Physics and Chemistry of the Earth

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth

The Contents of This Volume Include Most of the Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Kimberlites Held in Cape Town from 24th to 28th September 1973

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Editors: L. H. Ahrens, J. B. Dawson, A. R. Duncan
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483187334

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Physics and Chemistry of the Earth investigates the physics and chemistry of the earth, with emphasis on kimberlite and xenolith geology. Topics covered range from field geology to mineralogy and geochemistry, diamond inclusions, and experimental and theoretical petrology. Diatreme emplacement by fluidization is also discussed, along with the chemistry and genesis of opaque minerals in kimberlites; light element metasomatism of the continental mantle; and primary and secondary phlogopites and clinopyroxenes in garnet lherzolite xenoliths. Comprised of 59 chapters, this volume begins with a description of a model of a kimberlite pipe that depicts a hypothetical pipe having a diameter of 300 m at a level equivalent to the post-erosional surface of the major pipes in the Kimberley area, South Africa. Subsequent chapters explore the formation of phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes and its relevance to kimberlite diatremes; emplacement of some diatreme-facies kimberlites; irregular patterns of magmatism in southwestern United States; and the chemistry of titanium-poor spinels, ilmenites, and rutiles from peridotite and eclogite xenoliths. Chromite-silicate intergrowths in upper mantle peridotites are also analyzed. The final chapter is devoted to theoretical aspects of gaseous and isotopic equilibria in the system C-H-O-S, with application to kimberlite. This book will be of interest to physicists and geophysicists, chemists and geochemists, geologists, and earth scientists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Model of a Kimberlite Pipe

    2. Formation of Phreatomagmatic Maar—Diatreme Volcanoes and its Relevance to Kimberlite Diatremes

    3. Modeling of Diatreme Emplacement by Fluidization

    4. Structural Aspects of Kimberlite Dyke and Sheet Intrusion in South-West Greenland

    5. The Emplacement of some Diatreme-Facies Kimberlites

    6. Magnetite—Serpentine—Calcite Dykes at Premier Mine and Aspects of their Relationship to Kimberlite and to Carbonatite of Alkalic Carbonatite Complexes

    7. The Bushmanland Kimberlites and Related Rocks

    8. Kimberlite and Related Rocks from the Nama Plateau of South-West Africa

    9. Eclogite Nodules from Kimberlite Pipes of the Colorado Plateau—Samples of Subducted Franciscan-Type Oceanic Lithosphere

    10. A Plate Tectonics Model involving Non-Laminar Asthenospheric Flow to Account for Irregular Patterns of Magmatism in the Southwestern United States

    11. Mineralogy and Petrology of the Kimberlite from Somerset Island, N.W.T., Canada

    12. Kimberlitic—Carbonatitic Dikes of the Saguenay River Valley, Quebec, Canada

    13. Kimberlitic Diatremes in Northern Colorado and Southern Wyoming

    14. The Fen Damkjernite: Petrology of a "Central-Complex Kimberlite"

    15. Mineralogy and Petrology of Kimberlite Dyke and Sheet Intrusions and included Peridotite Xenoliths from South-West Greenland

    16. The Igwisi Hills Extrusive "Kimberlites"

    17. Gross Brukkaros: A Kimberlite—Carbonatite Volcano

    18. The Composition of Late Stage Kimberlite Liquids as Revealed by Nucleated Autoliths

    19. Garnet Peridotite Xenoliths in a Montana, U.S.A., Kimberlite

    20. Al—Augite and Cr—Diopside Ultramafic Xenoliths in Basaltic Rocks from Western United States

    21. Petrology of Peridotite Nodules from Ndonyuo Olnchoro, Samburu District, Central Kenya

    22. "Pyroxene"—Ilmenite Xenoliths from the Stockdale Pipe, Kansas: Chemistry, Crystallography, and Origin

