# Physics of Shock Waves and High–Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena

## 1st Edition

**Editor:**Wallace Hayes

**eBook ISBN:**9780323147859

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**1st January 1967

**Page Count:**505

## Description

Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena, Volume II presents interpretations of the physical basis of shockwaves and high-temperature hydrodynamic phenomena and gives practical guidance to those who work with these subjects in science and modern technology.

This volume contains chapters discussing such topics as the shockwave structure in gases; physical and chemical kinetics in hydrodynamic processes; the radiative phenomena in shock waves and in strong explosions in the air; thermal waves and shockwaves in solids; and self-similar processes in gasdynamics.

Physicists, engineers, researchers, and professors and students in the field of the physical sciences will find the book very educational.

## Table of Contents

Editors' Foreword

Preface to the English Edition

Preface to the First Russian Edition

Preface to the Second Russian Edition

Condensed Contents of Volume I

VII. Shock Wave Structure in Gases

§1. Introduction

1. The Shock Front

§2. Viscous Shock Front

§3. The Role of Viscosity and Heat Conduction in the Formation of a Shock Front

§4. Diffusion in a Binary Gas Mixture

§5. Diffusion in a Shock Wave Propagating through a Binary Mixture

2. The Relaxation Layer

§6. Shock Waves in a Gas with Slow Excitation of Some Degrees of Freedom

§7. Excitation of Molecular Vibrations

§8. Dissociation of Diatomic Molecules

§9. Shock Waves in Air

§10. Ionization in a Monatomic Gas

§11. Ionization in Air

§12. Shock Waves in a Plasma

§13. Polarization of a Plasma and the Creation of an Electric Field in a Shock Wave

3. Radiant Heat Exchange in a Shock Front

§14. Qualitative Picture

§15. Approximate Formulation of the Problem of the Front Structure

§16. The Subcritical Shock Wave

§17. The supercritical Shock Wave

§18. Shock Waves at High Energy Densities and Radiation Pressures

VIII. Physical and Chemical Kinetics in Hydrodynamic Processes

1. Dynamics of a Nonequilibrium Gas

§1. The Gasdynamic Equations in the Absence of Thermodynamic Equilibrium

§2. Entropy Increase

§3. Anomalous Dispersion and Absorption of Ultrasound

§4. The Dispersion Law and the Absorption Coefficient for Ultrasound

2. Chemical Reactions

§5. Oxidation of Nitrogen in Strong Explosions in Air

3. Disturbance of Thermodynamic Equilibrium in the Sudden Expansion of a Gas into Vacuum

§6. Sudden Expansion of a Gas Cloud

§7. Freezing Effect

§8. Disturbance of Ionization Equilibrium

§9. The Kinetics of Recombination and Cooling of the Gas Following the Disturbance of Ionization Equilibrium

4. Vapor Condensation in an Isentropic Expansion

§10. Saturated Vapor and the Origin of Condensation Centers

§11. The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Condensation Process

§12. Condensation in a Cloud of Evaporated Fluid Suddenly Expanding into Vacuum

§13. On the Problem of the Mechanism of Formation of Cosmic Dust. Remarks on Laboratory Investigations of Condensation

IX. Radiative Phenomena in Shock Waves and in Strong Explosions in Air

1. Luminosity of Strong Shock Fronts in Gases

§1. Qualitative Dependence of the Brightness Temperature on the True Temperature Behind the Front

§2. Photon Absorption in Cold Air

§3. Maximum Brightness Temperature for Air

§4. Limiting Luminosity of Very Strong Waves in Air

2. Optical Phenomena Observed in Strong Explosions and the Cooling of the Air by Radiation

§5. General Description of Luminous phenomena

§6. Breakaway of the Shock Front from the Boundary of the Fireball

§7. Minimum Luminosity Effect of the Fireball

§8. Radiation Cooling of Air

§9. Origin of the Temperature Drop—The Cooling Wave

§10. Energy Balance and Propagation Velocity of the Cooling Wave

§11. Contraction of the Cooling Wave Toward the Center

§12. The Spark Discharge in Air

3. Structure of Cooling Wave Fronts

§13. Statement of the Problem

§14. Radiation Flux from the Surface of the Wave Front

§15. Temperature Distribution in the Front of a Strong Wave

§16. Consideration of Adiabatic Cooling

X. Thermal Waves

§1. The Thermal Conductivity of a Fluid

§2. Nonlinear (Radiation) Heat Conduction

§3. Characteristic Features of Heat Propagation by Linear and Nonlinear Heat Conduction

