Piezoelectric Ceramics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123795502, 9780323155687

Piezoelectric Ceramics

1st Edition

Authors: Bernard Jaffe
eBook ISBN: 9780323155687
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 328
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Description

Piezoelectric Ceramics focuses on the relationship between piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity as they apply to ceramics, taking into consideration the properties of materials that are being used and possibly be used in the industries. Composed of 12 chapters, the book starts by tracing the history of piezoelectricity and how this affects ceramics. The different measurement techniques are discussed, including dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric measurements. The book proceeds by discussing Perovskite structure and barium titanate. Covered areas include electric field, piezoelectric properties, particle size effect, and dielectric strength. The properties, compositions, and reactions of various perovskites are discussed. Numerical analyses are presented in this regard. The book also offers interpretations of the experiments conducted. The discussions end with the processes involved in the manufacture and applications of piezoelectric ceramics. Concerns in manufacturing include calcination, grinding, mixing, electroding, firing, and quality control. Piezolectric ceramics are applied in air transducers, instrument transducers, delay line transducers, underwater sound ultrasonic power, and wave filters. The book is important for readers interested in doing research on ceramics.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Historical Introduction

Chapter 2. The Piezoelectric Effect in Ceramics

A. Definitions of Terms and Symbols

B. Symmetry and Equations of State of the Piezo-electric Effect in Ceramics

Chapter 3. Measurement Techniques

A. Scope of Measurements

B. Dielectric Measurements

C. Piezoelectric Measurements

D. Ferroelectric Polarization

E. Evaluation of Evidence for Ferroelectricity

Chapter 4. The Perovskite Structure

Chapter 5. Barium Titanate

A. Crystal Structure

B. Chemistry

C. Microstructure and Domains

D. Dielectric Properties

E. Effect of Electric Field

F. Piezoelectric Properties

G. Aging and Creep

H. Particle Size Effects

I. Pyroelectric Effect

J. Dielectric Strength

K. Irradiation and Darkening

L. Compositional Modification

Chapter 6. Properties of PbTiO3, PbZrO3, PbSnO3 and PbHfO3 Plain and Modified

A. PbTiO3

B. PbZrO3

C. PbSnO3

D. PbHfO3

Chapter 7. Solid Solutions of Pb(Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf)O3

A. Pb(Ti, Zr)O3

B. Related Systems with Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

C. Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Pb(Zr, Sn,Ti)O3 Compositions High in Zr+4

D. Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Compositions containing Hf+4

Chapter 8. Perovskite Niobates and Tantalates and other Ferroelectric and Antiferroelectric Perovskites

A. Potassium and Sodium Niobates and Tantalates

B. Other Perovskite Niobates and Tantalates

C. Miscellaneous Perovskites

Chapter 9. Non-Perovskite Oxide Piezoelectrics and Ferroelectrics

A. AxB2O6 Compounds with Potassium Tungsten Bronze Structure

B. Pyrochlore ferroelectrics

C. Bismuth Layer Structures

D. LiNbO3 and LiTaO3

E. Rare Earth Manganates

F. Other Ferroelectric Oxides

G. Questionable Ferroelectrics

Chapter 10. Interpretation of some Experimental Results

A. Explanation of Conduction Processes in Ferroelectric Ceramics

B. The Role of Defects and Diffusion in Reaction and Sintering

C. Phenomena at Phase Boundaries

Chapter 11. Manufacture of Piezoelectric Ceramics

A. Raw Materials

B. Raw Material Evaluation

C. Mixing

D. Calcination

E. Grinding

F. Wet Methods

G. Forming Methods

H. Firing

I. Texture of Fired Ceramics

J. Dimensioning and Finishing

K. Electroding

L. Poling

M. Reproducibility and Quality Control

Chapter 12. Applications of Piezoelectric Ceramics

A. The Situation in General

B. Phonograph Pickups

C. Air Transducers

D. Instrument Transducers

E. Underwater Sound and Ultrasonic Power

F. Delay Line Transducers

G. Wave Filters

H. High Voltage Sources

Appendix A. IRE Standards on Piezoelectric Crystals: Measurements of Piezoelectric Ceramics 1961

A. Classification of Phenomena

B. Measurement Methods

C. Response to Large Signals

D. Pyroelectric Effects

E. Aging

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
328
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323155687

About the Author

Bernard Jaffe