Physical surfaces

Physical surfaces

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Author: J.J. Bikerman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323163040

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Physical Surfaces deals with the basic concepts of the physics of surfaces, including the nature of the surface pressure of unimolecular films and the equilibrium pressure of these films. The effect of particle size on capillary pressure, the surface energy and the cuticular energy of solids, and the fundamentals of wetting are also examined. This book is comprised of nine chapters and begins with a discussion on the mechanics and physical chemistry of liquid surfaces, with emphasis on capillarity and surface tension. The following chapters focus on liquid-liquid interfaces, foams and emulsions, and solid surfaces. Interfacial tension is analyzed in relation to miscibility and surface tension, along with contact angles in gas-liquid-liquid systems. The chapter on wetting looks at theories of contact angle, its measurement, and hysteresis. Adsorption and electric surface phenomena are also explored, together with adhesion and friction. This monograph will be a valuable resource for physical chemists and physicists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    I. Mechanics of Liquid Surfaces. Capillarity

    Molecular Forces and Capillary Pressure

    Capillary Pressure and Gravitation

    Measurement of Surface Tension

    Differential Measurements

    Cleaning of Surfaces

    Rate of Capillary Rise

    Floating Bodies

    Capillary Attraction


    II. Physical Chemistry of Liquid Surfaces

    Effect of the Gas Phase on Surface Tension

    Surface Tension Values

    Surface Tension and Temperature

    Surface Tension and Density

    Thermodynamics of Surfaces

    Surface Tension and Vapor Pressure

    Surface Tension and Heat of Evaporation

    Surface Tension and Sample Dimensions

    Surface Tension and Chemical Composition

    The Dynamic Surface Tension

    Equilibrium Surface Tension of Solutions

    Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures

    Surface Thermodynamics of Solutions

    Movements in a Liquid Surface

    Unimolecular Films

    Surface Dissolution

    Structure of Solution Surfaces


    III. Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

    Interfacial Tension

    Interfacial Tension and Miscibility

    Interfacial Tension and Surface Tension

    Multicomponent Systems

    Contact Angles in Gas-Liquid-Liquid Systems


    IV. Foams and Emulsions

    Foam Films

    Formation of Foams and Emulsions

    Structure and Properties of Foam

    Properties of Emulsions


    V. Solid Surfaces

    Surface Roughness

    Methods for Determining Surface Roughness

    Data on Surface Roughness

    Surface Porosity

    Variation across the Interface

    Variations along the Interface

    Surface Energy of Solids

    Alleged Measurements of the Surface Energy of Solids

    The Cuticular Energy

    The Solid-Solid Interface

    Comminution. Fresh Surfaces

    Stagnant Boundary Layers

    "Built-up Multilayers"


    VI. Wetting

    Theories of Contact Angle

    Measurement of Contact Angles

    The Hysteresis of Contact Angle

    Contact Angle and the Gas Phase

    Contact Angle and the Liquid

    Contact Angle and the Solid

    Inhibition and Wetting

    Sliding of the 3-Phase Line

    Liquid-Liquid-Solid Systems

    Heat of Wetting

    Solid Particles in Liquid Surfaces


    VII. Adsorption

    Measurement of Gas Adsorption

    The Adsorption Isotherm

    The Adsorption Isobar

    The Adsorption Isostere

    Adsorption Hysteresis

    Adsorbent-Adsorbate Interactions

    Rate of Adsorption. Migration of the Adsorbate

    Heat of Adsorption

    Adsorption of Mixtures

    Adsorption from Solutions

    Surface Area of Solids


    VIII. Electric Surface Phenomena

    The Electric Double Layer

    The Electrocapillary Curve

    The Capacity of the Double Layer

    Adsorption on Electrodes

    Secondary Electrocapillary Effects

    Mutual Repulsion of Electric Double Layers

    Electrokinetic Phenonema

    Electrokinetic Measurements

    The Theory of Electrokinetics

    Surface Conductance. Theory

    The Electrokinetic Potential

    Experimental Data on Electrokinetics

    Surface Conductance. Experiments


    IX. Adhesion and Friction

    Solid-to-Solid Adhesion



    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 488
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323163040

About the Author

J.J. Bikerman

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