Phytoremediation Technology for the Removal of Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants from Soil and Water

Phytoremediation Technology for the Removal of Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants from Soil and Water

1st Edition - February 7, 2022

Write a review

  • Editors: Vineet Kumar, Maulin Shah, Sushil Shahi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885485
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323857635

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF, EPub)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Phytoremediation Technology for the Removal of Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants from Soil and Water focuses on the exploitation of plants and their associated microbes as a tool to degrade/detoxify/stabilize toxic and hazardous contaminants and restore the contaminated site. The book introduces various phytoremediation technologies using an array of plants and their associated microbes for environmental cleanup and sustainable development. The book mainly focuses on the remediation of toxic and hazardous environmental contaminants, their phytoremediation mechanisms and strategies, advances and challenges in the current scenario. This book is intended to appeal to students, researchers, scientists and a wide range of professionals responsible for regulating, monitoring and designing industrial waste facilities. Engineering consultants, industrial waste managers and purchasing department managers, government regulators, and graduate students will also find this book invaluable.

Key Features

  • Provides natural and eco-friendly solutions to deal with the problem of pollution
  • Details underlying mechanisms of phytoremediation of organic and inorganic contaminants with enzymatic roles
  • Describes numerous, successful field studies on the application of phytoremediation for eco-restoration of contaminated sites
  • Presents recent advances and challenges in phytoremediation research and applications for sustainable development
  • Provides authoritative contributions on the diverse aspects of phytoremediation by world leading experts


Researchers, Environmentalists, Microbiologists and Biotechnologists, Environmental Engineers, Waste Treatment Engineers and Managers, Environmental Health and Risk Scientists, Environmental Chemists and Scientists. Environmental Science Managers, Administrators, and Policy Makers, Environmental Consultants, Industry Persons

