Physiology of the Cladocera - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123969538, 9780123972347

Physiology of the Cladocera

1st Edition

Authors: Nikolai Smirnov
eBook ISBN: 9780123972347
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969538
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th October 2013
Page Count: 352
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Description

The Physiology of Cladocera is a much-needed summary of foundational information on these increasingly important model organisms. This unique and valuable summary is based on the world's literature, including Russian research not widely available until now. It offers systematically arranged data on the physiology of Cladocera, assisting with explanation of their life and distribution, as well as discussion on directions of future research. Special expert contributions in genetics, immunology, and cytology round out the physiological chapters and provide comprehensive insight into the state of knowledge of Cladocera and its underlying mechanisms.

Cladocera crustaceans make up a significant part of the natural communities and biological productivity of fresh waters. In recent decades, they have become globally studied for many purposes, including systematics, genetic, molecular, ecological and evolutionary biology studies. They are also used as "sentinel" organisms for assessing water quality and the environment. In addition, the genome of Daphnia (a genus within Cladocera) was recently sequenced and published, giving this system a much wider exposure. It has also led to a rapidly growing awareness of the importance of understanding physiological processes as they relate to evolutionary and ecological genomics and ecogenomic toxicology.

Despite the increasing use of Cladocera in research and study, physiological background information on these creatures is fragmentary. Hundreds of unconnected publications have been accumulated on their physiology, and a synthesis and general representation of the literature has been much needed for the many researchers working with this organism. The Physiology of Cladocera stands alone as a valuable and comprehensive offering in this area for many researchers and students.

Key Features

  • Collects and synthesizes from the worldwide literature the state of knowledge of cladoceran physiology
  • Forward-looking perspective incorporates information from the emerging technological worlds of genomics, cytology, chemical communication, and immunology
  • Provides foundational information on Cladocera physiology for researchers in various fields, including conservation and evolutionary biology, genomics, ecology, ecotoxicology, and comparative physiology

Readership

Researchers in zoology, comparative physiology, and ecology; applied researchers in environmental monitoring, conservation biology and toxicology; university-level students and instructors in these areas

Table of Contents

Front-matter

Preface

Contributors

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. General

1.1 Systematic Position

1.2 General Morphological Background

1.3 Size and Weight Characteristics

Chapter 2. Methods

Chapter 3. Chemical Composition

3.1 Moisture Content and Calorific Value

3.2 Principal Organic Constituents

3.3 Xenobiotics in the Cladoceran Body

Chapter 4. Nutrition

4.1 Feeding

4.2 Feeding Characteristics

4.3 Digestion

4.4 Digestion of Particular Substances

4.5 Assimilation

4.6 Starvation

4.7 Natural Toxicity

4.8 Impact of Xenobiotics on Digestion

Chapter 5. Respiration

5.1 Anatomical Background

5.2 Environmental Background

5.3 Oxygen Consumption

5.4 Hemoglobin and Iron

5.5 Evolution of Carbon Dioxide and the Respiratory Quotient

5.6 Energy Budget

5.7 Hypoxia

5.8 Anoxia

5.9 Impact of Xenobiotics on Respiration

Chapter 6. Circulation

6.1 Anatomical Background: Blood Cells

6.2 Blood Flow

6.3 Heart Rate

6.4 Heart Regulation

6.5 Heart Arrest

6.6 Adhesion of Blood Cells

6.7 Phagocytosis

6.8 Impact of Xenobiotics on Heart Rate

Chapter 7. Excretion

7.1 Anatomical Background

7.2 The Process of Excretion

7.3 Bioaccumulation of Toxic Substances

7.4 Transformation of Xenobiotics

7.5 The Routes of Elimination of Xenobiotics

Chapter 8. Osmotic Regulation

8.1 Potential Anatomical Background

8.2 Environmental Background

8.3 Water Balance: the Impermeability of Chitin to Water

8.4 Process of Osmotic Regulation

8.5 Effect of Xenobiotics on Osmotic Regulation

Chapter 9. Cell and Tissue Metabolism

9.1 Metabolism in Tissues

9.2 Effects of Xenobiotics on Cytology and Metabolic Factors

9.3 Detoxification

Chapter 10. Growth and Molting

10.1 Growth

10.2 Modification of Form

10.3 Impact of Xenobiotics on Morphology

10.4 Molting

10.5 Senescence

10.6 Impact of Xenobiotics on Life Span

Chapter 11. Reproduction

11.1 Anatomical Background

11.2 Cyclicity

11.3 Parthenogenetic Reproduction

11.4 Gamogenetic Reproduction: Diapause

11.5 Impact of Xenobiotics on Reproduction

11.6 Parasites and Parasitic Castration

Chapter 12. Locomotion

12.1 Anatomical Background

12.2 Environmental Background

12.3 Movement Trajectories

12.4 Muscle Physiology

12.5 Immobilization

12.6 Fatigue and Stress

12.7 Impact of Xenobiotics on Locomotion

Chapter 13. Nervous System and Sense Organs

13.1 Anatomical Background: Sense Organs

13.2 Neurosecretion

13.3 Sense Organs

13.4 Vision

13.5 Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

13.6 Chemoreception

13.7 Mechanoreception

13.8 Endogenous Rhythms of Activity

13.9 Effect of Xenobiotics

Chapter 14. Behavior

14.1 Differences in Behavior Among Species

14.2 Migration and Swarming

14.3 Emotional Reactions

14.4 Impact of Xenobiotics on Behavior

Chapter 15. Ecophysiology

15.1 Physiological Background of the Limits of Environmental Factors

15.2 Synergism and Antagonism Among Environmental Factors

15.3 Lipid Pathway from Algae Via Cladocera to Fish

15.4 Environmental Conditioning by Cladocera

15.5 The Impact of Extreme Limits of Environmental Factors and of Xenobiotics

15.6 Cladocera in Water Quality Testing

Chapter 16. A Cytological Perspective

16.1 Genome Size and Polyploidy

16.2 Cytogenetics

16.3 Endopolyploidy

16.4 Cytological Observations for Specific Tissues

16.5 Oogenesis

16.6 Concluding remarks

Chapter 17. Immunology and Immunity

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Preventing Infection

17.3 The Innate Immune System

17.4 Mechanisms to Limit the Severity of Infection

17.5 Evolution and Coevolution in Cladoceran-Parasite Systems

17.6 Linking Immunology to Immunity: Studies into Daphnia magna and Pasteuria ramosa

17.7 Summary

Chapter 18. The Genomics of Cladoceran Physiology

18.1 Introduction

18.2 A Long History of Research: The Pre-Genomics Era

18.3 Daphnia as a Model System for Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology

18.4 Daphnia’s Ecoresponsive Genome

18.5 The Genetic Basis of Physiological Plasticity: A Case Study

18.6 Hunting for Physiologically Relevant Genes and Regulatory Networks

18.7 Paleogenomics

18.8 Future Directions: Exploring Physiological Variation with Functional Genomics

Glossary Terms

Conclusions: Special Traits of Cladoceran Physiology

References

Index of Latin Names of Cladocera

Index of Chemical Substances

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
352
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123972347
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123969538

About the Author

Nikolai Smirnov

Nikolai N. Smirnov is Principal Scientist at the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in the Laboratory of Aquatic Communities and Invasions. His principal research interests include morphology, systematics, and other aspects of the biology of Cladocera, and he has had experience in this field for more than 40 years. He is the editor of the English-language edition of Journal of Ichthyology and head of the Advisory Committee for Arthropoda Selecta, and has traveled extensively across four continents conducting zoological research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia