environmental compliance
  • Simulations, modeling tools and equipment design
  • Guide for pump and pumping station placement


Piping Engineers, Designers, Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Project Production Engineers and Project Reservoir Engineers

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Author Biography


Chapter 1. Design Basis

1.1. Units of Measurement

1.2. Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases

Chapter 2. Route Selection

2.1. Community and Local Agencies

2.2. Population Density

2.3. Technical and Project Necessities

2.4. Constructibility

2.5. Right-of-Way

2.6. Environmental Issues

2.7. Route Beginning and Ending Points

2.8. Connections

2.9. Mapping System

2.10. Field Review

2.11. Parallel Other Lines

2.12. Integrity

2.13. Established Corridors

Chapter 3. Pipeline Regulatory and Environmental Permits

3.1. Regulation of Interstate Pipelines

3.2. Regulation of Intrastate Pipelines

3.3. Environmental Permits for Interstate Pipelines

3.4. Environmental Permits for Intrastate Pipelines

3.5. Local Permits

Chapter 4. Right-of-Way

4.1. Right-of-Way Deliverables and Requirements

4.2. Project Planning

4.3. Right-of-Way Budgeting

4.4. Right-of-Way Database and Records

4.5. Field Support

4.6. Right-of-Way Negotiations and Condemnation

4.7. Construction Support

4.8. Project Completion and Pipeline Operations

Chapter 5. Alignment Sheets

5.1. Uses

5.2. Alignment Sheet Development

5.3. Quantity of Alignment Sheets

5.4. Stationing

5.5. Survey

5.6. Drawing Issuance

5.7. Changes to the Route

5.8. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Requirements

5.9. Existing Systems

Chapter 6. Overview of Pipeline Materials

6.1. Criteria

6.2. Product to Be Transported

6.3. Operating Pressure

6.4. Operating Temperature

6.5. Handling and Welding

6.6. Volume or Throughput

6.7. Codes and Regulations

6.8. Coating

6.9. Joint Coating

6.10. Fittings

Chapter 7. Pipe Strength and Wall Thickness

7.1. Allowable Operating Pressure

7.2. Barlow's Equation for Internal Pressure

7.3. Derivation of Barlow's Equation

7.4. Modified Barlow's Equation

7.5. Gas Pipelines: Class Locations

7.6. Thick-Walled Pipes

7.7. Mainline Valves

7.8. Blowdown Calculations

7.9. Determining Pipe Tonnage

Chapter 8. Pipeline Hydraulic Analysis

8.1. Velocity of Flow in Liquid Pipelines

8.2. Reynolds Number in Liquid Flow

8.3. Pressure and Head of a Liquid

8.4. Pressure Drop in Liquid Flow

8.5. Friction Factor

8.6. Colebrook–White Equation

8.7. Moody Diagram

8.8. Hazen–Williams Equation

8.9. Minor Losses

8.10. Flow of Gas in Pipelines

8.11. Erosional Velocity

8.12. Reynolds Number in Gas Flow

8.13. Friction Factor in Gas Flow

8.14. Colebrook–White Equation for Gas Flow

8.15. Transmission Factor

8.16. Pressure Drop in Gas Flow

8.17. Effect of Pipe Elevations

8.18. The Average Gas Pressure

Chapter 9. Series and Parallel Piping and Power Required

9.1. Total Pressure Required to Transport Liquids

9.2. Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Liquids

9.3. Series Piping in Liquid Pipelines

9.4. Parallel Piping in Liquid Pipelines

9.5. Transporting High Vapor Pressure Liquids

9.6. Pumping Power Required in Liquid Pipelines

9.7. System Head Curves – Liquid Pipelines

9.8. Injections and Deliveries – Liquid Pipelines

9.9. Pipe Loops in Liquid Pipelines

9.10. Gas Pipelines

9.11. Hydraulic Pressure Gradient in Gas Pipeline

9.12. Series Piping in Gas Pipelines

9.13. Parallel Piping in Gas Pipelines

Chapter 10. Valve Stations

10.1. What to Expect

10.2. Valve Usage

10.3. Some Other Valves Not Listed by API-6D

10.4. Valve Pressure Class

10.5. Pipeline Design and Valve Selection

10.6. Mainline Valve Locations