Table of Contents

  • Cover Image
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 Phytoremediation and environmental bioremediation
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Constructed wetlands as phytoremediation tool of wastewater
  • 1.3 Design criteria and calculations
  • 1.4 Metal removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands
  • 1.5 Case studies
  • 1.6 Phytoremediation and environmental bioremediation in other areas
  • 1.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Phytoremediation: The ultimate technique for reinstating soil contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Attributes of soil in relation to pollution/contamination
  • 2.3 Sources of soil and water contamination and their consequences
  • 2.4 Different types of pollutants and their fate in the soil and soil ecosystem
  • 2.5 Different cleaning techniques and their shortcomings
  • 2.6 Components of phytoremediation
  • 2.7 Hydraulic control
  • 2.8 Hyperaccumulating plants for different environments
  • 2.9 Enhancement of phytoremediation process
  • 2.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Phytoremediation: A sustainable green approach for environmental cleanup
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Phytoremediation as a cleanup technology
  • 3.3 The potential of phytoremediation
  • 3.4 Case of study
  • 3.5 Final considerations
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Recent developments in aquatic macrophytes for environmental pollution control: A case study on heavy metal removal from lake water and agricultural return wastewater with the use of duckweed (Lemnacea)
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Phytoremediation technology: an overview
  • 4.3 Phytoremediation of heavy metals
  • 4.4 Aquatic macrophytes for environmental pollution control
  • 4.5 Case study
  • 4.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Weed plants: A boon for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Heavy metals
  • 5.3 Categories of plants growing on metal contaminated soils
  • 5.4 Technologies for the reclamation of polluted soils
  • 5.5 Mechanism of phytoremediation
  • 5.6 Weeds
  • 5.7 Weed plants as phytoremediator
  • 5.8 Future of phytoremediation using weed plants
  • 5.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Oxidoreductase metalloenzymes as green catalyst for phytoremediation of environmental pollutants
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Phytoremediation
  • 6.3 Degradation of organic pollutants by phytoremediation
  • 6.4 Oxidoreductase enzymes in phytoremediation of organic pollutants
  • 6.5 Transgenic plants used in phytoremediation of organic pollutants
  • 6.6 Phytoremediation of dyes and effluents mediated by plant oxidoreductase
  • 6.7 Heavy metal detoxification by phytoremediation
  • 6.8 Role of phytochelatin and metallothioneine in plant metallic stress
  • 6.9 Role of antioxidant enzymes against plant metallic stress
  • 6.10 Transgenic plants in the phytoremediation of heavy metals
  • 6.11 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Phytoextraction of heavy metals: Challenges and opportunities
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Phytoremediation: a sustainable green approach for environmental issues
  • 7.3 Phytoextraction: promising strategy to remediate heavy metal pollution
  • 7.4 Challenges associated with phytoextraction process
  • 7.5 Advancements in phytoextraction technique
  • 7.6 Conclusion
  • Reference
  • Chapter 8 Potential and prospects of weed plants in phytoremediation and eco-restoration of heavy metals polluted sites
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Phytoremediation: a green technology
  • 8.3 Eco-restoration of metal-polluted sites
  • 8.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Biochemical and molecular aspects of heavy metal stress tolerance in plants
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Mechanism of heavy metal tolerance
  • 9.3 Role of metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance
  • 9.4 Heavy metal tolerance
  • 9.5 Toxicity and heavy metal resistance in plants
  • 9.6 Heavy metal deposition molecular pathway in plants
  • 9.7 Conclusion and future scope
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Monitoring the process of phytoremediation of heavy metals using spectral reflectance and remote sensing
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Arsenic and chromium contamination
  • 10.3 Spectral reflectance and remote sensing
  • 10.4 Uptake and accumulation of As and Cr in fern
  • 10.5 Uptake and accumulation of Cr in mustard
  • 10.6 Internal structural changes of fern
  • 10.7 Heavy metal-induced structural changes in mustard
  • 10.8 Plant spectral reflectance
  • 10.9 Spectral reflectance of brake fern
  • 10.10 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Phytostabilization of metal mine tailings—a green remediation technology
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Impact of mine tailing on environmental
  • 11.3 Phyotostabilization of mine tailings
  • 11.4 Phytomining of mine tailing
  • 11.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Phytoremediation of heavy metals, metalloids, and radionuclides: Prospects and challenges
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Special characteristics of phytoremediating plants
  • 12.3 Various mechanisms for removal of heavy metal metalloids and radionuclides
  • 12.4 Methods for enhancing phytoremediation capabilities
  • 12.5 Genetic engineering
  • 12.6 Utilization of microbes for improving performance of plant
  • 12.7 Challenges associated with phytoremediation strategies
  • 12.8 Conclusion and future prospects
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Phytoremediation of metal: Lithium
  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Materials and methods
  • 13.3 Results and discussion
  • 13.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Aquatic macrophytes for environmental pollution control
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Macrophytes
  • 14.3 Free-floating macrophytes
  • 14.4 Submerged macrophytes
  • 14.5 Emergent macrophytes
  • 14.6 Sources of aquatic pollutants and their effects
  • 14.7 Pesticides and fertilizers
  • 14.8 Heavy metal pollution
  • 14.9 Phytoremediation: a green and an eco-friendly technology
  • 14.10 Phytofiltration (Rhizofilration)
  • 14.11 Potential role of macrophytes for environmental pollution control
  • 14.12 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Role of rhizobacteria from plant growth promoter to bioremediator
  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Characteristics of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
  • 15.3 Influence of different bacterial species on rhizobacteria plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria activity
  • 15.4 Mechanism of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
  • 15.5 Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as bioremediators
