Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials

Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials

1st Edition - January 1, 1985

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  • Author: Ioan Ursu
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150574

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Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to ""slow down"" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters explore the cooling agents; fluids carrying the energy to its final stage of conversion into electric power; thermal and biological shielding materials; some outstanding reactor components; and irradiated fuel reprocessing. The last two chapters deal with nuclear material quality inspection by destructive and non-destructive methods, and specific materials envisaged for use in future thermonuclear reactors. This monograph will be helpful for a wide range of specialists wishing to gear their research and development, education, and other activities toward the field of nuclear power and nuclear technology.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Chapter 1. Elements of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    1.1. Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Binding Energy

    1.2. Nuclear Transformations

    1.3. Nuclear Fission

    1.4. The Nuclear Reactor

    1.4.1. Chain Fission Reaction

    1.4.2. Structure and Characteristics of a Nuclear Reactor

    1.4.3. Classification of Reactors. Types of Reactors

    1.5. Isotopic Enrichment of Nuclear Materials


    Chapter 2. Structure and Properties of Materials

    2.1. Microscopic Structure of Materials

    2.1.1. Structure of Crystalline Solids

    2.1.2. Phase Transitions

    2.2. Lattice Defects

    2.2.1. Types of Defects

    2.2.2. Point Defects

    2.2.3. Dislocations and Creep

    2.3. Influence of Physical and Chemical Aggressiveness on Material Properties

    2.4. Material Constants

    2.5. Influence of Processing on Material Properties

    2.6. Irradiation Effects on Materials

    2.6.1. Neutron Effect

    2.6.2. Thermal and Displacement Spikes

    2.6.3. Other Types of Interaction

    2.6.4. Mobility and Annihilation of Defects

    2.6.5. Methods to Limit the Irradiation Effects

    2.6.6. Alterations in Material Properties

    2.6.7. Testing Materials at Irradiation

    2.7. Selecting Materials of Nuclear Interest


    Chapter 3. Fuel Materials

    3.1. Uranium

    3.1.1. Properties

    3.1.2. Processing Methods

    3.1.3. Dimensional Stability

    3.1.4. Uranium Alloys and Compounds

    3.1.5. Uranium Enrichment in 235U

    3.2. Plutonium

    3.2.1. Properties

    3.2.2. Processing Methods

    3.2.3. Dimensional Stability

    3.2.4. Corrosion Behavior

    3.2.5. Plutonium Compounds

    3.3. Thorium

    3.3.1. Properties

    3.3.2. Processing Methods

    3.3.3. Dimensional Stability under Irradiation

    3.3.4. Corrosion Behavior

    3.3.5. Thorium Alloys and Compounds



    Chapter 4. Structural Materials

    4.1. General

    4.2. Aluminum

    4.2.1. Processing Methods

    4.2.2. Properties

    4.2.3. Irradiation Effects

    4.2.4. Corrosion Resistance

    4.3. Zirconium

    4.3.1. Manufacturing Techniques

    4.3.2. Corrosion Resistance

    4.3.3. Zirconium Alloys

    4.3.4. Irradiation Effects on Zirconium and Its Alloys

    4.3.5. Hydrogen Absorption and Diffusion

    4.4. Stainless Steels

    4.4.1. Properties

    4.4.2. Irradiation Effects

    4.5. Ferritic Steels

