# Physical Principles of Chemical Engineering

## 1st Edition

### International Series of Monographs in Chemical Engineering

**Author:**Peter Grassmann

**Editor:**H. Sawistowski

**eBook ISBN:**9781483153841

**Imprint:**Pergamon

**Published Date:**1st January 1971

**Page Count:**928

## Description

Physical Principles of Chemical Engineering covers the significant advancements in the understanding of the physical principles of chemical engineering. This book is composed of 12 chapters that describe chemical unit processes through analogy with the unit of operations of chemical engineering.

The introductory chapters survey the concept and principles of mass and energy balances, as well as the application of entropy. The next chapters deal with the probability and kinetic theories of gases, the physical aspects of solids, the different dispersed systems, and the principles and application of fluid dynamics. Other chapters discuss the property dimension and model theory; heat, mass, and momentum transfer; and the characteristics of multiphase flow processes. The final chapters review the model of rheological bodies, the molecular-kinetic interpretations of rheological behavior, and the principles of reaction kinetics.

This book will prove useful to chemical engineers.

## Table of Contents

Preface to the First German Edition

Preface to the English Edition

Introduction

General Literature Survey

Terminology

Chapter 1 Mass and Energy Balances

§ 1.1. Mass and Energy—The Material Balance

§ 1.2. The Composition of Mixtures and the Mixing (Lever) Rule

§ 1.3. Representation of Two- and Three-Component Systems

§ 1.4. Determination of Mixture Composition Using the Lever Rule

§ 1.5. Which Unit: kg, kmole, or Nm3?

§ 1.6. The CGS, Technical, SI, and English-American Systems of Units

§ 1.7. Units of Pressure, Energy, and Power. Standard Conditions

§ 1.8. Dimensionally Homogeneous and Dimensional Equations

§ 1.9. Internal Energy and Enthalpy

*§ 1.10. Notes on Dealing with Partial Derivatives*

§ 1.11. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

§ 1.12. The h-w Diagram and the Lever Rule for Adiabatic Mixing

§ 1.13. The Energy Balance and Energy Flow Diagram

§ 1.14. Introduction to Heat Transfer

§ 1.15. The Heat Exchanger

Chapter 2 Concept and Use of Entropy

§ 2.1. Ordered and Disordered Energy

§ 2.2. The Differential dS of the Entropy is an Exact Differential

§ 2.3. Changes of State

§ 2.4. Phase Diagrams

§ 2.5. The Reciprocating Compressor

§ 2.6. Thermodynamic Mean Temperature

§ 2.7. Availability in Steady Flow or Exergy

§ 2.8. What Work can be Produced Theoretically and Practically on Combustion?

§ 2.9. The Exergy Flow Diagram

§ 2.10. Efficiency, Performance Coefficient, and Reversibility

§ 2.11. Refrigerating Plants and Heat Pumps

§ 2.12. First Example of a Thermodynamic Analysis: Evaporation of Salt Solutions

§ 2.13. Second Example of a Thermodynamic Analysis: Liquefaction of Air

§ 2.14. Thermodynamics and Economy

§ 2.15. Unsteady Processes

§ 1.11. Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

§ 1.12. The h-w Diagram and the Lever Rule for Adiabatic Mixing

§ 1.13. The Energy Balance and Energy Flow Diagram

§ 1.14. Introduction to Heat Transfer

§ 1.15. The Heat Exchanger

Chapter 2 Concept and Use of Entropy

§ 2.1. Ordered and Disordered Energy

§ 2.2. The Differential dS of the Entropy is an Exact Differential

§ 2.3. Changes of State

§ 2.4. Phase Diagrams

§ 2.5. The Reciprocating Compressor

§ 2.6. Thermodynamic Mean Temperature

§ 2.7. Availability in Steady Flow or Exergy

§ 2.8. What Work can be Produced Theoretically and Practically on Combustion?

§ 2.9. The Exergy Flow Diagram

§ 2.10. Efficiency, Performance Coefficient, and Reversibility

§ 2.11. Refrigerating Plants and Heat Pumps

§ 2.12. First Example of a Thermodynamic Analysis: Evaporation of Salt Solutions

§ 2.13. Second Example of a Thermodynamic Analysis: Liquefaction of Air

§ 2.14. Thermodynamics and Economy

Chapter 3 Probability Theory and the Kinetic Theory of Gases

§ 3.1. Introduction to Probability Theory

§ 3.2. Law of Large Numbers

§ 3.3. Primitive Model of a Highly Diluted Gas

§ 3.4. Mixtures of Ideal Gases

§ 3.5. Equilibrium, Equipartition Theorem, and an Introduction to the Theory of Specific Heats

§ 3.6. Distribution Functions

§ 3.7. The Earth's Gravitational Field as a "Velocity Sieve"