  • 15.6 Potential role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in stress management
  • 15.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Role of nanomaterials in phytoremediation of tainted soil
  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Nanotechnology in soil remediation
  • 16.3 Phytoremediation and contaminant removal
  • 16.4 Nanomaterial facilitated phytoremediation and contaminant removal
  • 16.5 Conclusion and future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Green technology: Phytoremediation for pesticide pollution
  • Abstract
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Classification of pesticides
  • 17.3 Hazardous impact of obsolete pesticides
  • 17.4 Salient features of green technology
  • 17.5 Process of phytoremediation in pesticide removal
  • 17.6 Antioxidant defense: a key mechanism of pesticide tolerance and phytoremediation
  • 17.7 Roles of transgenic plants in pesticide detoxification
  • 17.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants: Concept challenges and perspectives
  • Abstract
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 History, sources, and classification of persistent organic pollutants
  • 18.3 Phytoremediation
  • 18.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons phytoremediation
  • 18.5 Conclusion and prospective
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Gene mediated phytodetoxification of environmental pollutants
  • Abstract
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Heavy metals as major soil contaminants
  • 19.3 Plant strategies in phytoremediation of heavy metals
  • 19.4 Hyperaccumulator plants with their characteristics and mechanism of action
  • 19.5 Mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation, tolerance, and detoxification in plants
  • 19.6 Phytoremediation with transgenics
  • 19.7 Increasing bioavailability of heavy metals
  • 19.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Nano-phytoremediation technology in environmental remediation
  • Abstract
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Nano-phytoremediation technology for pesticides hazards
  • 20.3 Nano-phytoremediation of contaminated soil
  • 20.4 Nano-phytoremediation for heavy metal contamination
  • 20.5 Nano-phytoremediation for water contamination
  • 20.6 Nano-phytoremediation bioenergy crops
  • 20.7 Conclusion and future prospective
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Nanophytoremediation technology: A better approach for environmental remediation of toxic metals and dyes from water
  • Abstract
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Sources of contamination in water
  • 21.3 Conventional treatment for removal of metals and dyes from waste water
  • 21.4 Nanophytoremediation and its advantages
  • 21.5 Different strategies for detection and removal of metals and dyes from water
  • 21.6 Toxicity and environmental impact of nanophytoremediation
  • 21.7 Limitations and future prospects
  • 21.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Constructed wetlands plant treatment system: An eco-sustainable phytotechnology for treatment and recycling of hazardous wastewater
  • Abstract
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Wastewater from metallurgical industries
  • 22.3 Sanitary effluents of a pet-care center
  • 22.4 Fertilizer factory wastewater
  • 22.5 Landfill leachate
  • 22.6 Recycled paper industry
  • 22.7 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Ecological aspects of aquatic macrophytes for environmental pollution control: An eco-remedial approach
  • Abstract
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Macrophytes: From adverse effects to environmental solution
  • 23.3 Macrophytes and the contaminated environment: Discriminating between bioindication and phytoremediation
  • 23.4 Phytoremediation mechanisms related to macrophytes
  • 23.5 Nanoparticles: A potential contaminant and the role of macrophytes in its phytoremediation
  • 23.6 Spectroscopic methods in monitoring and evaluation: investigation to understand the interaction between macrophytes and the environment
  • 23.7 Macrophytes as a biological model: Chlorophyll-a fluorescence technique for detecting stress due to environmental contamination
  • 23.8 Electrochemical sensors applied to the study of aquatic phytoremediation by macrophytes
  • 23.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Phytoremediation of trace elements from paper mill wastewater with Pistia stratiotes L.: Metal accumulation and antioxidant response
  • Abstract
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Materials and methods
  • 24.3 Results
  • 24.4 Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil: Present status, challenges, and opportunities
  • Abstract
  • 25.1 Remediation of contaminated soil
  • 25.2 Phytoremediation
  • 25.3 Electrokinetic remediation
  • 25.4 Coupled technology electrokinetics phytoremediation
  • 25.5 Influence of electrode configuration
  • 25.6 Impacts on soil properties and microbial community
  • 25.7 Patents and applications
  • 25.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Microbes-assisted phytoremediation of contaminated environment: Global status, progress, challenges, and future prospects
  • Abstract
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Fundamentals concept of phytoremediation practices
  • 26.3 Microorganisms-assisted phytoremediation: An optimistic tools for remediation of environmental pollutants
  • 26.4 Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria assisted phytoremediation
  • 26.5 Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants
  • 26.6 Genetically modified microbe-assisted phytoremediation
  • 26.7 Microbe-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal
  • 26.8 Microbe-assisted phytoremediation of agricultural chemicals: Herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers
  • 26.9 Microbe-assisted phytoremediation of petroleum and aromatic compounds
  • 26.10 Worldwide emerging issues and challenges in microbe-assisted phytoremediation
  • References
  • Chapter 27 Electricity production and the analysis of the anode microbial community in a constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell
  • Abstract
  • 27.1 Introduction of constructed wetland microbial fuel cell
  • 27.2 Power generation performance and its influencing factors of CW-MFC
  • 27.3 Analysis of microbial community structure in anode of CW-MFC
  • 27.4 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Phytocapping technology for sustainable management of contaminated sites: case studies, challenges, and future prospects
  • Abstract
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Phytocapping
  • 28.3 Mechanism and strategy of phytocapping
  • 28.4 Case studies
  • 28.5 Opportunities, challenges, and future aspects
  • 28.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 664
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: February 7, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323885485
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323857635