10.7. Valve Station Design

10.8. Buried Valve Vaults

10.9. Direct Burial of Valves

10.10. Natural Gas Pipeline Valves

10.11. Valve Placement on Gas Pipelines

10.12. Block Valve Spacing on Gas Transmission Lines

10.13. Valve Maintenance for Liquid and Gas Pipelines as per Code

10.14. Overpressure Safety Valves and Pressure Limiting Devices for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

10.15. Natural Gas Pipeline Valves Maintenance

10.16. Pressure Limiting and Regulating Stations for Gas Pipelines

10.17. General Valve Station Protection

10.18. Pipeline Valve Selection – Ball or Gate?

Chapter 11. Pump Stations

11.1. Multipump Station Pipelines

11.2. Hydraulic Balance and Pump Stations Required

11.3. Telescoping Pipe Wall Thickness

11.4. Change of Pipe Grade – Grade Tapering

11.5. Slack Line and Open Channel Flow

11.6. Batching Different Liquids

11.7. Centrifugal Pumps Versus Reciprocating Pumps

11.8. Centrifugal Pump Head and Efficiency Versus Flow Rate

11.9. BHP Versus Flow Rate

11.10. NPSH Versus Flow Rate

11.11. Specific Speed

11.12. Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps

11.13. Effect of Specific Gravity and Viscosity on Pump Performance

11.14. Pump Configuration – Series and Parallel

11.15. Pump Head Curve Versus System Head Curve

11.16. Multiple Pumps Versus System Head Curve

11.17. NPSH Required Versus NPSH Available

11.18. Pump Station Configuration

11.19. Control Pressure and Throttle Pressure

11.20. Variable Speed Pumps

11.21. VSD Pump Versus Control Valve

Chapter 12. Compressor Stations

12.1. Compressor Station Locations

12.2. Hydraulic Balance

12.3. Isothermal Compression

12.4. Adiabatic Compression

12.5. Polytropic Compression

12.6. Discharge Temperature of Compressed Gas

12.7. Compression Power Required

12.8. Optimum Compressor Locations

12.9. Compressors in Series and Parallel

12.10. Types of Compressors – Centrifugal and Positive Displacement

12.11. Compressor Performance Curves

12.12. Compressor Head and Gas Flow Rate

12.13. Compressor Station Piping Losses

12.14. Compressor Station Schematic

Chapter 13. Corrosion Protection

13.1. Corrosion in Pipelines

13.2. Causes of Pipeline Failure

13.3. Types of Corrosion

13.4. Corrosion Control

Chapter 14. Leak Detection

14.1. Prevention

14.2. Pressure Regulation

14.3. Cathodic Protection

14.4. Corrosion Coupons

14.5. Pipeline Markers

14.6. Smart Pigging

14.7. Pipeline Security

14.8. Regulations

14.9. Purpose

14.10. Intermediate Block Valves

14.11. Check Valves

14.12. Patrolling

14.13. Detection

14.14. Measurement

14.15. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System

14.16. Hydrostatic Testing

Chapter 15. Pipeline Pigging and Inspection

15.1. Pig Use

15.2. Pipeline Pigging

15.3. Problem Pipelines

15.4. Piggable Pipelines

15.5. Pig Propulsion

15.6. Utility Pigs

15.7. Selecting Pigs for Small Bore and Double Diameter Pipelines

15.8. Poly Pigs

15.9. My First Experience with Poly Pigs

15.10. Pig Trains

15.11. Smart Pigs

15.12. Smart Pig Types

15.13. Crack Detection

15.14. Preparation for Smart Pig Inspection

15.15. MFL Smart Pig

15.16. Post Smart Pig Inspection

15.17. Expert Data Evaluation

15.18. External Corrosion

15.19. Internal Corrosion

15.20. Postinspection Criteria

Chapter 16. Pipeline Construction

16.1. Pipeline Construction Sequence

16.2. Restoration of Disturbed Construction R.O.W.

Chapter 17. Welding and NDT

17.1. Pipeline Welding Procedures

17.2. Specimen Preparation

17.3. Testing

17.4. Criteria for Weld Acceptance

17.5. Classic Pipeline Welding

17.6. Double Joints

17.7. Using Higher X-Grade Pipe

17.8. Welders' Qualification

17.9. Welders' Responsibility

17.10. Automatic Pipeline Welding

