Pine Barrens - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122634505, 9780323144087

Pine Barrens

1st Edition

Ecosystem and Landscape

Editors: Richard Forman
eBook ISBN: 9780323144087
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1979
Page Count: 644
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Description

Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape focuses on the relationship between the ecological and landscape aspects of Pine Barrens of New Jersey. The idea in this book is based from the discussions of Rutgers University botanists and ecologists at the 1975 American Institute of Biological Science meetings, and from the interest generated by the 1976 annual New Jersey Academy of Science meeting, which focuses on the Pine Barrens.
This seven-part book starts with a short discussion on location and boundaries of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Part I covers human activities, from Indian activities and initial European perceptions of the land, including settlement, lumbering, fuel wood and charcoal, iron and glassworks, farming and livestock, and real estate development. The next part of the book describes sandy deposits, geographic distribution of geologic formations, and soil types with their ecologically important characteristics. Topics on hydrology, aquatic ecosystems, and climatic and microclimatic conditions are presented in the third part of this reference. Part IV traces the history of vegetation starting before the Ice Age and analyzes vegetation using different approaches, such as community types, community classification according to a European method, and gradient analysis. Plants of the Pine Barrens are briefly described and listed in Part V. The final part illustrates community relationships of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, and soil microcommunities. The book is ideal for ecologists, botanists, geologists, soil scientists, zoologists, hydrologists, limnologists, engineers, and scientists, as well as planners, decision-makers, and managers who may largely determine the future of a region.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgements

Dedication: Murray Fife Buell

Introduction: Location and Boundaries of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Part I People

1 Human Exploitation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens Before 1900

Initial Occupancy

European Perceptions of the Region

European Settlement

Lumbering

Fuel Wood

Charcoal

Iron

Glass

The Industrial Legacy

Agriculture

Real Estate Promotion

Fire

Conclusion

Summary

References

2 Plant and Animal Products of the Pine Barrens

Wood Products

Other Plant Products

Wildlife

Cultivation of Cranberries and Blueberries

Other Crops

Future Use of the Barrens

Summary

References

Part II Geology and Soils

3 Geology of the Pine Barrens of new Jersey

Physiography and Geography

Outline of Geological History

Stratigraphy

Tertiary Deposits

Quaternary Deposits

Summary

References

4 Development of Pine Barrens Soils

Vegetation

Geology

Topography

Climate

Soil Conditions

Lake wood Soil

Lakewood Soil Variations

Aeolian Activity

Weathered Tertiary Hilltops

Podzol Formation with Ironstone, Sandstone, and/or Iron Bands

Podzol Formation over Gleyed Soil

Podzol Soil with a Thin Bleached Horizon

Local Variations in Soils—The Drainage Catena

Sassafras and Related Soils

Disturbed Soil Morphology

Summary

References

5 Soil Series of the Pine Barrens

Introduction

Soils in Pine Barrens

Summary

References

6 Mineralogy of Pine Barrens Soils

Age of Parent Materials

Contributions of Soil Mineralogical Fractions

Mineralogy of the Sand Fractions

Mineralogy of the Silt Fractions

Clay Identification

Clay Mineralogy of Pine Barrens Podzols (Spodosols)

Smectites and Mineral Alteration in Podzol A Horizons

Clay Mineralogy of Gray-Brown Podzolic-Red-Yellow Podzolic Intergrades (Ultisols)

The Effect of Drainage and Topography on Soil Mineralogy

Clay-Sized Minor Minerals in Pine Barrens Soils

Soil Properties Influenced by Mineralogy

Conclusion

Summary

References

Part III Climate, Water, and Aquatic Ecosystems

7 Climate and Microclimate of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Major Factors Controlling the Macrociimate of the Southern Interior of New Jersey

Sources of Climatic Data in the Pine Barrens

Temperatures in the Pine Barrens

Microclimatic Temperatures in the Pine Barrens

Precipitation in the Pine Barrens

Snowfall in the Pine Barrens

Wind in the Pine Barrens

Humidity in the Pine Barrens

Solar Radiation in the Pine Barrens

Potential Human Impact on the Microclimate of the Pine Barrens

Summary

References

8 Fluxes of Water and Energy through the Pines Barrens Ecosystems

Introduction

Energy Flow through an Ecosystem

Waterflow through an Ecosystem

Measurement of Evapotranspiration

Estimated Energy and Water Fluxes in the Pine Barrens

Interactions between Ecosystems: Effects of Uplands on Lowlands

Conclusions

References

9 Hydrology of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Introduction

Surface Water

Ground Water

Hydrological Characteristics of Geologic Formations

Hydrological Budget

Quality of Ground Water

Summary

References

10 Streams and Lakes in the Pine Barrens

Introduction

The River Basins

Some General Characteristics of Pine Barrens Surface Waters

Summary

References

Appendix

11 Nutrient and Hydrological Effects of the Pine Barrens on Neighboring Estuaries

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

Part IV Vegetation Patterns

12 Vegetational History of the Pine Barrens

Perspective

Development of the Coastal Plain during Tertiary and Quaternary Time

Pre-Quaternary Vegetation

Quaternary Vegetation

Origin of Modern Communities

Loss of Subtropical Taxa and Influx of Temperate Species in the Vegetation during the

