Pinch Analysis for Energy and Carbon Footprint Reduction

Pinch Analysis for Energy and Carbon Footprint Reduction

User Guide to Process Integration for the Efficient Use of Energy

3rd Edition - August 5, 2020

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  • Authors: Ian C. Kemp, Jeng Shiun Lim
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081025376
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081025369

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Pinch Analysis for Energy and Carbon Footprint Reduction is the only dedicated pinch analysis and process integration guide, covering a breadth of material from foundational knowledge to in-depth processes. Readers are introduced to the main concepts of pinch analysis, the calculation of energy targets for a given process, the pinch temperature, and the golden rules of pinch-based design to meet energy targets. More advanced topics include the extraction of stream data necessary for a pinch analysis, the design of heat exchanger networks, hot and cold utility systems, combined heat and power (CHP), refrigeration, batch- and time-dependent situations, and optimization of system operating conditions, including distillation, evaporation, and solids drying. This new edition offers tips and techniques for practical applications, supported by several detailed case studies. Examples stem from a wide range of industries, including buildings and other non-process situations. This reference is a must-have guide for chemical process engineers, food and biochemical engineers, plant engineers, and professionals concerned with energy optimization, including building designers.

Key Features

  • Covers practical analysis of both new and existing processes
  • Teaches readers to extract the stream data necessary for a pinch analysis and describes the targeting process in depth; includes a downloadable spreadsheet to calculate energy targets
  • Demonstrates how to achieve the targets by heat recovery, utility system design, and process change
  • Updated to include carbon footprint, water and hydrogen pinch, developments in industrial applications and software, site data reconciliation, additional case studies, and answers to selected exercises


Chemical and process engineers; graduate students; students undertaking capstone projects in process design. Key user groups include bulk/batch chemicals, oil/gas, food/drink/consumer products, buildings design and combined heat and power applications

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    1.1 What is pinch analysis?

    1.2 Historical development and industrial experience

    1.3 Why does pinch analysis work?

    1.4 The concept of process synthesis

    1.5 Hierarchy of energy reduction

    1.6 The role of thermodynamics in process design

    1.7 Learning and applying the techniques

    1.8 A note on terminology

    2. Carbon footprint and primary energy

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Definition of carbon footprint

    2.3 Primary energy

    2.4 Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon footprint

    2.5 Components of carbon footprint

    2.6 Carbon pinch and emissions targeting

    2.7 Energy costs

    2.8 Conclusions

    3. Key concepts of pinch analysis

    3.1 Heat recovery and heat exchange

    3.2 The pinch and its significance

    3.3 Heat exchanger network design

    3.4 Choosing ΔTmin: supertargeting

    3.5 Methodology of pinch analysis

    3.6 Worked exercise

    4. Data extraction and energy targeting

    4.1 Data extraction

    4.2 Case study - organics distillation plant

    4.3 Energy targeting

    4.4 Multiple utilities

    4.5 More advanced energy targeting

    4.6 Targeting heat exchange units, area and shells

    4.7 Supertargeting; cost targeting for optimal ΔTmin

    4.8 Targeting for organics distillation plant case study

    4.9 Exercises

    Appendix – Algorithms for Problem Table and composite curves

    5. Heat exchanger network design

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Heat exchange equipment

    5.3 Stream splitting and cyclic matching

    5.4 Network relaxation

    5.5 More complex designs

    5.6 Multiple pinches and near-pinches

    5.7 Retrofit design

    5.8 Operability; multiple base case design

    5.9 Network design for organics distillation case study

    5.10 Conclusions

    5.11 Exercises

    6. Utilities, heat and power systems

    6.1 Concepts

    6.2 Combined heat and power systems

    6.3 Heat pumps and refrigeration systems

    6.4 Total site analysis

    6.5 Worked example – organics distillation unit

    6.6 Worked case study and example for total site problem table algorithm

    6.7 Case studies and examples

    6.8 Exercises

    7. Process change and evolution

    7.1 Concepts

    7.2 General principles

    7.3 Reactor systems

    7.4 Distillation columns

    7.5 Evaporator systems

    7.6 Flash systems

    7.7 Solids drying

    7.8 Other separation methods

    7.9 Application to the organics distillation process case study

    7.10 Summary and conclusions

    7.11 Exercises

    8. Batch and time-dependent processes

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Concepts

    8.3 Types of streams in batch processes

    8.4 Time intervals

    8.5 Calculating energy targets

    8.6 Heat exchanger network design

    8.7 Rescheduling

    8.8 Debottlenecking

    8.9 Other time-dependent applications

    8.10 Conclusions

    9. Water, hydrogen, and carbon pinch

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Concepts

    9.3 Key steps in mass pinch analysis

    9.4 Application and case study for water pinch analysis (Glove Industry)

    9.5 Application and case study for hydrogen pinch analysis

    9.6 Conclusions for water and hydrogen pinch analysis

    9.7 Carbon pinch

    10. Applying the technology in practice

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 How to do a pinch study

    10.3 Heat and mass balance

    10.4 Stream data extraction

    10.5 Targeting and network design

    10.6 Project evaluation and costing

    10.7 Targeting software

    10.8 Exercises

    11. Industrial experience

    11.1 Overview

    11.2 Oil refining

    11.3 Bulk chemicals – continuous

    11.4 Speciality and batch chemicals and pharmaceuticals

    11.5 Pulp and paper

    11.6 Food and beverage

    11.7 Consumer products and textiles

    11.8 Minerals and metals

    11.9 Heat and power utilities

    11.10 Buildings

    11.11 Waste processing and sewage

    12. Case studies

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Crude preheat train

    12.3 Aromatics plant

    12.4 Evaporator/dryer plant

    12.5 Organic chemicals manufacturing site

    12.6 Food processing plant

    12.7 Hospital site

    12.8 Conclusions

    12.9 Exercises

    13. Conclusions


    Further reading

    Appendix 1. Using the spreadsheet software

    Appendix 2. Answers to selected exercises


Product details

  • No. of pages: 566
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2020
  • Published: August 5, 2020
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081025376
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081025369

About the Authors

Ian C. Kemp

Ian Kemp has over 30 years of experience in pinch analysis and process energy reduction, including consultancy, R&D, and technical writing. He was a principal technologist at AEA Technology, Harwell, and a scientific leader at GSK. He received the IChemE Junior Moulton Medal in 1989 for his paper on Batch Process Integration and the IChemE Brennan Medal in 2007 for the second edition of this book. His specialties include solids processing, particularly of pharmaceuticals, and drying processes, including spray drying, fluid bed drying and granulation, and dryer selection and troubleshooting, as well as energy reduction, sustainability, and pinch analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Consultant, UK

Jeng Shiun Lim

Dr. Jeng Shiun Lim is a researcher in Process Systems Engineering Center (PROSPECT) and Research Institute of Sustainable Environment (RISE). His specialties include energy management and energy planning for greenhouse gas emissions reduction and resource conservation and planning via systematic techniques (pinch analysis, mathematical modelling, and optimization). He has published 45 ISI and 37 Scopus indexed articles to date. He has been extensively involved in research projects and industrial-based projects to assist those companies identifying energy saving opportunities worth millions of dollars through the use of process integration and process systems engineering approach.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

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