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Pipeline Leak Detection Handbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128022405, 9780128025673

Pipeline Leak Detection Handbook

1st Edition

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Authors: Morgan Henrie Philip Carpenter R. Edward Nicholas
Paperback ISBN: 9780128022405
eBook ISBN: 9780128025673
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 13th July 2016
Page Count: 340
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Pipeline Leak Detection Handbook is a concise, detailed, and inclusive leak detection best practices text and reference book. It begins with the basics of leak detection technologies that include leak detection systems, and information on pipeline leaks, their causes, and subsequent consequences.

The book moves on to further explore system infrastructures, performance, human factors, installation, and integrity management, and is a must-have resource to help oil and gas professionals gain a comprehensive understanding of the identification, selection, design, testing, and implantation of a leak detection system.

Key Features

  • Informs oil and gas pipeline professionals on the basics of leak detection technologies, the required field instrumentation, telecommunication infrastructures, human factors, and risk mitigation considerations
  • Leads the reader through the complex process of understanding the pipeline’s unique environment and how to develop a leak detection program


Gas and oil industry leak detection engineers, analysts, and technicians; Gas and oil industry operators, controllers, and management personnel; Leak detection vendors, engineers, analysts, and technicians; Federal and state pipeline regulatory associated personnel; Liquid pipeline (such as water and waste water) engineers, analysts and technicians; and Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Why are Pipelines Important?
  • 1.3 Pipeline Basics
  • 1.4 Pipeline Design Essentials
  • 1.5 Pipeline Leaks, Ruptures, Spills, and Theft
  • 1.6 Leak Detection Approaches
  • 1.7 The Book Structure
  • 1.8 Terminology
  • 1.9 Nomenclature
  • References

Chapter 2. Pipeline Leak Detection Basics

  • Abstract
  • 2.1 The Challenges of Detecting Pipeline Leaks
  • 2.2 The Toll Road and the Free-Rider Problem
  • 2.3 Leak Location and Other Issues
  • 2.4 Leak Detection and Theft
  • 2.5 Functional Requirements
  • 2.6 The Fundamental Principles Summarized
  • 2.7 Architectural Foundations
  • 2.8 A Taxonomy of Pipeline Leak Detection Systems

Chapter 3. Mass Balance Leak Detection

  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Leaks and Conservation of Mass
  • 3.2 Pipeline Mass Balance Section
  • 3.3 Leak Detection by Mass Balance: Foundational Principles
  • 3.4 Volume Balance at Standard Conditions as a Proxy for Mass Balance
  • 3.5 Impact of Uncertainties in Mass/Volume Balances on Leak Detection
  • 3.6 API 1130 Applicable Classification of Mass Balance Systems
  • 3.7 Our Classification of Mass Balance–Based Leak Detection Systems
  • References

Chapter 4. Real-Time Transient Model–Based Leak Detection

  • Abstract
  • 4.1 The Real-Time Transient Model
  • 4.2 Numerical Methods
  • 4.3 Measurements and Boundary Conditions
  • 4.4 State Estimation and Related Subjects
  • 4.5 Leak Detection Signals
  • 4.6 Using the Leak Signals to Detect Leaks
  • 4.7 Estimating Leak Location
  • 4.8 Impact of Fluid Type: Liquids, Gases, and Multiphase Flows
  • 4.9 RTTM Uncertainty Recap
  • References

Chapter 5. Statistical Processing and Leak Detection

  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction to Leak Signal Processing
  • 5.2 Signal Processing Basics
  • 5.3 Statistical Processing and Significance Testing
  • References

Chapter 6. Rarefaction Wave and Deviation Alarm Systems

  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Rarefaction Wave Physical Basis and Equations
  • 6.2 Pressure Signal and Event Processing
  • 6.3 Leak Detection and Location Using Rarefaction Waves
  • 6.4 Rarefaction Wave Leak Detection Issues, Improvements, and Assessment
  • 6.5 Deviation Alarm Systems

