Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127150055, 9780323144070

Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures

1st Edition

Editors: Indra K. Vasil
eBook ISBN: 9780323144070
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1988
Page Count: 646
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Description

Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, Volume 5: Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Cultures provides comprehensive coverage of the wide variety of laboratory procedures used in plant cell culture, fundamental aspects of cell growth and nutrition, and plant regeneration and variability.

This book consists of five main topics—phenylpropanoids, naphthoquinones, and anthraquinones; mevalonates; alkaloids; glucosinolates, polyacetylenes, and lipids; and biologically active compounds. This publication specifically discusses the coumarins in crown gall tumors, natural occurrence of bufadienolides, and accumulation of protoberberine alkaloids. The flavor production in tissue cultures of allium species and callus cultures derived from carrot root explants is also reviewed.

This volume is valuable to experienced researchers and those newly entering the field of plant cell and tissue culture.

Table of Contents


Contributors

General Preface

Preface

Contents of Previous Volumes

Part I Phenylpropanoids, Naphthoquinones, and Anthraquinones

1 Coumarins and Furanocoumarins

I. Introduction

II. Coumarins in Crown Gall Tumors

III. Constitutive Coumarins

IV. Induced Coumarins

V. Biosynthesis

VI. Regulation of Biosynthesis

VII. Physiological Significance

References

2 Flavonoids

I. Introduction

II. Major Classes of Flavonoids

III. Advantages of Cell Cultures in Studies of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

IV. Flavonoids in Tissue and Cell Cultures

V. Turnover and Degradation

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

3 Anthocyanins

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Anthocyanins

III. Occurrence of Anthocyanins in Tissue and Cell Cultures

IV. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins

V. Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tissue and Cell Cultures

VI. Accumulation of Anthocyanins in the Central Vacuole

References

4 Proanthocyanidins and Catechins

I. Occurrence

II. Influence of Phytohormones

III. Nutrients and Precursors

IV. Effect of Illumination

V. Effect of Polyamines

VI. Biosynthesis

VII. Conclusions

References

5 Tannins, Lignans, and Lignins

I. Introduction

II. Tannins

III. Lignans

IV. Lignins

References

6 Naphthoquinones

I. Introduction

II. Naphthoquinones in Cell Cultures

III. Biosynthetic Pathways of Naphthoquinones

IV. Intracellular Localization of Naphthoquinones

V. Regulation of Naphthoquinone Production

References

7 Anthraquinones

I. Introduction

II. Quality of Anthraquinones in Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures

III. Quantitative Aspects of Anthraquinone Occurrence

IV. Biosynthesis

References

Part II Mevalonates

8 Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes

I. General

II. Monoterpene Biosynthesis

III. Sesquiterpene Biosynthesis

IV. Biotransformations

V. Special Techniques

References

9 Diterpenes

I. Introduction

II. Culture Techniques

III. Chemical Analysis

IV. Cytotoxic Analysis

V. Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites

VI. Biotransformation Experiments

VII. Conclusions

VIII. Studies in Other Laboratories

References

10 Bufadienolides

I. Introduction

II. Natural Occurrence of Bufadienolides

III. Tissue Culture for Production of Bufadienolides

IV. Present Status of Tissue Culture of Plants Yielding Bufadienolides

V. Conclusion

References

11 Cardenolides

I. Cardenolides: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Significance

II. Establishment of Digitalis Tissue Cultures

III. Biosynthesis of Cardenolides in Digitalis Shoot Cultures

IV. Biosynthesis of Cardenolides in Cultures of Somatic Digitalis Embryos

V. Transformation of Cardenolides in Parenchyma-like Digitalis Cells

VI. Is There a Future for the Biotechnological Production of Cardenolides by Digitalis Cell and Organ Cultures?

References

12 Saponins (Ginseng Saponins)

I. Introduction

II. Callus Induction and Selection

III. Determination of Growth Ratio

IV. Separation of Saponins

V. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Saponins

VI. Determination of Saponins

VII. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Light on Saponin Production and Growth in Static Cultures

