Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures

Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures

1st Edition - June 28, 1988

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  • Editor: Indra K. Vasil
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144070

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Description

Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, Volume 5: Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures provides comprehensive coverage of the wide variety of laboratory procedures used in plant cell culture, fundamental aspects of cell growth and nutrition, and plant regeneration and variability. This book consists of five main topics—phenylpropanoids, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones; mevalonates; alkaloids; glucosinolates, polyacetylenes, and lipids; and biologically active compounds. This publication specifically discusses the coumarins in crown gall tumors, natural occurrence of bufadienolides, and accumulation of protoberberine alkaloids. The flavor production in tissue cultures of allium species and callus cultures derived from carrot root explants is also reviewed. This volume is valuable to experienced researchers and those newly entering the field of plant cell and tissue culture.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    General Preface

    Preface

    Contents of Previous Volumes

    Part I Phenylpropanoids, Naphthoquinones, and Anthraquinones

    1 Coumarins and Furanocoumarins

    I. Introduction

    II. Coumarins in Crown Gall Tumors

    III. Constitutive Coumarins

    IV. Induced Coumarins

    V. Biosynthesis

    VI. Regulation of Biosynthesis

    VII. Physiological Significance

    References

    2 Flavonoids

    I. Introduction

    II. Major Classes of Flavonoids

    III. Advantages of Cell Cultures in Studies of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    IV. Flavonoids in Tissue and Cell Cultures

    V. Turnover and Degradation

    VI. Concluding Remarks

    References

    3 Anthocyanins

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Anthocyanins

    III. Occurrence of Anthocyanins in Tissue and Cell Cultures

    IV. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

    V. Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tissue and Cell Cultures

    VI. Accumulation of Anthocyanins in the Central Vacuole

    References

    4 Proanthocyanidins and Catechins

    I. Occurrence

    II. Influence of Phytohormones

    III. Nutrients and Precursors

    IV. Effect of Illumination

    V. Effect of Polyamines

    VI. Biosynthesis

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    5 Tannins, Lignans, and Lignins

    I. Introduction

    II. Tannins

    III. Lignans

    IV. Lignins

    References

    6 Naphthoquinones

    I. Introduction

    II. Naphthoquinones in Cell Cultures

    III. Biosynthetic Pathways of Naphthoquinones

    IV. Intracellular Localization of Naphthoquinones

    V. Regulation of Naphthoquinone Production

    References

    7 Anthraquinones

    I. Introduction

    II. Quality of Anthraquinones in Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures

    III. Quantitative Aspects of Anthraquinone Occurrence

    IV. Biosynthesis

    References

    Part II Mevalonates

    8 Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes

    I. General

    II. Monoterpene Biosynthesis

    III. Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis

    IV. Biotransformations

    V. Special Techniques

    References

    9 Diterpenes

    I. Introduction

    II. Culture Techniques

    III. Chemical Analysis

    IV. Cytotoxic Analysis

    V. Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites

    VI. Biotransformation Experiments

    VII. Conclusions

    VIII. Studies in Other Laboratories

    References

    10 Bufadienolides

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Occurrence of Bufadienolides

    III. Tissue Culture for Production of Bufadienolides

    IV. Present Status of Tissue Culture of Plants Yielding Bufadienolides

    V. Conclusion

    References

    11 Cardenolides

    I. Cardenolides: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Significance

    II. Establishment of Digitalis Tissue Cultures

    III. Biosynthesis of Cardenolides in Digitalis Shoot Cultures

    IV. Biosynthesis of Cardenolides in Cultures of Somatic Digitalis Embryos

    V. Transformation of Cardenolides in Parenchyma-like Digitalis Cells

    VI. Is There a Future for the Biotechnological Production of Cardenolides by Digitalis Cell and Organ Cultures?

    References

    12 Saponins (Ginseng Saponins)

    I. Introduction

    II. Callus Induction and Selection

    III. Determination of Growth Ratio

    IV. Separation of Saponins

    V. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Saponins

    VI. Determination of Saponins

    VII. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Light on Saponin Production and Growth in Static Cultures

    VIII. Effect of Various Culture Conditions on Saponin Production and Growth in Suspension Cultures

    IX. Effect of Inhibitors and Precursors on Saponin Production

    X. Differentiation and Saponin Production

    XI. Hairy Root Culture and Saponin Production

    XII. Conclusion

    References

    Part III Alkaloids

    13 Phenylalkylamines (Ephedra Alkaloids)

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution

    III. Tissue Culture

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    14 Pyrrolidines, Piperidines, and Pyridines