    23. The Chemistry and Genesis of Opaque Minerals in Kimberlites

    24. Chemistry of Ti-Poor Spinels, Ilmenites and Rutiles from Peridotite and Eclogite Xenoliths

    25. Pentlandite—Magnetite Intergrowth in De Beers Spinel Lherzolite: Review of Sulphides in Nodules

    26. Chromite—Silicate Intergrowths in Upper Mantle Peridotites

    27. Two Roberts Victor Cumulate Eclogites and their Re-Equilibration

    28. Evolution of Clinopyroxene and Garnet in an Eclogite Nodule from the Roberts Victor Kimberlite Pipe, South Africa

    29. Light Element Metasomatism of the Continental Mantle: The Evidence and the Consequences

    30. Primary and Secondary Phlogopites and Clinopyroxenes in Garnet Lherzolite Xenoliths

    31. Origins of the Ultramafic Nodules from some Kimberlites of Northern Lesotho and the Monastery Mine, South Africa

    32. Petrologie and Thermal Structure of the Upper Mantle beneath South Africa in the Cretaceous

    33. Classification of Textures and Fabrics of Pendotite Xenoliths from South African Kimberlites

    34. Petrography and Geological History of Upper Mantle Xenoliths from the Matsoku Kimberlite Pipe

    35. Mantle Xenoliths in the Matsoku Kimberlite Pipe

    36. Mineral Chemistry of Peridotite Xenoliths from the Lashaine Volcano, Tanzania

    37. Major and Trace Element Chemistry of Peridotite Inclusions from the Lashaine Volcano, Tanzania

    38. Lithophile Trace Element Data bearing on the Origin of Peridotite Xenoliths, Ankaramite and Carbonatite from Lashaine Volcano, N. Tanzania

    39. Garnet—Peridotite, Primary Ultrabasic Magma and Eclogite; Interpretation of Upper Mantle Processes in Kimberlite

    40. Rb—Sr Age Determinations on South African Kimberlite Pipes

    41. Complementary Pétrographie and Strontium—Isotope Ratio Studies of South African Kimberlite

    42. The Genesis of Kimberlites and Associated Rocks : Strontium Isotopie Evidence

    43. Geochemistry of Ultramafic Inclusions from Salt Lake Crater, Hawaii and from Southern African Kimberlites

    44. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Kimberlite

    45. Aspects of the Geochemistry of Kimberlites from the Premier Mine, and other Selected South African Occurrences with Particular Reference to the Rare Earth Elements

    46. The Significance of the Inter-Element Relationships of some Minor and Trace Elements in South African Kimberlites

    47. Isotope Geochemistry and Petrology of African Carbonatites

    48. Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Studies of Megacryst and Matrix Minerals from Lesothan and South African Kimberlites

    49. A Classification Scheme for Diamond- and a Comparative Study of South African Diamond Characteristics

    50. Mineral Inclusions in Brazilian Diamonds

    51. Inclusions in Diamonds: Garnet Lherzolite and Eclogite Assemblages

    52. A Comparative Trace Element Study of Diamonds from Premier, Finsch and Jagersfontein Mines, South Africa

    53. Verification of the Stability of Modified Spinel Structure by Means of High-Pressure and High-Temperature X-Ray Analysis

    54. Partial Melting of Phlogopite-bearing Synthetic Spinel- and Garnet-Lherzolites

    55. Melting in the Mantle : Phase Relationships in Natural and Synthetic Peridotite—H2O and Peridotite—H2O—CO2 Systems at High Pressures

    56. CO2 as a Volatile Component of the Mantle: The System Mg2SiO4—SiO2—H2O—CO2

    57. Relationship of Melilite-bearing Rocks to Kimberlite: A Preliminary Report on the System Akermanite—CO2

    58. Crystallization of Some Natural Eclogites and Gametiferous Ultrabasic Rocks at High Pressure and Temperature

    59. Theoretical Aspects of Gaseous and Isotopie Equilibria in the System C—H—O—S with Application to Kimberlite

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Contents of Previous Volumes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 954
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483187334

About the Editors

L. H. Ahrens

J. B. Dawson

A. R. Duncan

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