Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena

Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena

International Geophysics Series, Vol. 1

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Editors: S. Matsushita, Wallace H. Campbell
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222516

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Physics of Geomagnetic phenomena, Volume I covers the significant advances in geomagnetism and the penetrations into the generation of geomagnetic field phenomena. This volume is composed of three chapters. Chapter I deals briefly with the discovery and developments in geomagnetism, followed by discussions on some fundamental topics of the field, including the aurora and geomagnetic storms. This chapter also considers the instruments, geomagnetic stations, and the correlations between geomagnetic indices. Chapter II describes the magnetic properties of minerals and various processes of acquisition of remanent magnetization. This chapter also provides palaeomagnetic data for the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field in ancient times. Chapter III explores geomagnetic variations caused by solar flares and eclipses. This book will prove useful to physicists, students in upper atmospheric and space topics, and scientists in allied fields with a background in geomagnetism.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    I. Introductory Topics

    I-1. Perspective

    1. The Beginnings of Magnetism and Electricity

    2. The Science of Geomagnetism Is Born

    3. The Secular Geomagnetic Variation

    4. The Geomagnetic Exploration of the Globe

    5. The Aurora

    6. The Transient Geomagnetic Variations; Geomagnetic Disturbance

    7. The Geomagnetic and Auroral Associations with the Sun

    8. Geomagnetic Classification of Days and Shorter Intervals

    9. The Solar Daily Geomagnetic Variation

    10. The Lunar Daily Geomagnetic Variation

    11. The Morphology of Geomagnetic Storms

    12. Theoretical Ideas (to about 1950)

    13. Future Possibilities


    I-2. Instruments and Geomagnetic Stations

    1. Introduction

    2. Instrumentation

    3. Geomagnetic Stations

    4. International Cooperation


    I-3. Geomagnetic Indices

    1. Different Indices

    2. Correlations between Geomagnetic Indices and Parameters of Other Phenomena (Application of Geomagnetic Indices)

    3. Forecast of Geomagnetic Storms and Radio Disturbance


    II. The Earth’s Main Field

    II-1. Paleomagnetism

    1. Introduction

    2. Rock Magnetism as a Basis of Paleomagnetism

    3. Geomagnetic Field during the Past 10,000 Years

    4. Geomagnetic Field in Geological Time

    5. Theoretical Interpretation


    II-2. Main Geomagnetic Field

    1. Source of Earth's Field

    2. Measurements

    3. The Field in Space


    II-3. Electromagnetic Induction within the Earth

    1. Introduction

    2. Observations

    3. Theory of Electromagnetic Induction of Earth Currents


    III. Quiet Variation Fields

    III-1. Solar Quiet and Lunar Daily Variation Fields

    1. Introduction

    2. Morphology of Sq Field

    3. Morphology of L Field

    4. Theory of Sq and L Fields

    5. Correlations with Other Phenomena

    6. Conclusion



    III-2. Geomagnetic Variations in the Equatorial Zone

    1. Equatorial Conditions

    2. Equatorial Geomagnetic Variations and the Electrojet

    3. Model of Density Distribution in Ionospheric Currents Causing Quiet Day Geomagnetic Variations

    4. The Magnetic Field of Models of Currents Causing Quiet Day Geomagnetic Variations

    5. Measurements of the Electrojet in Space

    6. Analysis of the Magnetic Field of the Electrojet

    7. Studies of the Electrojet from Ground-Based Measurements of Its Magnetic Field

    8. Summary of Equatorial Electrojet Characteristics


    III-3. The Neutral Atmosphere and the Quiet Ionosphere

    1. Introduction

    2. The Neutral Atmosphere

    3. Observations of the Quiet Ionosphere

    4. The Physics of the Quiet Ionosphere

    5. Conclusion


    III-4. The Equatorial Ionosphere

    1. Introduction

    2. The Equatorial D Region

    3. The Equatorial E Region

    4. The Equatorial F Region and Beyond

    5. Summary

    References 6

    III-5. Temperate-Latitude Sporadic E

    1. Introduction

    2. Temporal and Geographic Variations of Sporadic E

    3. Structure of Sporadic E

    4. The Cause of Sporadic E


    IV. Disturbed Variation Fields

    IV-1. Ionospheric Disturbances

    1. Introduction

    2. Flare-Associated Disturbances

    3. Polar-Cap Absorption

    4. Disturbances Associated with Geomagnetic Storms

    5. Spread F