17.11. Verifying Automatic Weld Integrity

17.12. Semiautomatic Welding

17.13. Strength of Welded Pipelines

17.14. Nondestructive Testing of Pipe Girth Welds

17.15. Radiographic NDT

17.16. Repair of Defect

17.17. Welding Rejection Criteria

Chapter 18. Hydrostatic Testing

18.1. Testing Pipe

18.2. Classifying in Service Pipelines

18.3. Intrastate Pipelines

18.4. Pretest Planning for an Intrastate Pipeline

18.5. Test Water Disposal

18.6. Safety and Equipment Procedures During Test

18.7. Turning and Operating Valves

18.8. Training and Judgment

18.9. Back to Test Procedure

18.10. Pressurization

18.11. List of Equipment for Hydrostatic Test

18.12. Test On

18.13. Posttest Results

18.14. Posttest Leak Analysis

18.15. Entrained Air and Vapor

18.16. Leaking Isolation Valves and Fittings

18.17. Changing Test Water Temperature

18.18. Posttest Report

18.19. Volume Analysis

18.20. Testing Interstate Liquid and Natural Gas Transmissions Lines

18.21. Test Section 12

18.22. Cross-Country Pipeline Testing

18.23. Pipeline Rupture

Chapter 19. Commissioning

19.1. Plan

19.2. Plan Sequence

19.3. Operations and Maintenance Manuals

19.4. Completion of Construction

19.5. Sizing or Gauging Pigs

19.6. System Checkout

19.7. Pipeline Drying

19.8. Line Fill

Chapter 20. Specification Writing, Data Sheet Production, Requisition Development, and Bid Analysis

20.1. Specification Writing

20.2. Material Specifications

20.3. Construction Specifications

20.4. Material Requisition Development

20.5. Bid Quotation and Bid Analysis

Chapter 21. Operations and Maintenance Manuals

21.1. Operating Manuals

21.2. Regulations

21.3. Written Emergency Procedures

21.4. Training Program

21.5. Details

21.6. Maintenance Manuals

21.7. Preventative Maintenance

21.8. Project Data Book

21.9. Startup Sequential Process

21.10. Shutdown Sequential Process

Appendix 1. Chapter 1

Appendix 2. Chapter 3

Appendix 3. Chapter 4

Appendix 4. Chapter 7

Appendix 5. Chapter 8

Appendix 6. Chapter 9

Appendix 7. Chapter 11

Appendix 8. Chapter 12

Appendix 9. Chapters 17 and 18



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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2011
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

E. Shashi Menon

E. Shashi Menon, Vice President of SYSTEK Technologies, Inc is a Registered Professional Engineer based in USA for the last 40 years with Bachelors and Masters degrees in Mechanical Engineering. He has extensive experience in Oil and Gas Pipeline Design and construction in USA and South America, having worked for leading US companies. He is the author of several popular technical publications on the subject. He has also coauthored over a dozen software programs in Liquid and Gas Pipeline Hydraulics used by engineers in the industry since 1992. He lives in Lake Havasu City, Arizona

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, SYSTEK Technologies, Inc., Lake Havasu City, AZ, USA


"This general purpose guide for engineers provides detailed practical information on the design and construction of pipelines and attendant facilities. Authored by a team of experts with extensive pipeline experience, the volume presents a comprehensive look at design criteria, planning considerations, and testing methodologies for many common tasks involved in pipeline construction. Topics discussed include route selection, environmental impact and regulations, right-of-way concerns, materials options, pipe strength, hydraulic analysis, pump and valve stations, leak detection, hydrostatic testing, and operations and maintenance protocols. Technical drawings, tables, and relevant formulas and equations are provided throughout."--Reference and Research Book News