Late Tertiary and Quaternary

The Pine Barrens as a Hypothesized Refugium during the Pleistocene

Disjunct Taxa in the Pine Barrens

Problems for Future Research

Summary

References

13 The Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Introduction

Vegetation of the Lowlands (Wetlands)

Vegetation of the Uplands

Pine-Oak Forests

Oak-Pine Forests

Summary

References

14 Vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: A Phytosociological Classification

Introduction

Methods

Vegetation Types

Pine-Oak Vegetation Type

White Cedar-Red Maple Swamp Vegetation Type

Thicket-Bog Vegetation Type

Marsh-Sod Vegetation Type

Stream-Pond Vegetation Type

Old-Field Vegetation Type

Discussion

Summary

References

15 Vegetational Gradients of the Pine Plains and Barrens of Long Island, New York

Introduction

Description of the Area

Methods

Results

Discussion

Summary

References

16 The Pine Barren Plains

Introduction

Plants and Community Structure

Possible Causes of the Plains

The Adaptive Hypothesis

The Plains as a Pygmy Forest

Future of the Plains

Summary

References

17 Fire and Plant Succession in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Fire History

Succession

Fire Effects on Composition

Other Fire and Successional Effects

Summary

References

18 Vegetational Relationships of the Pine Barrens

Introduction

The Pine Barrens Pattern

Distinctiveness of Barrens Vegetation

Relations to Other Areas

Conclusion

Summary

References

19 Leaky Ecosystems: Nutrient Fluxes and Succession in the Pine Barrens Vegetation

Introduction

The Nutrient Budget

Recent Research on Nutrient Cycling

Results and Discussion

Summary

References

Part V Plants

20 Pitch Pine (Pinus Rigida Mill): Ecology, Physiology, and Genetics

Habitat Conditions

Associated Flora and Fauna

Life History

Physiology

Genetics

Summary

References

21 Common Vascular Plants of the Pine Barrens

Introduction

Key to the Trees, Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants

Summary

References

22 Endangered, Threatened, and Rare Vascular Plants of the Pine Barrens and Their Biogeography

Introduction

History

Species in Jeopardy

Why Do Some Species Become Rare?

Biogeography

Summary

References

23 Common Bryophytes and Lichensof the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Introduction

Common Bryophytes of the Pine Barrens

Bryophyte Community Patterns along Fire Frequency and Soil Moisture Gradients

Pine Plains Bryophytes

Common Sphagnum Mosses

Common Lichens

Conclusion

Summary

References

24 Algae of the Pine Barrens

Habitats and Ecology

The Flora

Key to Taxa

Summary

References

Part VI Animals and Animal Communities

25 Mammals of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Introduction

Order Marsupialia: Pouched Mammals

Order Insectivora: Insect Eaters

Order Chiroptera: Bats

Order Lagomorpha: Rabbits

Order Rodentia: Rodents

Order Carnivora: Flesh Eaters

Order Artiodactyla: Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals

Summary

References

26 Birds of the Barrens

The Breeding Bird Community

Birdlife in the Nonbreeding Seasons

Population Studies

The Effects of Fire on Pine Barren Birdlife

Conservation

Future Research

Summary

References

27 A Zoogeographical Review of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Southern New Jersey, with Emphasis on the Pine Barrens

Introduction

Habitat Destruction

Zoogeographical Comments

Species Confined to the Pine Barrens

Wide-Ranging Species

Border Entrants: Species Entering the Pine Barrens under Exceptional Conditions

Relicts in the Barrens

Peripheral Species

The Introductions

Geographical Origin of the Herpetofauna

Commentary

Summary

References

28 Fish of the Pine Barrens

Habitat Characteristics of Pine Barrens Streams

General Nature of the Pine Barrens Fish Fauna

Characteristic Species of the Pine Barrens

Peripheral Species

Anadromous Species

Introduced Species

Zoogeography of Pine Barrens Fishes

Summary

References

29 Arthropods of the Pine Barrens

Introduction

Arthropods Other Than Insects

Insects Found on Vegetation in Pine and Oak Woods

Insects Found in Shrub and Semi-Open Areas with Scattered Vegetation

Insects of Open, Sandy Areas

Insects More Often Heard Than Seen

Insects Found under Bark and in Dead Trees and Old Stumps

Insects Found in Aquatic and Semiaquatic Habitats

Summary

References

30 Soil Arthropod Microcommunities of the Pine Barrens

Introduction

Macroarthropods

Fire as a Selection Pressure on Soil Arthropods

Summary

References

31 Animal Communities of the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Introduction

Types of Animal Studies

Factors Affecting Resource Availability

Conclusion

Summary

References

Part VII Conclusion

32 Ecological Research Opportunities in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

Ideas for Historical Analysis of the Pine Barrens

Ideas for the Study of Populations

Ideas for Study of Communities

Ideas for Study of Ecosystems and Landscapes

Summary

References

33 The Pine Barrens of New Jersey: An Ecological Mosaic

Introduction

The Pine Barrens of New Jersey

An Ecological Mosaic

Conclusion

References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
644
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323144087

About the Editor

Richard Forman