    6. Traveling Disturbances

    7. Summary


    IV-2. Aurora

    1. Introductory Description

    2. Morphology of Visual Aurora

    3. Correlation with Solar and Geophysical Phenomena

    4. Direct Observations of Energetic Particles Associated with Aurora

    5. Theoretical Models


    IV-3. Geomagnetic Disturbances and Storms

    1. Introduction

    2. Observations and Morphology

    3. Theory

    4. Conclusion


    IV-4. Geomagnetic Pulsations

    1. Introduction

    2. The ELF Natural Fields

    3. Regular Oscillations in the 1-Sec Period Range

    4. Pulsations with Irregular Forms

    5. Regular Pulsations with Periods Greater Than 5 Sec

    6. Miscellaneous Micropulsation Effects


    V. Geomagnetism in Space

    V-1. Hydromagnetic Waves

    1. Theories

    2. Applications

    3. Interactions


    V-2. Satellite and Rocket Observations

    1. Introduction

    2. Instrument and Spacecraft Systems

    3. Tabulation of Rockets, Satellites, and Space Probes That Have Conducted Magnetic Field Measurements

    4. The Main Field and Field Descriptions

    5. Ionospheric Currents

    6. Ring Currents

    7. Geomagnetic Cavity

    8. Solar-Interplanetary Medium

    9. Hydromagnetic Waves, Pulsations, and Impulses

    10. Magnetic Fields of the Moon and Venus

    11. Future Space Measurement


    V-3. Magnetosphere and Radiation Belts

    1. Introduction

    2. The Solar Wind and the Magnetosphere

    3. The Motion of Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields

    4. Plasma in the Magnetosphere

    5. The Earth's Radiation Belts

    6. Precipitation of Particles

    7. Conclusions


    VI. Recent Storm Models

    VI-1. Geomagnetic Storms and Auroras

    1. The Solar Corpuscular Flow in Interplanetary Space and around the Earth

    2. The Main Phase of Geomagnetic Storms

    3. The Aurora

    4. Conclusion


    VI-2. Disturbance of the Geomagnetic Field by the Solar Wind

    1. Introduction

    2. Theoretical Basis of the Hydromagnetic Disturbance of the Geomagnetic Field

    3. Physical Basis of the Hydromagnetic Disturbance of the Geomagnetic Field

    4. The Quiet-Day Disturbance

    5. Sudden Commencement and Initial Phase of a Storm

    6. Main Phase of a Storm

    7. Recovery Phase of a Storm

    8. Observational Exploration of the Geomagnetic Disturbance


    VI-3. A Hydromagnetic Model of Geomagnetic Storms and Auroras

    1. The Evolution of a Hydromagnetic Theory

    2. Nonstreamline Motions in the Magnetosphere

    3. Frictional Drag on the Geomagnetic Cavity

    4. The Propagation of a Hydromagnetic Helical Twist Wave

    5. Streamline Magnetospheric Motions

    6. Ionospheric and Earth Current Systems

    7. Ionospheric Drifts and the Creation of Auroral Forms

    8. Reactions of the Ionosphere on the Magnetosphere

    9. The Main Phase of a Geomagnetic Storm


    VI-4. The Interaction between the Solar Wind and the Magnetosphere

    1. Introduction

    2. The Characteristics of the Flow of the Solar Wind past the Magnetosphere

    3. The Topology of the Magnetosphere

    4. Interchange Motions of a Low ß Plasma

    5. Effects of Interchange Motions on Individual Particles

    6. Ionospheric Effects Associated with Motions in the Magnetosphere

    7. Motions in the Magnetosphere

    8. High-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbance Phenomena

    9. The Electric Field and Energy Dissipation in the Magnetosphere during a Geomagnetic Storm

    10. Viscous Dissipation at the Boundary of the Magnetosphere

    11. Ohmic Dissipation at the Boundary of the Magnetosphere

    12. Conclusions


    VI-5. A Model with an Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    1. Introduction

    2. Hydromagnetic Behavior near Neutral Points

    3. The Model of the Field

    4. Variations with Time

    5. Motion of Particles


    VI-6. On the Dst Main Phase and Certain Associated Phenomena

    1. Introduction

    2. A Mechanism for Generating the Dst Main Phase

    3. Stable Auroral Red Arcs, Major Sinks of Energy for the Dst Main Phase

    4. Suggestions Based on the Theory

    5. On Ionospheric Electric Currents Causing Disturbance

    6. Conclusion


    Appendix 1. Geomagnetic Coordinates and Geomagnetic Time

    Appendix 2. List of Stations

    Appendix 3. Values of Pnm(θ), Where c ≡ cos θ, s ≡ sin θ, and θ Is Co-latitude

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Maps of interest in geomagnetism

Product details

  • No. of pages: 644
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222516

About the Editors

S. Matsushita

Wallace H. Campbell

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