    4.5.1. Properties

    4.5.2. Irradiation Behavior

    4.6. Magnesium Alloys

    4.7. Other Structural Materials

    4.8. Neutron Irradiation-Induced Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Structural Materials



    Chapter 5. Moderator Materials

    5.1. General

    5.2. Nuclear Graphite

    5.2.1. Properties

    5.2.2. Corrosion Resistance

    5.2.3. Irradiation Effects

    5.2.4. Preparation of Nuclear Graphite

    5.3. Natural (Light) Water

    5.3.1. Water Activation

    5.3.2. Activation of Impurities

    5.3.3. Water Radiolysis

    5.4. Heavy Water

    5.4.1. Irradiation Properties and Effects

    5.4.2. Heavy Water Production

    5.5. Beryllium

    5.5.1. Properties

    5.5.2. Corrosion Resistance

    5.5.3. Irradiation Effects

    5.6. Metal Hydrides


    Chapter 6. Materials for Reactor Reactivity Control

    6.1. General

    6.2. Reactor Control and Shut-Down Systems

    6.3. Boron-Based Control Materials

    6.4. Cadmium-Based Alloys

    6.5. Hafnium

    6.6. Rare Earths-Based Control Materials


    Chapter 7. Coolant Materials

    7.1. General

    7.2. Removal of Heat from Nuclear Reactors

    7.3. Gaseous Coolants

    7.3.1. Carbon Dioxide

    7.3.2. Helium

    7.3.3. Nitrogen Oxide N2O4

    7.4. Liquid Coolants

    7.4.1. Light Water and Heavy Water

    7.4.2. Organic Liquids

    7.4.3. Liquid Metals

    7.4.4. Molten Salts


    Chapter 8. Shielding Materials

    8.1. General

    8.2. Radiation Effects on Shielding Materials

    8.3. Shields

    8.3.1. Thermal Shielding Materials

    8.3.2. Biological Shielding Materials


    Chapter 9. Nuclear Fuel Elements

    9.1. Design of Fuel Elements

    9.1.1. Irradiation-Induced Phenomena in Fuel Elements

    9.1.2. Temperature Distribution in Fuel Elements

    9.1.3. Structural Changes in Fuel

    9.1.4. Fission Gas Release

    9.1.5. Fission Gas Pressure

    9.1.6. Fuel Swelling

    9.1.7. Mechanical Behavior of Fuel and Clad during Irradiation

    9.2. Classification of Fuel Elements

    9.2.1. Metallic Fuel Elements

    9.2.2. Ceramic Fuel Elements

    9.2.3. Ceramic Fuel Elements for Fast Reactors

    9.2.4. Dispersed Fuel Elements

    9.3. Manufacture of Fuel Elements

    9.3.1. Manufacture of Metallic Fuel Elements

    9.3.2. Manufacture of Ceramic Fuel Elements

    9.3.3. Manufacture of Dispersed Fuel Elements

    9.3.4. Manufacture of Fuel Elements for Fast Reactors


    Chapter 10. Nuclear Material Recovery from Irradiated Fuel and Recycling

    10.1. General

    10.2. Role and Tasks of Nuclear Material Recovery and Recycling

    10.3. Classification of Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Methods

    10.4. Solvent Extraction

    10.4.1. Basic Principles of Metal Separation by Extraction

    10.4.2. Nature and Chemical Function of Extraction Solvents

    10.4.3. Solvent Diluents and Their Role

    10.4.4. Solvent Stability

    10.3. Uranium and Plutonium in aqueous Solution

    10.6. Solvent Extraction Processes

    10.6.1. The Redox Process

    10.6.2. The Butex Process

    10.6.3. The Purex Process

    10.6.4. The Thorex Process

    10.7. Equipment for Solvent Extraction

    10.7.1. Continuous Exchange Extractors

    10.7.2. Separate Column Plants

    10.7.3. Selection Criteria for Extraction Equipment

    10.8. Industrial-scale Implementation of the Solvent Extraction Methods for Reprocessing of the Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Resulting from Nuclear Power Plants

