Pine Barrens

Pine Barrens

Ecosystem and Landscape

1st Edition - January 28, 1979

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  • Editor: Richard Forman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144087

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Description

Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape focuses on the relationship between the ecological and landscape aspects of Pine Barrens of New Jersey. The idea in this book is based from the discussions of Rutgers University botanists and ecologists at the 1975 American Institute of Biological Science meetings, and from the interest generated by the 1976 annual New Jersey Academy of Science meeting, which focuses on the Pine Barrens. This seven-part book starts with a short discussion on location and boundaries of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Part I covers human activities, from Indian activities and initial European perceptions of the land, including settlement, lumbering, fuel wood and charcoal, iron and glassworks, farming and livestock, and real estate development. The next part of the book describes sandy deposits, geographic distribution of geologic formations, and soil types with their ecologically important characteristics. Topics on hydrology, aquatic ecosystems, and climatic and microclimatic conditions are presented in the third part of this reference. Part IV traces the history of vegetation starting before the Ice Age and analyzes vegetation using different approaches, such as community types, community classification according to a European method, and gradient analysis. Plants of the Pine Barrens are briefly described and listed in Part V. The final part illustrates community relationships of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, and soil microcommunities. The book is ideal for ecologists, botanists, geologists, soil scientists, zoologists, hydrologists, limnologists, engineers, and scientists, as well as planners, decision-makers, and managers who may largely determine the future of a region.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Dedication: Murray Fife Buell

    Introduction: Location and Boundaries of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Part I People

    1 Human Exploitation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens Before 1900

    Initial Occupancy

    European Perceptions of the Region

    European Settlement

    Lumbering

    Fuel Wood

    Charcoal

    Iron

    Glass

    The Industrial Legacy

    Agriculture

    Real Estate Promotion

    Fire

    Conclusion

    Summary

    References

    2 Plant and Animal Products of the Pine Barrens

    Wood Products

    Other Plant Products

    Wildlife

    Cultivation of Cranberries and Blueberries

    Other Crops

    Future Use of the Barrens

    Summary

    References

    Part II Geology and Soils

    3 Geology of the Pine Barrens of new Jersey

    Physiography and Geography

    Outline of Geological History

    Stratigraphy

    Tertiary Deposits

    Quaternary Deposits

    Summary

    References

    4 Development of Pine Barrens Soils

    Vegetation

    Geology

    Topography

    Climate

    Soil Conditions

    Lake wood Soil

    Lakewood Soil Variations

    Aeolian Activity

    Weathered Tertiary Hilltops

    Podzol Formation with Ironstone, Sandstone, and/or Iron Bands

    Podzol Formation over Gleyed Soil

    Podzol Soil with a Thin Bleached Horizon

    Local Variations in Soils—The Drainage Catena

    Sassafras and Related Soils

    Disturbed Soil Morphology

    Summary

    References

    5 Soil Series of the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Soils in Pine Barrens

    Summary

    References

    6 Mineralogy of Pine Barrens Soils

    Age of Parent Materials

    Contributions of Soil Mineralogical Fractions

    Mineralogy of the Sand Fractions

    Mineralogy of the Silt Fractions

    Clay Identification

    Clay Mineralogy of Pine Barrens Podzols (Spodosols)

    Smectites and Mineral Alteration in Podzol A Horizons

    Clay Mineralogy of Gray-Brown Podzolic-Red-Yellow Podzolic Intergrades (Ultisols)

    The Effect of Drainage and Topography on Soil Mineralogy

    Clay-Sized Minor Minerals in Pine Barrens Soils

    Soil Properties Influenced by Mineralogy

    Conclusion

    Summary

    References

    Part III Climate, Water, and Aquatic Ecosystems

    7 Climate and Microclimate of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Major Factors Controlling the Macrociimate of the Southern Interior of New Jersey

    Sources of Climatic Data in the Pine Barrens

    Temperatures in the Pine Barrens

    Microclimatic Temperatures in the Pine Barrens

    Precipitation in the Pine Barrens

    Snowfall in the Pine Barrens

    Wind in the Pine Barrens

    Humidity in the Pine Barrens

    Solar Radiation in the Pine Barrens

    Potential Human Impact on the Microclimate of the Pine Barrens

    Summary

    References

    8 Fluxes of Water and Energy through the Pines Barrens Ecosystems

    Introduction

    Energy Flow through an Ecosystem

    Waterflow through an Ecosystem

    Measurement of Evapotranspiration

    Estimated Energy and Water Fluxes in the Pine Barrens

    Interactions between Ecosystems: Effects of Uplands on Lowlands

    Conclusions

    References

    9 Hydrology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Surface Water

    Ground Water

    Hydrological Characteristics of Geologic Formations

    Hydrological Budget

    Quality of Ground Water

    Summary

    References

    10 Streams and Lakes in the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    The River Basins

    Some General Characteristics of Pine Barrens Surface Waters

    Summary

    References

    Appendix

    11 Nutrient and Hydrological Effects of the Pine Barrens on Neighboring Estuaries

    Introduction

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Summary

    References

    Part IV Vegetation Patterns

    12 Vegetational History of the Pine Barrens

    Perspective

    Development of the Coastal Plain during Tertiary and Quaternary Time

    Pre-Quaternary Vegetation

    Quaternary Vegetation

    Origin of Modern Communities

    Loss of Subtropical Taxa and Influx of Temperate Species in the Vegetation during the

