Physiology in Childbearing

Physiology in Childbearing

with Anatomy and Related Biosciences

4th Edition - February 14, 2017

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  • Author: Jean Rankin
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780702061882
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702065088

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Description

The new edition of Physiology in Childbearing with Anatomy and Related Biosciences continues to offer readers with a sound introduction to human biology as it relates to pregnancy and childbirth. The new edition retains the online question bank with downloadable image collection and is suitable for midwives – whether qualified or in training – throughout the world.

Key Features

  • Straightforward writing style helps demystify a challenging subject area
  • Applies theory to practice to show how a knowledge of the biological sciences can enhance the care given to mothers and babies
  • Designed to facilitate early recognition of pathology to help prevent morbidity and mortality
  • Ideal introduction to basic biochemistry, cellular biology and genetics for those who have no prior knowledge of the subject areas
  • Chapters on embryology help explain the occurrence of neonatal pathology
  • A ‘body systems approach’ – including embryological development – enables an understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy
  • Clear diagrams allow an understanding of the complex three-dimensional concepts seen in biology
  • Helpful pedagogy such as ‘Main Points’ boxes at the end of each chapter act as useful aide-memoires
  • Enhances the safety of mothers and babies, both in the developed world and those countries where the provision of adequate care remains limited

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Dedication
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Illustration Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Section 1: Preconception
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 1: Basic biochemistry
  • Introduction
  • Energy
  • The chemistry of living organisms
  • Chemical equilibrium
  • Composition of the human body
  • Chapter 2: The cell – its structures and function
  • Physical characteristics of mammalian cells
  • Cell size and shape
  • Cytoskeleton and cell motility
  • Epithelial cells
  • Cellular organization
  • Cell division
  • Chapter 3: Structure, organization and regulation of genes
  • Introduction
  • Composition of DNA
  • Chromosomes
  • Genes
  • From DNA to RNA to protein
  • Patterns of inheritance
  • Some inherited conditions
  • Chromosomal defects
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4: The female reproductive system
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the female reproductive tract
  • Cyclical control of reproduction
  • Chapter 5: The male reproductive system
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the male reproductive system
  • Hormonal control of male reproductive function
  • The physiology of sexual intercourse
  • Chapter 6: Fertility control
  • Introduction
  • The effectiveness of contraception
  • Physiological application of contraception
  • Future focus
  • Chapter 7: Infertility
  • Introduction
  • Defining infertility
  • The causes of male and female infertility
  • Male infertility
  • Female infertility
  • Reproductive technologies
  • Chapter 8: Preconception matters
  • Introduction
  • Prepregnancy care provision
  • The healthy gamete
  • General health care
  • Environmental issues
  • Section 2A: Pregnancy—The Fetus
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 9: General embryology
  • Introduction
  • Embryology
  • Gametogenesis
  • Fertilization
  • The embryo
  • Programming the embryo
  • Development of the embryo
  • Development of the germ layers
  • Chapter 10: Embryological systems 1—trunk, head and limbs
  • Introduction
  • The trunk
  • The skull
  • The brain
  • The spinal cord
  • Structures of the head and neck
  • The face
  • The ears
  • The eyes
  • The limbs
  • Chapter 11: Embryological systems 2—internal organs
  • Introduction
  • The cardiovascular system
  • The lower respiratory tract
  • The alimentary tract
  • The urinary and genital tracts
  • The reproductive system
  • Estimation of embryonic age
  • Chapter 12: The placenta, membranes and amniotic fluid
  • Introduction
  • Implantation
  • Development of the chorionic villi
  • The mature placenta
  • The placental circulation
  • Anatomical variations of the placenta
  • Functions of the placenta
  • Amniotic fluid
  • Chapter 13: Fetal growth and development
  • Introduction
  • The fetal period
  • Estimation of fetal age and assessment of fetal growth
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Chapter 14: Common fetal problems
  • Introduction
  • Intrauterine growth retardation
  • Rhesus isoimmunization and ABO incompatibility
  • Maternal infection in pregnancy
  • Chapter 15: Congenital anomalies
  • Introduction