VIII. Effect of Various Culture Conditions on Saponin Production and Growth in Suspension Cultures

IX. Effect of Inhibitors and Precursors on Saponin Production

X. Differentiation and Saponin Production

XI. Hairy Root Culture and Saponin Production

XII. Conclusion

References

Part III Alkaloids

13 Phenylalkylamines (Ephedra Alkaloids)

I. Introduction

II. Distribution

III. Tissue Culture

IV. Conclusion

References

14 Pyrrolidines, Piperidines, and Pyridines

I. Introduction

II. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Alkaloids

III. Pyridine Alkaloids

IV. Tobacco Alkaloids

V. Conclusions and Perspectives

References

15 Tropanes

I. Introduction

II. Material and Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Summary

References

16 Quinolizidines and Pyrrolizidines

I. Introduction

II. Quinolizidine Alkaloids

III. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

IV. Conclusion

References

17 Isoquinolines

I. Introduction

II. Production of Isoquinolines

III. Chemotaxonomic Approach

IV. Biotransformation and Biosynthesis

V. Accumulation of Protoberberine Alkaloids

VI. Immobilized Cells

VII. Redifferentiated Plantlets and Alkaloids

VIII. Conclusions

References

18 Isoquinolines (Papaver Alkaloids)

I. Introduction

II. Factors that Promote the Production of Morphinan Alkaloids in Tissue Culture

III. Biotransformations

IV. Conclusions

References

19 Quinoline Alkaloids of Cinchona

I. Introduction

II. Cell Culture Methods

III. Analytical Methods

IV. Alkaloid Production in Cinchona Tissue Cultures

V. Biosynthetic Studies Using Cinchona Tissue Cultures

VI. Prospects and Status

References

20 β-Carbolines and Indole Alkylamines

I. Introduction

II. Cell Culture Systems

III. Formation of Harman Alkaloids and Serotonin

IV. Studies of Biosynthesis and Regulation

V. A Biochemical Selection System

VI. Outlook

References

21 Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids from Apocynaceae Other than Catharanthus roseus

I. Introduction

II. Structural Types of Alkaloids

III. Alkaloids from Cell Cultures

IV. Conclusions

References

22 Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids (Catharanthus Alkaloids)

I. Introduction

II. Production of Indole Alkaloids

III. Instability of Cell Lines

IV. Enzymology of Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis

V. Enzymatic Synthesis of Vindoline and Dimeric Indole Alkaloids

VI. Conclusions

References

23 Purines

I. Introduction

II. Experimental

III. Growth and Productivity

IV. Biosynthetic Potential

V. Stress-Induced Product Formation

VI. Conclusions

References

24 Acridones (Ruta Alkaloids)

I. Introduction

II. Acridones in Tissue Cultures

III. Acridone Patterns

IV. Culture Conditions and Acridone Yield

V. Elicitation of Acridone Epoxide Accumulation

VI. Biosynthesis of Acridone Alkaloids

VII. Acridone Alkaloid Localization

References

25 Terpenoid and Steroid Alkaloids

I. Introduction

II. Terpenoid Alkaloids

III. Steroid Alkaloids

IV. Conclusions

References

26 Betalains

I. Introduction

II. Betalain-Synthesizing Cell Cultures

III. Factors and Conditions of Betalain Formation

IV. Regulation of Betalain Biosynthesis

V. Results of General Interest

VI. Cell Cultures for Production of Food Dyes?

VII. Concluding Remarks

References

Part IV Glucosinolates, Polyacetylenes, and Lipids

27 Glucosinolates

I. Introduction

II. Plant Cell Cultures

III. Analytical Methods

IV. Culture Conditions

V. Conclusions

References

28 Allium Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Flavor Production in Intact Plants of Allium Species

III. Flavor Production in Tissue Cultures of Allium Species

IV. Conclusions

References

29 Polyacetylenes

I. Introduction

II. Polyacetylenes in Tissue Cultures

III. Growth Medium and Environmental Effects

IV. Conclusions

References

30 Lipids

I. Introduction

II. Lipids in Plant Cell Cultures

III. Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Turnover of Lipids in Plant Cell Cultures

IV. Biotechnological Applications of Plant Cell Cultures

V. Conclusions

References

Part V Biologically Active Compounds

31 Insecticidal Phytochemicals

I. Introduction

II. Pyrethrins

III. Nicotine

IV. Rotenoids

V. Phytoecdysones and Limonoids

References

32 Antitumor Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. Antitumor Compounds in Cultured Plant Cells

IV. Prospects

References

33 Flavors

I. Introduction

II. Herb Flavors

III. Pungent Flavors

IV. Beverage Flavors

V. Conclusions

References

34 Phytohormones in Cell and Tissue Cultures

I. Introduction

II. Callus Cultures Derived from Carrot Root Explants

III. Cultured Petiole Explants of Carrots

IV. Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
646
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1988
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323144070

About the Editor

Indra K. Vasil