Chapter 7. External and Intermittent Leak Detection System Types

  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Spill Migration
  • 7.2 Direct Observation
  • 7.3 Distributed Cable-Based Leak Detection Technology
  • 7.4 Fiber Optic Cable–Based Sensor Systems
  • 7.5 Hydrocarbon-Sensing Tubes
  • 7.6 Fixed/Discrete Sensor Leak Detection Systems
  • 7.7 Other External Methods
  • 7.8 General Assessment
  • Reference

Chapter 8. Leak Detection System Infrastructure

  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Field Instrumentation
  • 8.2 Supporting Telecommunication and Network Infrastructure
  • 8.3 SCADA System Considerations
  • 8.4 Historical Archiving of Data
  • 8.5 Resilient System Design
  • References

Chapter 9. Leak Detection Performance, Testing, and Tuning

  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Performance Metrics
  • 9.2 Tuning and Tradeoffs
  • 9.3 LDS Performance Testing and Evaluation
  • 9.4 LDS Tuning
  • 9.5 Performance Standards
  • References

Chapter 10. Human Factor Considerations in Leak Detection

  • Abstract
  • 10.1 The Human–Machine Signal Detection Control Loop
  • 10.2 Direct Observation Leak Detection
  • References

Chapter 11. Implementation and Installation of Pipeline Leak Detection Systems

  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Performance Requirement Specification
  • 11.2 Leak Detection Technology/Methodology Decision
  • 11.3 LDS System Integration Requirements
  • 11.4 System Testing
  • 11.5 Vendor Identification and Assessment
  • 11.6 Commissioning
  • 11.7 Long-Term Support Issues
  • References

Chapter 12. Regulatory Requirements

  • Abstract
  • 12.1 The United States of America Regulatory Environment
  • 12.2 Canada
  • 12.3 Germany
  • 12.4 Regulatory Requirements in Other Jurisdictions
  • References

Chapter 13. Leak Detection and Risk-Based Integrity Management

  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Quantifying Integrity Breach Risk and Impact
  • 13.2 Understanding the Consequences of a Spill
  • 13.3 Leak Detection as a Component of Pipeline Loss-of-Integrity Risk Management
  • 13.4 Conclusion
  • References


No. of pages:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2017
13th July 2016
Gulf Professional Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Morgan Henrie

President of MH Consulting, Inc., a project management, systems analysis, and organizational training firm that specializes in the petrochemical and telecommunications industry. His education background includes a BA in Technology Management from Eckerd College, a BSc in Electronic Engineering from Kennedy Western University, an MS in Project Management from The George Washington University, and a PhD in System Science and Engineering Management from Old Dominion. He is an experienced systems engineer with an extensive background in petrochemical/pipeline business including expertise in leak detection systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, MH Consulting, Inc., Anchorage, AK, USA

Philip Carpenter

Experienced engineer with an extensive background in the petrochemical/pipeline business, including oversight of people, teams and projects; organization structure and processes; and technical and economic analysis, system development and maintenance, and engineering design. Key specializations include pipeline hydraulics, leak detection, SCADA systems, and simulation based training.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, Serrano Services & Systems and Great Sky River Enterprises LLC, Leander, TX, USA

R. Edward Nicholas

Ed Nicholas specializes in providing Leak Detection support services and Pipeline Simulation solutions to the

Pipeline Industry. He has served as the technical consultant for large pipeline simulation projects. In addition, he is

a software developer and often provides key components for simulation systems. He regularly provides technical and software support to users of installed real-time pipeline simulation systems.

Ed Nicholas has been a pioneer in the fields of pipeline leak detection, pipeline thermal modeling, and transient modeling of slack line flow in liquid pipelines.

Ed Nicholas has been managing software projects and developing software products since 1979. His primary applications area has been in the field of real time pipeline operations aids for the pipeline industry. A major focus has been in the areas of real time dynamic pipeline simulation and pipeline leak detection. He has substantial experience working in pipeline control rooms with real time software packages and integrating them with a variety of different data acquisition and control systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leak Detection Specialist and Software Developer, Nicholas Simulation, LLC, Harrisburg, VA, USA

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