  • General causes of congenital anomalies
  • Genetic causes
  • Multifactorial inheritance
  • Environmental factors
  • Prenatal screening for congenital anomalies
  • Conclusion
  • Section 2B: Pregnancy—The Mother
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 16: The haematological system—physiology of the blood
  • Blood as a tissue
  • Functions of blood
  • Constituents of blood
  • Plasma
  • The cellular components of blood
  • Iron metabolism
  • Folate metabolism
  • Blood groups
  • White cells
  • Platelets
  • Haemostasis
  • Maternal haematological adaptations to pregnancy
  • Chapter 17: The cardiovascular system
  • Introduction
  • Circulatory pathways
  • Anatomy of the heart
  • Physiology of the heart
  • Control of the heart rate
  • The vascular system
  • The physiology of circulation
  • Blood pressure
  • The formation of tissue fluid
  • Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
  • Chapter 18: Respiration
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the respiratory system
  • Physiology of the respiratory tract
  • The physiology of pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
  • Transport of gases around the body
  • Control of ventilation
  • Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
  • Chapter 19: The renal tract
  • Introduction
  • Kidney functions
  • Anatomy of the kidney
  • Renal function
  • The lower urinary tract
  • Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
  • Chapter 20: Fluid, electrolyte and acid–base balance
  • Introduction
  • Fluid and electrolytes
  • Acid–base balance
  • Maternal adaptations in childbearing
  • Chapter 21: The gastrointestinal tract
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Control of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Functions of the gastrointestinal tract
  • The mouth
  • The stomach
  • The small intestine
  • Absorption
  • The large intestine
  • Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
  • Chapter 22: The accessory digestive organs
  • Introduction
  • The salivary glands
  • The pancreas
  • The liver and gall bladder
  • The role of the liver in metabolism
  • Maternal adaptations to pregnancy
  • Pharmacokinetics and pregnancy
  • Chapter 23: Nutrition and metabolism during pregnancy
  • Introduction
  • Nutrition
  • Regulation of food intake and energy balance
  • Nutritional states
  • Maternal adaptation to pregnancy
  • Chapter 24: The nature of bone—the female pelvis and fetal skull
  • Introduction
  • The nature of bone: function and structure
  • The pelvic girdle
  • Maternal physiological adaptations in pregnancy
  • The fetal skull
  • Chapter 25: Muscle–the pelvic floor and the uterus
  • Introduction
  • Skeletal muscle
  • The pelvic floor
  • Smooth muscle
  • Uterine muscle during pregnancy
  • Chapter 26: The central nervous system
  • Introduction
  • Organization of the nervous system
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neurophysiology
  • The brain
  • The spinal cord
  • Adaptation to pregnancy
  • Chapter 27: The peripheral and autonomic nervous systems
  • The peripheral nervous system
  • Reflex activity
  • The autonomic nervous system
  • Chapter 28: The endocrine system
  • Introduction
  • The hypothalamus
  • Endocrine glands and hormones
  • The pituitary gland
  • The thyroid gland
  • The adrenal glands
  • The pineal gland
  • Chapter 29: The immune system
  • Introduction
  • Divisions of the immune system
  • Cells of the immune system
  • The immune response
  • Physiological changes in pregnancy
  • Immunology of the fetoplacental unit
  • Section 2C: Pregnancy–The Problems
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 30: Minor disorders of pregnancy
  • Introduction
  • Maintenance of pregnancy
  • Minor disorders of pregnancy
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 31: Bleeding in pregnancy
  • Bleeding in early pregnancy
  • Bleeding from associated conditions
  • Antepartum haemorrhage
  • Chapter 32: Cardiac and hypertensive disorders
  • Introduction
  • Cardiac disorders in pregnancy
  • Specific aspects of care
  • Hypertension in pregnancy
  • Chapter 33: Anaemia and clotting disorders
  • Anaemia
  • Haemoglobinopathies
  • Thromboembolism and pregnancy
  • Consumptive coagulopathies during pregnancy
  • Chapter 34: Respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal and neurological problems
  • Respiratory tract problems
  • Renal disorders
  • Gastrointestinal problems
  • Neurological disorders
  • Chapter 35: Diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders in pregnancy
  • Introduction
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Abnormalities of thyroid function
  • Section 3A: Labour–Normal
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 36: The onset of labour
  • Introduction
  • Definitions of labour
  • Maternal physiological adaptation in labour
  • Clinical implications
  • Chapter 37: The first stage of labour
  • Physiology of the first stage of labour
  • Assessing progress in the first stage of labour