§4. The Law of Propagation of Thermal Waves from an Instantaneous Plane Source

§5. Self-Similar Thermal Waves from an Instantaneous Plane Source

§6. Propagation of Heat from an Instantaneous Point Source

§7. Some Self-Similar Plane Problems

§8. Remarks on the Penetration of Heat into Moving Media

§9. Self-Similar Solutions as Limiting Solutions of Nonself-Similar Problems

§10. Heat Transfer by Nonequilibrium Radiation

XI. Shock Waves in Solids

§1. Introduction

1. Thermodynamic Properties of Solids at High Pressures and Temperatures

§2. Compression of a Cold Material

§3. Thermal Motion of Atoms

§4. Equation of State for a Material whose Atoms Undergo Small Vibrations

§5. Thermal Excitation of Electrons

§6. A Three-Term Equation of State

2. The Hugoniot Curve

§7. Hugoniot Curve for a Condensed Substance

§8. Analytical Representation of Hugoniot Curves

§9. Weak Shock Waves

§10. Shock Compression of Porous Materials

§11. Emergence of Weak Shock Waves from the Free Surface of a Solid

§12. Experimental Methods of Determining Hugoniot Curves for Solids

§13. Determination of Cold Compression Curves from the Results of Shock Compression Experiments

3. Acoustic Waves and Splitting of Waves

§14. Static Deformation of a Solid

§15. Transition of a Solid Medium into the Plastic State

§16. Propagation Speed of Acoustic Waves

§17. Splitting of Compression and Unloading Waves

§18. Measurement of the Speed of Sound in a Material Compressed by a Shock Wave

§19. Phase Transitions and Splitting of Shock Waves

§20. Rarefaction Shock Waves in a Medium Undergoing a Phase Transition

4. Phenomena Associated with the Emergence of a Very Strong Shock Wave at the Free Surface of a Body

§21. Limiting Cases of the Solid and Gaseous States of an Unloaded Material

§22. Criterion for Complete Vaporization of a Material on Unloading

§23. Experimental Determination of Temperature and Entropy Behind a Very Strong Shock by Investigating the Unloaded Material in the Gas Phase

§24. Luminosity of Metallic Vapors in Unloading

§25. Remarks on the Basic Possibility of Measuring the Entropy Behind a Shock Wave from the Luminosity During Unloading

5. Some Other Phenomena

§26. Electrical Conductivity of Nonmetals Behind Shock Waves

§27. Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Material Compressed by a Shock Wave

XII. Some Self-Similar Processes in Gasdynamics

1. Introduction

§1. Transformation Groups Admissible by the Gasdynamic Equations

§2. Self-Similar Motions

§3. Conditions for Self-Similar Motion

§4. Two Types of Self-Similar Solutions

2· Implosion of a Spherical Shock Wave and the Collapse of Bubbles in a Liquid

§5. Statement of the Problem of an Imploding Shock Wave

§6. Basic Equations

§7. Analysis of the Equations

§8. Numerical Results for the Solutions

§9. Collapse of Bubbles. The Rayleigh Problem

§10. Collapse of Bubbles. Effect of Compressibility and Viscosity

3. The Emergence of a Shock Wave at the Surface of a Star

§11. Propagation of a Shock Wave for a Power-Law Decrease in Density

§12. On Explosions of Supernovae and the Origin of Cosmic Rays

4. Motion of a Gas Under the Action of an Impulsive Load

§13. Statement of the Problem and General Character of the Motion

§14. Self-Similar Solutions and the Energy and Momentum Conservation Laws

§15. Solution of the Equations

§16. Limitations on the Similarity Exponent Imposed by Conservation of Momentum and Energy

§17. Passage of the Nonself-Similar Motion into the Limiting Regime and the "Infinite" Energy in the Self-Similar Solution

§18. Concentrated Impact on the Surface of a Gas (Explosion at the Surface)

§19. Results from Simplified Considerations of the Self-Similar Motions for Concentrated and Line Impacts

§20. Impact of a Very High-Speed Meteorite on the Surface of a Planet

§21. Strong Explosion in an Infinite Porous Medium

5. Propagation of Shock Waves in an Inhomogeneous Atmosphere with an Exponential Density Distribution

§22. Strong Point Explosion

§23. Self-Similar Motion of a Shock Wave in the Direction of Increasing Density

§24. Application of the Self-Similar Solution to an Explosion

§25. Self-Similar Motion of a Shock Wave in the Direction of Decreasing Density

Application to an Explosion

Cited References

Appendix: Some often Used Constants, Relations Between Units, and Formulas

Author Index

Subject Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 505

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 1967

- Published:
- 1st January 1967

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780323147859