    10.8.1. General

    10.8.2. General Description of the Process

    10.8.3. Specifications for Final Products

    10.8.4. Losses in the Process — Admitted Values

    10.9. Radioactive Wastes

    10.9.1. Classification

    10.9.2. Gaseous Wastes

    10.9.3. Liquid Wastes

    10.9.4. Solid Wastes

    10.9.5. Organic Liquid Wastes

    10.10.Irradiated Fuel Transport

    10.11.Irradiated Fuel Storage

    10.12.Recycling of the Recovered Fissile Materials

    10.12.1. Plutonium Recycling

    10.12.2. Plutonium Isotope Composition and Related Radioprotection Problems

    10.12.3. Uranium Recycling

    10.12.4. Choice of Matrix Material for Manufacture of Dispersed Fuels


    Chapter 11. Quality Control of Nuclear Materials

    11.1. General

    11.2. Non-Destructive Control Methods

    11.2.1. Visual Methods

    11.2.2. Thermal Methods

    11.2.3. Liquid Penetrant Methods

    11.2.4. Magnetic Particle Methods

    11.2.5. Defectoscopic Methods with Penetrant Radiations

    11.2.6. Ultrasonic Methods

    11.2.7. Eddy Current Methods

    11.2.8. Tightness Inspection

    11.3. Destructive Control Methods

    11.3.1. Composition

    11.3.2. Mechanical Properties

    11.3.3. Metallographical Methods

    11.3.4. Monitoring of Corrosion Effects

    11.4. Quality Control in the Manufacture of Nuclear Fuel Elements

    11.5. Irradiation Effects Inspection of Nuclear Materials

    11.5.1. Non-Destructive Testing

    11.5.2. Destructive Testing

    11.6. Safeguards of Nuclear Materials

    11.6.1. Safeguards of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    11.6.2. Inspection Methods in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle


    Chapter 12. Materials for Fusion Reactors

    12.1. Thermonuclear Fusion Reaction

    12.2. Physical Processes in Fusion Reactors

    12.2.1. Basic Processes

    12.2.2. Fusion Reactor Projects

    12.3. Fuel Materials

    12.3.1. Fuel Cycle

    12.3.2. Tritium

    12.3.3. Fuel Supply

    12.3.4. Fuel Materials for Hybrid Reactors

    12.4. Materials for Blanket and Cooling System

    12.4.1. Lithium

    12.4.2. Lithium Compounds and Their Properties

    12.4.3. Beryllium

    12.4.4. Corrosion Caused by Liquid Lithium and Its Molten Salts

    12.5. Structural Materials

    12.5.1. Refractory Metals and Their Alloys

    12.5.2. Steels

    12.5.3. Nickel-Based Alloys

    12.5.4. Aluminum-Based Materials

    12.5.5. Carbon-Based Materials

    12.5.6. Other Materials

    12.6. Materials for Magnetic Devices

    12.6.1. Superconducting Materials

    12.6.2. Cryogenic Materials

    12.7. Specific Problems of Material Irradiation

    12.7.1. Erosion of the Combustion Chamber Wall Surface

    12.7.2. Influence of Irradiation on the Properties of Superconducting Materials

    12.7.3. Radioactive Materials


    Appendix 1 Equivalence of Some Usual Measurements Units to Those in the International System (IS)

    Appendix 2 Characteristics of Major Reactor Types

    Appendix 3 Fuel Material Enrichment for Various Types of Reactors

    Appendix 4 Electronic Configuration of Elements

    Appendix 5 Some Properties of Elements

    Appendix 6 Irradiation Testing of Structural Materials for CANDU - 600 Nuclear Power Station

    Appendix 7 Neutron Cross-Sections

    Appendix 8.I. Quality Requirements for Heavy Water Used as Moderator in Nuclear Reactors

    8.II Measurement Methods and Performances in Determining Deuterium Concentration in Hydrogen, H2O, NH3 and H2S

    8.III Measurement Methods and Current Performances for the Determination of the H2/N2 Ratio in Gaseous Phase, in the 3:1 Range

    8.IV Turbine Flowmeters

    Appendix 9 The Main Fission Products of Thermal Neutrons-Irradiated Uranium, Which Determine the Fuel Radioactivity

    Appendix 10 Crystalline Structures and Magnetic Properties of Some Uranium Compounds

    Appendix 11 Properties of Materials, of Chief Interest in Fuel Element Design

    Appendix 12 Nuclear Reactors Types and Net Electric Power, as Registered at the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Appendix 13 Hydrometallurgy of Uranium

    Appendix 14 Nuclear Fuel Cycles


Product details

  • No. of pages: 540
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1985
  • Published: January 1, 1985
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150574

About the Author

Ioan Ursu

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