  • Maternal position in the first stage of labour
  • Immersion in water
  • Nutrition and hydration in labour
  • Monitoring the fetal condition
  • Chapter 38: Pain relief in labour
  • Introduction
  • Pain perception
  • Pain reception
  • Pain modulation
  • Pain pathways in labour
  • The effect of pain
  • Management of pain
  • Chapter 39: The second stage of labour
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of the second stage of labour
  • Mechanisms of labour
  • Management
  • The fetus in the second stage of labour
  • Chapter 40: The third stage of labour
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of the third stage of labour
  • Management of the third stage of labour
  • Section 3B: Labour—Problems
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 41: Abnormalities of uterine action and onset of labour
  • Introduction
  • Abnormalities of uterine action
  • Prolonged second stage of labour
  • Problems: timing of the onset of labour
  • Chapter 42: Breech presentation
  • Introduction
  • Breech presentation
  • Management of pregnancy
  • Vaginal delivery
  • Chapter 43: Malposition and cephalic malpresentations
  • Introduction
  • Occipitoposterior position of the vertex
  • Face presentation
  • Brow presentation
  • Shoulder presentation
  • Compound presentation
  • Chapter 44: Cephalopelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and other obstetric emergencies
  • Introduction
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion
  • Obstructed labour
  • Uterine rupture
  • Shoulder dystocia
  • Cord presentation and prolapse
  • Chapter 45: Postpartum haemorrhage and other third-stage problems
  • Introduction
  • Postpartum haemorrhage
  • Prolonged third stage
  • Acute inversion of the uterus
  • Amniotic fluid embolism
  • Shock in obstetrics
  • Chapter 46: Perinatal fetal asphyxia
  • Introduction
  • Fetal gas exchange and pH regulation
  • Intrauterine hypoxia
  • Monitoring the fetus in labour
  • Management of confirmed fetal asphyxia
  • Neonatal asphyxia and resuscitation
  • Chapter 47: Operative delivery
  • Introduction
  • Forceps delivery
  • Vacuum extraction (ventouse delivery)
  • Caesarean section
  • General anaesthesia in pregnancy and childbirth
  • Section 4A: Puerperium—The Baby as a Neonate
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 48: Adaptation to extrauterine life 1: haematological, cardiovascular, respiratory and genitourinary considerations
  • Introduction
  • The appearance of the normal neonate
  • Major systemic characteristics of the neonate
  • Chapter 49: Adaptation to extrauterine life 2: gastrointestinal, metabolic, neural and immunological considerations
  • Introduction
  • The gastrointestinal tract
  • The liver
  • Metabolism
  • The neonatal nervous system
  • The essence of immunocompetence
  • Thermoregulation
  • Chapter 50: Health challenges and problems in neonates of low birthweight
  • Introduction
  • Defining low birthweight
  • The preterm neonate
  • The small-for-gestational-age baby
  • Chapter 51: Developmental anatomy: related cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
  • Introduction
  • Aspects of cardiovascular development
  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Lower respiratory tract problems in neonates
  • Chapter 52: Jaundice and common metabolic problems in neonates
  • Introduction
  • Neonatal jaundice
  • Common metabolic disorders
  • Chapter 53: Risks of infection and trauma in neonates
  • Infections
  • Birth trauma
  • Section 4B: Puerperium—The Mother
  • Introduction
  • Section Contents
  • Chapter 54: The breasts and lactation
  • Introduction
  • The anatomy of the breast
  • Development of the breast
  • The physiology of lactation
  • Chapter 55: Breastfeeding practice and problems
  • Introduction
  • Benefits of breastfeeding
  • Physiology applied to practice
  • Breastfeeding problems
  • Problems arising with the baby
  • Chemicals in breast milk
  • Suppression of lactation
  • Lactation and fertility
  • Modification of cow's milk
  • Chapter 56: The puerperium
  • Introduction
  • Physiological changes
  • Postpartum (puerperal) infection
  • Emotional states and mental disorders in the puerperium
  • Chapter 57: Biobehavioural aspects of parenting
  • Introduction
  • What is biobehavioural science?
  • What does biobehavioural mean in relation to early parenting?
  • A hormonal orchestration
  • A window of heightened sensitivity
  • The key hormonal players
  • Implications for practice
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 648
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: February 14, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780702061882
  • eBook ISBN: 9780702065088

About the Author

Jean Rankin

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor (Maternal, Child and Family Health), School of Health, Nursing and Midwifery, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley and Hamilton, UK .

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