*§ 3.8. Calculation of Maxwell's Velocity Distribution Function in One Direction from the Barometric Height Formula*

§ 3.9. Maxwell's Velocity Distribution Law in Three Directions

§ 3.10. The Boltzmann Factor

§ 3.11. Number of Wall Collisions and the Rate of Evaporation

§ 3.12. The Mean Free Path

§ 3.13. Viscous Flow, Heat Conduction, Diffusion

§ 3.14. Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusivity in an Ideal Gas

§ 3.15. Transport Processes in Case of a Large Mean Free Path

§ 3.16. Brownian Movement, Limits of Measurement Accuracy, and Fluctuations

§ 3.17. Diffusion and the Binomial Coefficients

§ 3.9. Maxwell's Velocity Distribution Law in Three Directions

§ 3.10. The Boltzmann Factor

§ 3.11. Number of Wall Collisions and the Rate of Evaporation

§ 3.12. The Mean Free Path

§ 3.13. Viscous Flow, Heat Conduction, Diffusion

§ 3.14. Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusivity in an Ideal Gas

§ 3.15. Transport Processes in Case of a Large Mean Free Path

§ 3.16. Brownian Movement, Limits of Measurement Accuracy, and Fluctuations

§ 3.18. Error Function

§ 3.19. Entropy, Disorder, and Probability

Chapter 4 Physics of Solids

§ 4.1. Ordered and Disordered Structure

§ 4.2. Forces and Stresses

§ 4.3. Vectors and Scalars

*§ 4.4. The Stress Tensor*

§ 4.5. The Stress-Strain Diagram

§ 4.6. The Generalized Hooke's Law

§ 4.7. Relations Between the Elastic Constants of Isotropic Bodies

§ 4.8. Creep Strength

§ 4.9. Safety Factor

§ 4.10. Permissible Internal Pressure for Thin-Walled Pipes and Containers

§ 4.11. Stress Distribution in a Thick-Walled Pipe

§ 4.12. Design Precautions for Relieving Non-Uniform Stress Distributions in a Thick-Walled Pipe

§ 4.13. The Flat Plate Resistance to Bending

§ 4.14. Shells

§ 4.15. Theories of Fracture

§ 4.16. Internal and External Notches

§ 4.17. Shape Errors and Roughness of Technical Surfaces

§ 4.18. Bulging and Denting

§ 4.19. Model Laws of Mechanics

§ 4.20. thermal Stresses

§ 4.21. Work Capacity of Solids

§ 4.22. Yield Condition of von Mises, Based on the Distortion Energy

§ 4.5. The Stress-Strain Diagram

§ 4.6. The Generalized Hooke's Law

§ 4.7. Relations Between the Elastic Constants of Isotropic Bodies

§ 4.8. Creep Strength

§ 4.9. Safety Factor

§ 4.10. Permissible Internal Pressure for Thin-Walled Pipes and Containers

§ 4.11. Stress Distribution in a Thick-Walled Pipe

§ 4.12. Design Precautions for Relieving Non-Uniform Stress Distributions in a Thick-Walled Pipe

§ 4.13. The Flat Plate Resistance to Bending

§ 4.14. Shells

§ 4.15. Theories of Fracture

§ 4.16. Internal and External Notches

§ 4.17. Shape Errors and Roughness of Technical Surfaces

§ 4.18. Bulging and Denting

§ 4.19. Model Laws of Mechanics

§ 4.20. thermal Stresses

§ 4.21. Work Capacity of Solids

*§ 4.23. Reversible Temperature Changes During the Elastic Elongation of Solids*

§ 4.24. Anisotropy

Chapter 5 Bodies with a Large Surface Area and Finely Distributed Materials

§ 5.1. Possible Structures

§ 5.2. Survey of the Order of Magnitude of Particles

§ 5.3. Specific Surface and Shape Factors

§ 5.4. Porosity

§ 5.5. Mean Particle Size

§ 5.6. Specific Surface and Rates of Transport Processes

§ 5.7. Operations of Hard Crushing

§ 5.8. Particle and Drop-Size Distribution Functions

§ 5.9. Surface Tension and Energy Efficiency in Atomization

§ 5.10. The Work and Energy Efficiency of Size Reduction

§ 5.11. Piles, Fills, Packings, and Packed Beds

§ 5.12. Surface Development and Porosity of Fixed Beds and Capillary Systems

§ 5.13. Conduction Processes in a Heterogeneous Body

Chapter 6 Principles of Fluid Dynamics

§ 6.1. Principles of Fluid Dynamics

§ 6.2. The Continuity Equation for Flow in Pipes

*§ 6.3. The Continuity Equation for the "Volume Element" and the Divergence*

§ 6.4. The General Concept of Flow

*§ 6.5. Flows with Sources*

§ 6.6. The Gauss Integral Law

*§ 6.7. The Velocity Potential*

§ 6.8. Model Tests are Necessary

§ 6.9. The Acting Forces

§ 6.10. The Conditions of Model Similarity

§ 6.11. Liquids at Rest and Pascal's Law

§ 6.12. Static Pressure of Columns of Liquid and Pressure Head

§ 6.13. The Laws of Energy and Momentum

§ 6.14. Acceleration in Non-Steady Flow

§ 6.15. Stream Lines and Flow Paths

§ 6.16. The Bernoulli Equation

§ 6.17. Viscosity and the Newtonian Fluid

§ 6.18. The Viscous Force Acting on a "Volume Element" and the Navier-Stokes Equations

