Physiology of Plants and Their Cells - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080170367, 9781483151816

Physiology of Plants and Their Cells

1st Edition

Pergamon Biological Sciences Series

Authors: James A. Goss
Editors: Peter Gray
eBook ISBN: 9781483151816
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 474
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Description

Physiology of Plants and Their Cells is a 20-chapter book introducing the field of plant physiology. Plant physiology is generally a study of the living activity of the plant. This book begins by elucidating the value of plants to man, and describing the plant cells including its classification, structure, and nutrition. Subsequent chapters explain the role of water, minerals, and photosynthesis in plant physiology. Other topics on plants underlined in this book include energy storage, utilization, and loss; amino acid synthesis; metabolism; proteins; enzymes; phytochemistry; membranes; intercellular communication; growth; longevity; senescence; and death. Lastly, the relevance of plant physiology to contemporary problems facing mankind is explained. This book will be useful as a general reference for teachers and scientists interested in certain aspects of the field, as well as for students of biology and agriculture.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1 The Plant Cell and Its Nutrition

Values of Plants to Man

What is Plant Physiology?

The Living Cell

Cell Classification

Plant Cell Structure

Intracellular Transport

Cell Nutrition

Chapter 2 Water Enters the Plant

Soil Structure

Soil Profile

Soil Water

The Soil Solution

Water Potential

Plant Roots

Water Enters the Plant

Imbibition

Chapter 3 Distribution of Water within the Plant

Water Moves through the Root

Mechanisms of Water Movement

Lateral Water Movement

Water Moves into the Cell

Loss of Water from the Plant

Control of Water Loss

Extent of Water Loss

Plant Water Content

Chapter 4 The Functions of Water within the Plant

Properties of Water

Importance of Water to the Plant

How Water Functions

States of Water within the Plant

Drought Tolerance

Chapter 5 Mineral Nutrition of Plants

Plant Ash

The Mineral Nutrients

Entrance of Minerals into Plants

Theories of Ion Uptake

Loss of Minerals from Plants

Plant Culture Techniques

Uptake of Specific Ions

Chapter 6 Photosynthesis and Carbon Dioxide Fixation

Carbon Dioxide in the Environment

Carbon Dioxide Enters the Plant

Dark Fixation of Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide Fixation through Photosynthesis

Importance of Photosynthesis

Where Photosynthesis Occurs

Mechanism of Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation—Calvin Cycle

The C-4 Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway

How Photosynthesis is Measured

Extent of Photosynthesis

Factors which Alter Photosynthesis

Chapter 7 Photosynthesis and the Entrance of Energy into the Cell

Forms of Energy

Radiant Energy

Etiolation

Chlorophyll Synthesis

The Chloroplast

Control of Chlorophyll Synthesis

Chlorophyll Degradation

Other Chloroplast Pigments

Chloroplast Structure

The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis

The High Energy Reaction

The Phytochrome Reaction

Fungal Response to Light

Phototropism

Geotropism

Ultraviolet Radiation

Heat

Chapter 8 Energy Storage, Utilization, and Loss

Mechanisms of Metabolism

Energy Carriers

Respiration

Pathways of Respiration

Plant Mitochondria

Respiration Rate

The Climacteric

Heat

High Temperature Injuries

Thermoperiodicity

Chapter 9 Amino Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

The Mineral Nutrient Nitrogen

Available Forms of Nitrogen

Nitrate Assimilation

Entrance of Ammonia into Organic Compounds

Transamination

Structure of the Amino Acids

Sulfur as a Mineral Nutrient

The Entrance of Sulfate into the Plant

Sulfate Assimilation

Transulfuration

Glutathione

Functions of Amino Acids

Chapter 10 Plant Proteins

The Nucleic Acids

Protein Synthesis

Protein Classification

Proteins as Food

Protein Breakdown

Chapter 11 Plant Enzymes

The Structure of Enzymes

Isoenzymes

Mechanism of Enzyme Function

Enzyme Nomenclature

Enzyme Inhibition

Enzyme Location within the Cell

Enzyme Loss

Types of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

Chapter 12 The Regulation of Metabolism

Metabolic Regulation Defined

Regulation by Temperature

Regulation by Solar Radiation

Regulation by Endogenous Chemicals

Regulation by Substrate Concentration

Equilibria

Regulation by Internal Control Systems

Regulation by Enzyme Concentration

Chapter 13 Phytochemistry

Why Chemicals Accumulate

Metabolic Pools

Significance of Plant Chemicals

Storage Carbohydrates

Fat Storage

Secondary Plant Products—Waxes

Essential Oils

Glycosides

Cyanogenic Glycosides

Mustard Oil Glycosides

Saponins

Phenolic Glycosides

Phenolic Acids

Cinnamic Acids

Coumarin

Flavones

Flavonones

Flavonols

Anthocyanins

Anthochlors

Biflavonyls

Benzoquinones

Anthraquinones

Betalains

Betacyanins

Synthesis of Phenolic Glycosides

Alkaloids

Chapter 14 Plant Membranes and Their Permeability

Chemical Structure of the Membrane

Physical Structure of the Membrane

Origin of Plant Membranes

Membrane Functions

Environmental Control of Permeability

Mechanisms of Permeability

Chapter 15 Intercellular Communication

Rapid Communication

Translocation

Plasmodesmata

Auxin Translocation

Carbohydrate Transport

Nitrogen Translocation

Rate of Movement

Translocation Mechanisms

Chapter 16 Plant Growth: Cell Division

Plant Growth

Cell Division

Logarithmic Growth

Sigmoid Growth

Synchronized Division

The Cell Cycle

Plant Polyuronides

Cell Wall Formation

Plant Meristems

Control of Cell Division

Chapter 17 Plant Growth: Cell Enlargement

Sigmoid Growth Curve

Cell Enlargement

Water and Cell Enlargement

Cell Wall Polysaccharides

Polysaccharide Derivatives

Cell Wall Structure

Mechanism of Wall Expansion

Wall Hormones

Rates of Cell Enlargement

Time of Cell Enlargement

Patterns of Cell Enlargement

Cell Enlargement in Seeds

Seed Dormancy

Seed Germination

Physiology of Seed Germination

Fruit Growth

Chapter 18 Differentiation and Correlative Development

Constancy of DNA

Intercellular Differences

Differentiation in the Zygote

Embryo Development

Differentiation in Callus Tissue

Control of Growth Dimension

Correlative Development

Floral Initiation

Bud Dormancy

Anthesis

Vegetative Reproduction

Chapter 19 Longevity, Senescence, and Death

Longevity

Senescence

Fruit Ripening

Abscission

Delay of Senescence

Internal Causes of Senescence

Death

Chapter 20 The Relevance of Plant Physiology

Physiology of Crop Production

The Plant's Environment

Primary Factors

Plant Propagation

Plant Diseases

Abscission

Herbicides

Growth Inhibitors and Retardants

Allergies

Index


Details

No. of pages:
474
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1973
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483151816

About the Author

James A. Goss

About the Editor

Peter Gray