    Late Tertiary and Quaternary

    The Pine Barrens as a Hypothesized Refugium during the Pleistocene

    Disjunct Taxa in the Pine Barrens

    Problems for Future Research

    Summary

    References

    13 The Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Vegetation of the Lowlands (Wetlands)

    Vegetation of the Uplands

    Pine-Oak Forests

    Oak-Pine Forests

    Summary

    References

    14 Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: A Phytosociological Classification

    Introduction

    Methods

    Vegetation Types

    Pine-Oak Vegetation Type

    White Cedar-Red Maple Swamp Vegetation Type

    Thicket-Bog Vegetation Type

    Marsh-Sod Vegetation Type

    Stream-Pond Vegetation Type

    Old-Field Vegetation Type

    Discussion

    Summary

    References

    15 Vegetational Gradients of the Pine Plains and Barrens of Long Island, New York

    Introduction

    Description of the Area

    Methods

    Results

    Discussion

    Summary

    References

    16 The Pine Barren Plains

    Introduction

    Plants and Community Structure

    Possible Causes of the Plains

    The Adaptive Hypothesis

    The Plains as a Pygmy Forest

    Future of the Plains

    Summary

    References

    17 Fire and Plant Succession in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Fire History

    Succession

    Fire Effects on Composition

    Other Fire and Successional Effects

    Summary

    References

    18 Vegetational Relationships of the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    The Pine Barrens Pattern

    Distinctiveness of Barrens Vegetation

    Relations to Other Areas

    Conclusion

    Summary

    References

    19 Leaky Ecosystems: Nutrient Fluxes and Succession in the Pine Barrens Vegetation

    Introduction

    The Nutrient Budget

    Recent Research on Nutrient Cycling

    Results and Discussion

    Summary

    References

    Part V Plants

    20 Pitch Pine (Pinus Rigida Mill): Ecology, Physiology, and Genetics

    Habitat Conditions

    Associated Flora and Fauna

    Life History

    Physiology

    Genetics

    Summary

    References

    21 Common Vascular Plants of the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Key to the Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants

    Summary

    References

    22 Endangered, Threatened, and Rare Vascular Plants of the Pine Barrens and Their Biogeography

    Introduction

    History

    Species in Jeopardy

    Why Do Some Species Become Rare?

    Biogeography

    Summary

    References

    23 Common Bryophytes and Lichensof the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Common Bryophytes of the Pine Barrens

    Bryophyte Community Patterns along Fire Frequency and Soil Moisture Gradients

    Pine Plains Bryophytes

    Common Sphagnum Mosses

    Common Lichens

    Conclusion

    Summary

    References

    24 Algae of the Pine Barrens

    Habitats and Ecology

    The Flora

    Key to Taxa

    Summary

    References

    Part VI Animals and Animal Communities

    25 Mammals of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Order Marsupialia: Pouched Mammals

    Order Insectivora: Insect Eaters

    Order Chiroptera: Bats

    Order Lagomorpha: Rabbits

    Order Rodentia: Rodents

    Order Carnivora: Flesh Eaters

    Order Artiodactyla: Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals

    Summary

    References

    26 Birds of the Barrens

    The Breeding Bird Community

    Birdlife in the Nonbreeding Seasons

    Population Studies

    The Effects of Fire on Pine Barren Birdlife

    Conservation

    Future Research

    Summary

    References

    27 A Zoogeographical Review of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Southern New Jersey, with Emphasis on the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Habitat Destruction

    Zoogeographical Comments

    Species Confined to the Pine Barrens

    Wide-Ranging Species

    Border Entrants: Species Entering the Pine Barrens under Exceptional Conditions

    Relicts in the Barrens

    Peripheral Species

    The Introductions

    Geographical Origin of the Herpetofauna

    Commentary

    Summary

    References

    28 Fish of the Pine Barrens

    Habitat Characteristics of Pine Barrens Streams

    General Nature of the Pine Barrens Fish Fauna

    Characteristic Species of the Pine Barrens

    Peripheral Species

    Anadromous Species

    Introduced Species

    Zoogeography of Pine Barrens Fishes

    Summary

    References

    29 Arthropods of the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Arthropods Other Than Insects

    Insects Found on Vegetation in Pine and Oak Woods

    Insects Found in Shrub and Semi-Open Areas with Scattered Vegetation

    Insects of Open, Sandy Areas

    Insects More Often Heard Than Seen

    Insects Found under Bark and in Dead Trees and Old Stumps

    Insects Found in Aquatic and Semiaquatic Habitats

    Summary

    References

    30 Soil Arthropod Microcommunities of the Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Macroarthropods

    Fire as a Selection Pressure on Soil Arthropods

    Summary

    References

    31 Animal Communities of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Introduction

    Types of Animal Studies

    Factors Affecting Resource Availability

    Conclusion

    Summary

    References

    Part VII Conclusion

    32 Ecological Research Opportunities in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    Ideas for Historical Analysis of the Pine Barrens

    Ideas for the Study of Populations

    Ideas for Study of Communities

    Ideas for Study of Ecosystems and Landscapes

    Summary

    References

    33 The Pine Barrens of New Jersey: An Ecological Mosaic

    Introduction

    The Pine Barrens of New Jersey

    An Ecological Mosaic

    Conclusion

    References

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 644
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: January 28, 1979
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144087

About the Editor

Richard Forman

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