About the Editors

Vineet Kumar

Vineet Kumar is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Botany at Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (GGV), Bilaspur, India and teaches Environmental Microbiology and Cell and Molecular Biology at the same Institution. Before his joining, he worked as Assistant Professor and Academic Coordinator at the Vinayak Vidyapeeth, Meerut, India. Kumar received M.Sc. and M.Phil. degree in Microbiology from Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, India. He earned his Ph.D. in Environmental Microbiology from Babasaheb Bhimaro Ambedkar (A Central) University, Lucknow, India and later worked at the Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow, India as a Guest Faculty. He was a Senior Researcher in the School of Environmental Sciences at Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India and worked on biodiesel production from oleaginous microbes and industrial sludge. He awarded a Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship by the University Grants Commission, India to support his doctoral work on “Distillery Wastewater Treatment” in 2012. His research interests include Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, Metagenomics, Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Monitoring, and Bioenergy and Biofuel Production. Currently, his research mainly focuses on the development of integrated and sustainable methods that can help in minimizing or eliminating hazardous substances in the environment. He is the author of numerous research/review articles published in international peer-reviewed journals from Springer Nature, Frontiers, and Elsevier on the different aspects of bioremediation, phytoremediation, and metagenomics of industrial waste polluted sites. In addition, he has published 10 Books on Phytoremediation and Bioremediation from CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), and Elsevier Inc., USA. His recently published books are ‘Recent Advances in Distillery Waste Management for Environmental Safety’ (From CRC Press; Taylor & Francis Group, USA), and ‘New Trends In Removal Of Heavy Metals From Industrial Wastewater’ (From Elsevier Inc. USA), Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants: Recent Advances and Challenges (from CRC Press; Taylor & Francis Group, USA). He is also a reviewer for many other international journals. He is an active member of numerous scientific societies and has served on the editorial board of the journal Current Research in Wastewater Management. As part of his interest in teaching biology, he is founder of the Society for Green Environment, India (website: He can be reached at;

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Environmental Microbiology (DEM), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, India

Maulin Shah

Dr. Maulin P. Shah is a microbiologist with a wide range of research interests. Under his supervision, a group of research scholars is working on Applied Microbiology, Environmental Biotechnology, Bioremediation, and Industrial Liquid Waste Management, as well as solid state fermentation. His primary research interest includes the environment, the quality of our living resources, and how bacteria can aid in the management and degradation of toxic wastes and the restoration of environmental health

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Environmental Microbiology Lab, Gujarat, India

Sushil Shahi

Dr. Sushil Kr. Shahi is currently working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences at Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh, India. He has obtained his Ph.D. in 1998 from Allahabad University; Allahabad on Antimycotic studies of some plants (control of dermatophytoses in human beings’. After completion of his education he joined Allahabad University as a research scientist and worked up to 6 years and in 2004 he joined the JV College, Baraut as Lecturer in Microbiology for teaching and research. In 2007 he left the College and joined Ch. Charan Singh (CCS) University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India as Assistant Professor in Microbiology for teaching and research, after 7 years of servicing in CCS University he joined Guru Ghasidas University as Associate Professor in Botany on 2013. He has the experience of 25 years in teaching and research in herbal technology, herbal antimicrobials, Environmental microbial technology and nano-biotechnology, IPR. He has published more than 56 original research articles in various reputed national and international journals. He has published 08 books from CRC Press, USA, CBS Publisher India. He has been awarded a Fellow of various national level scientific societies viz., Indian Botanical Society, Indian Phytopathological Society, Indian Society of Plant Pathologist, International Young Scientist Association. He has developed herbal medicine for the control of dermatophytosis and onchycomycosis, tinea in animal and human beings; he has also developed various microbial and herbal formulations for the control of plant disease. Some products are as follows: PROTECTON (Post harvest spoilage in fruits (apple and Grapes), NAILGUARD (Onchomycosis (fungal nail infection), PESTOBAN (Herbal pesticide for post harvested food grains), SKINPRO (Dermatophytosis). He obtained Patent on some herbal product for the control of fungal disease in humans in USA, UK, Japan and India: Presently he is trying to develop some eco-friendly technology as microbial based fuel, biodegradable polythene, bioremediation of toxic pollutant from environment.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh, India

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

Latest reviews

(Total rating for all reviews)

  • Wilgince A. Sat Oct 23 2021

    Excellent Book!

    Thank you to all the authors of this Book.