Physics Applied to Anaesthesia - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780407357518, 9781483103167

Physics Applied to Anaesthesia

2nd Edition

Authors: D. W. Hill
eBook ISBN: 9781483103167
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 324
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Physics Applied to Anaesthesia explains to doctors the concepts of physics and its applications in the field of anesthesiology. The book discusses topics in physics in relation to the field of anesthesiology, which include the fundamental concepts of mechanics; the different properties of liquids and gases; the gas laws; and heat. The text also covers topics more specific to anesthesiology and medicine such as anesthetic vaporizers; automatic lung ventilators and respirators; and the electrical, fire, and explosion hazards in the operating room. The monograph is recommended for anesthesiologists who would like to be familiarized with the different principles and concepts related to their field and the administration of its related drugs.

Table of Contents

Foreword to first edition



Respiratory Symbols

Conversion Table

1 Some Mathematical Concepts

Trigonometry : Circular measure : Plotting graphs with linear

axes : Indices : Rationalization : Logarithms : Semi-logarithmic

and logarithmic plots : Decibels : Differentiation : Integration :

Exponential equations : Time constant and half-life : Exponential

decay of a dye dilution curve : Elimination of a substance from

more than one body compartment : Application of exponential


2 Computer Techniques

Operational amplifiers : Summation : Integration : Application

of integrating circuits : Differentiation : Inversion : Multiplication

by a constant : Some applications of analogue computers :

Analogue cardiac output computers : Digital computers

3 Mechanics

Fundamental concepts : Dimensional analysis : Units and definitions

: The SI system of units : Mass and weight: Length : Velocity

and acceleration : Force : Pressure : Gauge pressure and absolute

pressure : Pressure gauges : Pressure regulators : Demand-type

regulators : Medical gas cylinders : Work : Work cost of breathing :

Cardiac work : Respiratory resistance : Power : Energy : Energy

aspects of respiration : Myocardial contractility

4 Authomatic Lung Ventilators and Respirators

Body respirators : Automatic lung respirators : Compliance :

Pressure and now generators : Ventilatory parameters : Minute

volume dividers : Application of negative pressure during the

expiratory phase : Patient triggering : Controlled ventilation :

Humidifiers : Assisters : Fluid logic controlled ventilators : Fluid

logic volume-cycled ventilators : Specific ventilators : Miniature


5 Properties of Liquids, Gases and Vapours

Density : Viscosity : Newton's law of viscous flow : Laminar or

streamline flow : Turbulent flow : Relationship between flow and

pressure : Critical velocity : Concept of peripheral resistance :

Units of viscosity : Anomalous viscosity of blood : Flow of fluids

through orifices : Critical orifice : Factors affecting the calibration

of rotameter gas flow meters : Injectors : Surface tension :

Surface tension and the lungs : Diff*usion of gases : Solubility of

gases in liquids : Solubility coefficients : Oxygen content, capacity

and saturation of blood : Partition of carbon dioxide in plasma :

The partition of carbon dioxide in whole blood : Solubility

considerations of hyperbaric oxygen therapy : Solubility of

volatile anaesthetics in water or blood : Partition or distribution

coefficients : Solubility of volatile anaesthetics in oil: Properties of

vapours : Factors affecting the uptake of anaesthetic gases and

vapours : Concentration effect : Variation of saturated vapour

pressure with temperature : Humidity : Absolute humidity :

Relative humidity : Dew point : Hygrometers : Humidifiers

6 The Gas Laws

Dalton's law of partial pressure : Boyle's law : Charles' law :

Absolute scale of temperature : Expansion of gases : Equation

state of a perfect gas : Van der Waals equation of state for real

gases : Isothermals : Withdrawal of gas from a nitrous oxide

cylinder : Weight of substance (liquid+gas) in a cylinder :

Production of pre-mixed nitrous oxide and oxygen : Variation of

pressure with height

7 Heat

Temperature scales : Units of heat : Specific heat : Specific heat of

gases : Isothermal and adiabatic changes : Latent heat and

change of state : Evaporation : Transfer of heat : Conduction :

Convection : Radiation : Dewar vessel or vacuum flask : Pipeline

systems for medical gases

8 Anaesthetic Vaporizers

Simple plenum vaporizers : Improved plenum vaporizers :

Vaporizers for use with intermittent flows : Use of vaporizers with

circle anaesthetic systems : Inhalers for midwifery : Action of

trichloroethylene on soda lime : Use of vaporizers in series:

Vaporizers for use within circle systems : Effect of I.P.P.R. on a

vaporizer situated outside a circle : Dental vaporizers :

Vaporization from a drip feed or direct injection of a volatile

anaesthetic : Calibration of anaesthetic vaporizers : Refractive

index method : Ultra-violet and infra-red method : Gas chromatography

: Performance of anaesthetic vaporizers under hyperbaric

and hypobaric conditions : Pressurized vaporizers

9 Electrical, Fire and Explosion Hazards in the Operating Room

Sources of ignition : Sparks and static electricity : Prevention of

static charge formation : Antistatic flooring : Antistatic rubber :

Clothing : Antistatic sprays : Humidification : Sparks from

electrical apparatus : Sparks from surgical diathermy apparatus :

Flammability characteristics of some volatile anaesthetic agents:

Zone of danger and ventilation : Halothane as a non-explosive

anaesthetic agent : Use of halothane, methoxyflurane and

fluroxene under hyperbaric conditions : Use of nitrous oxideCONTENTS

oxygen-halothane mixtures in hyperbaric chamber : Misuse of

oxygen cylinders and regulators : Patient safety with electrical

equipment : Burns from the surgical diathermy unit : Regulations

applicable to equipment for use in the operating room

10 Pysical Optics, Photometry and Spectrophotometry

Light and electromagnetic radiation : Light as waves or a stream

of particles : Polarized light and optical activity : Lighting in the

operating room : Photometric units : Units of intensity of

illumination : Luminous flux : Brightness of a surface : Spectral

composition of operating room lighting : Optical instruments

of interest to the anaesthetist : Optical absorption instruments :

Principles of optical absorption : Absorption spectrum of

indocyanine dye : Non-dispersive infra-red gas analysers : Ultraviolet

halothane analyser : Gas discharge nitrogen meter :


11 Ionizing Radiations

Atomic structure of matter : X-radiation : Radioactive isotopes :

Isotopes : Atomic mass unit : Mass number : Nuclides : Symbolic

representation of nuclides : Stable and unstable nuclei : Modes of

disintegration of nuclei : Beta particles : Alpha particles : Gamma

radiation : Beta decay by positron emission : Electron capture :

Internal conversion : Metastable states : Radioactive decay and

half-life : Biological half-life : Radiological protection : The

röntgen : The rad : Relative biological effectiveness : Unit of

radioactivity : The curie : Rad-equivalent man : Maximum

permissible doses : Clinical application of isotopes


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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1972
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

D. W. Hill