    I. Introduction

    II. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Alkaloids

    III. Pyridine Alkaloids

    IV. Tobacco Alkaloids

    V. Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    15 Tropanes

    I. Introduction

    II. Material and Methods

    III. Results and Discussion

    IV. Summary

    References

    16 Quinolizidines and Pyrrolizidines

    I. Introduction

    II. Quinolizidine Alkaloids

    III. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    17 Isoquinolines

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Isoquinolines

    III. Chemotaxonomic Approach

    IV. Biotransformation and Biosynthesis

    V. Accumulation of Protoberberine Alkaloids

    VI. Immobilized Cells

    VII. Redifferentiated Plantlets and Alkaloids

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    18 Isoquinolines (Papaver Alkaloids)

    I. Introduction

    II. Factors that Promote the Production of Morphinan Alkaloids in Tissue Culture

    III. Biotransformations

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    19 Quinoline Alkaloids of Cinchona

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Culture Methods

    III. Analytical Methods

    IV. Alkaloid Production in Cinchona Tissue Cultures

    V. Biosynthetic Studies Using Cinchona Tissue Cultures

    VI. Prospects and Status

    References

    20 β-Carbolines and Indole Alkylamines

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Culture Systems

    III. Formation of Harman Alkaloids and Serotonin

    IV. Studies of Biosynthesis and Regulation

    V. A Biochemical Selection System

    VI. Outlook

    References

    21 Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids from Apocynaceae Other than Catharanthus roseus

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Types of Alkaloids

    III. Alkaloids from Cell Cultures

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    22 Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids (Catharanthus Alkaloids)

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Indole Alkaloids

    III. Instability of Cell Lines

    IV. Enzymology of Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    V. Enzymatic Synthesis of Vindoline and Dimeric Indole Alkaloids

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    23 Purines

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental

    III. Growth and Productivity

    IV. Biosynthetic Potential

    V. Stress-Induced Product Formation

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    24 Acridones (Ruta Alkaloids)

    I. Introduction

    II. Acridones in Tissue Cultures

    III. Acridone Patterns

    IV. Culture Conditions and Acridone Yield

    V. Elicitation of Acridone Epoxide Accumulation

    VI. Biosynthesis of Acridone Alkaloids

    VII. Acridone Alkaloid Localization

    References

    25 Terpenoid and Steroid Alkaloids

    I. Introduction

    II. Terpenoid Alkaloids

    III. Steroid Alkaloids

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    26 Betalains

    I. Introduction

    II. Betalain-Synthesizing Cell Cultures

    III. Factors and Conditions of Betalain Formation

    IV. Regulation of Betalain Biosynthesis

    V. Results of General Interest

    VI. Cell Cultures for Production of Food Dyes?

    VII. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Part IV Glucosinolates, Polyacetylenes, and Lipids

    27 Glucosinolates

    I. Introduction

    II. Plant Cell Cultures

    III. Analytical Methods

    IV. Culture Conditions

    V. Conclusions

    References

    28 Allium Compounds

    I. Introduction

    II. Flavor Production in Intact Plants of Allium Species

    III. Flavor Production in Tissue Cultures of Allium Species

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    29 Polyacetylenes

    I. Introduction

    II. Polyacetylenes in Tissue Cultures

    III. Growth Medium and Environmental Effects

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    30 Lipids

    I. Introduction

    II. Lipids in Plant Cell Cultures

    III. Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Turnover of Lipids in Plant Cell Cultures

    IV. Biotechnological Applications of Plant Cell Cultures

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Part V Biologically Active Compounds

    31 Insecticidal Phytochemicals

    I. Introduction

    II. Pyrethrins

    III. Nicotine

    IV. Rotenoids

    V. Phytoecdysones and Limonoids

    References

    32 Antitumor Compounds

    I. Introduction

    II. Methodology

    III. Antitumor Compounds in Cultured Plant Cells

    IV. Prospects

    References

    33 Flavors

    I. Introduction

    II. Herb Flavors

    III. Pungent Flavors

    IV. Beverage Flavors

    V. Conclusions

    References

    34 Phytohormones in Cell and Tissue Cultures

    I. Introduction

    II. Callus Cultures Derived from Carrot Root Explants

    III. Cultured Petiole Explants of Carrots

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 646
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: June 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144070

About the Editor

Indra K. Vasil

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