Physiological Adaptations - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127746500, 9780323158282

Physiological Adaptations

1st Edition

Desert and Mountain

Editors: Mohamed Yousef
eBook ISBN: 9780323158282
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 272
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Description

Physiological Adaptations: Desert and Mountain discusses the bodily modifications of different animals accordingly to desert and mountain environments. Covered in this book are the basic concepts of physiological adaptations; biophysical principles of acclimization to heat; partitional calorimetry in the desert; the mechanism of sweat in relation to heat; the effects of heat on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and the nutritional and metabolic aspects in relation to heat. The book also covers the effects of altitude on work performance; the physiology of respiration at altitude; and the body fluids, body composition, and metabolic aspects of high-altitude adaptation. The text is recommended for biologists and natural historians who would like to know more about how animals that have deserts and mountains as habitats adapt and survive.

Table of Contents


Contents

Preface and Dedication

Chapter I Some General Concepts of Physiological Adaptations

Introduction

Examples

Kinetics

Mediators

Functional Demand

Summary

References

Chapter II Biophysical Principles of Acclimatization to Heat

Introduction

Mechanisms of Acclimatization

Summary

Postscript

References

Chapter III Partitional Calorimetry in the Desert

Introduction

The Independent Variables

The Dependent Variables

The Passive State

Net Metabolic Rate (Mnet )

Clothing in Heat Exchange

Radiation Exchange

Convection

Dry Heat Exchange (DRY)

Evaporative Heat Loss (E)

Mean Body Temperature, 7b

Skin Conductance (K), or Skin Blood Flow SKBF 38

Applications of Partitional Calorimetry

Use of a Simple Model of Human Temperature Regulation to Predict Partitional Calorimetry

Summary

References

Chapter IV Sweat Mechanisms in Heat

Sweat Mechanisms in Heat

References

Chapter V Some Comments on Low Temperatures in the Desert and at High Altitudes

Text

References

Chapter VI Cardiovascular and Respiratory Reactions to Heat

Introduction

Heat Conductance

The Effects of Work

Regulation of Cutaneous Blood Flow

Compensatory Adjustments

Respiratory Reactions to Heat

References

Chapter VII Some Nutritional and Metabolic Aspects of Exposure to Heat

Introduction

Water and Osmotic Balances and Performance

The Heat Increment of Fat

Conclusion

References

Chapter VIII Large Mammals in the Desert

Introduction

Exposure to Solar Radiation

Thermal Stress and Strain

Evaporative Cooling

Other Modes of Adaptation

Conclusion

References

Chapter IX Small Mammals in the Desert

Introduction

Faunal Analysis

Behavioral Adaptations

Physiological Adaptations

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter X Principles of Adaptations to Altitude

Text

References

Introduction

The Role of Oxygen in Biological Functions

Review of Experimental Findings in Short- and Long-Term Exposures

The Relationship between Performance and Altitude

Limitations of the Experimental Findings, with Special Reference to Gaps in Our Knowledge of Man's Ability to Acclimatize to High Terrestrial Altitude

A Comparison of Selected Psychophysical Tests Carried Out at High Altitude and in Relation to Age

Effects of High Altitude on Growth and Development

Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter XII Physiology of Work at Altitude

Introduction

Effects of Altitude on Work Performance

References

Chapter XIII The Hypoxias of Altitude, of Anemia, and of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Text

References

Chapter XIV Physiology of Respiration at Altitude

Text

References

Chapter XV Vertebrates at Altitudes

Introduction

Function in Oxygen Lack and the Critical P02

Regulatory Mechanisms or Systems Adaptation

Adaptation at the Tissue Level

Discussion

References

Chapter XVI Body Fluids, Body Composition, and Metabolic Aspects of High-Altitude Adaptation

Introduction

Acute Mountain Sickness Symptoms

Body Weight

Nitrogen Metabolism

Mineral Metabolism

Blood Sugar Metabolism

Body Water Metabolism

Summary

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
272
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1972
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323158282

About the Editor

Mohamed Yousef