§ 6.19. The Energy Balance of a Flow without Chemical Reaction

§ 6.20. The Energy Balance of a Flow with Chemical Reaction

§ 6.21. The Entropy Balance of Flow

§ 6.22. Flow through Nozzles and Orifices

§ 6.23. The Mach Number

Chapter 7 Application of Fluid Dynamics

§ 7.1. Deductions Based on Newton'S Viscosity Law

§ 7.2. Flow in a Pipe and the Critical Reynolds Number

§ 7.3. Formulae for the Pressure Drop in Smooth and Rough Pipes

§ 7.4. Velocity Distribution Over the Pipe Cross-Section

§ 7.5. The Hydraulic Diameter

§ 7.6. Design of Gas Pipelines for Pressure and Vacuum

§ 7.7. Frictionless Liquids

§ 7.8. Orifices at Outlet

§ 7.9. Flow Measurement with Nozzles and Orifices

§ 7.10. Variable-Area Meters

§ 7.11. The Pitot Tube and the Prandtl Impact Tube

§ 7.12. Summary of Flow Measurement Methods

§ 7.13. Pressure Drop in Fittings

§ 7.14. Some Applications of the Law of Momentum

§ 7.15. The Boundary Layer

§ 7.16. Flow Separation and Eddy Formation

§ 7.17. Instability of the Separating Surface

§ 7.18. Mixing—Diffusion—Reaction

§ 7.19. The Free Jet

§ 7.20. Flow Past a Body

§ 7.21. The Froude Number

§ 7.22. Mixing of Liquids in Stirred Tanks

§ 7.23. Mean Residence Time, Residence Time Distribution and Transition Function

§ 6.8. Model Tests are Necessary

§ 6.9. The Acting Forces

§ 6.10. The Conditions of Model Similarity

§ 6.11. Liquids at Rest and Pascal's Law

§ 6.12. Static Pressure of Columns of Liquid and Pressure Head

§ 6.13. The Laws of Energy and Momentum

§ 6.14. Acceleration in Non-Steady Flow

§ 6.15. Stream Lines and Flow Paths

§ 6.16. The Bernoulli Equation

§ 6.17. Viscosity and the Newtonian Fluid

§ 6.18. The Viscous Force Acting on a "Volume Element" and the Navier-Stokes Equations

§ 6.19. The Energy Balance of a Flow without Chemical Reaction

§ 6.20. The Energy Balance of a Flow with Chemical Reaction

§ 6.21. The Entropy Balance of Flow

§ 6.22. Flow through Nozzles and Orifices

§ 6.23. The Mach Number

Chapter 7 Application of Fluid Dynamics

§ 7.1. Deductions Based on Newton'S Viscosity Law

§ 7.2. Flow in a Pipe and the Critical Reynolds Number

§ 7.3. Formulae for the Pressure Drop in Smooth and Rough Pipes

§ 7.4. Velocity Distribution Over the Pipe Cross-Section

§ 7.5. The Hydraulic Diameter

§ 7.6. Design of Gas Pipelines for Pressure and Vacuum

§ 7.7. Frictionless Liquids

§ 7.8. Orifices at Outlet

§ 7.9. Flow Measurement with Nozzles and Orifices

§ 7.10. Variable-Area Meters

§ 7.11. The Pitot Tube and the Prandtl Impact Tube

§ 7.12. Summary of Flow Measurement Methods

§ 7.13. Pressure Drop in Fittings

§ 7.14. Some Applications of the Law of Momentum

§ 7.15. The Boundary Layer

§ 7.16. Flow Separation and Eddy Formation

§ 7.17. Instability of the Separating Surface

§ 7.18. Mixing—Diffusion—Reaction

§ 7.19. The Free Jet

§ 7.20. Flow Past a Body

§ 7.21. The Froude Number

§ 7.22. Mixing of Liquids in Stirred Tanks

§ 7.24. Falling Films

§ 7.25. Forces in Rotating Systems

§ 7.26. Vortex and cyclone

§ 7.27. Some Data on Turbomachinery

§ 7.28. Comparison of Design Principles of Pumps and Compressors

*§ 7.29. Water Hammer*

§ 7.30. Cavitation and Expansion Evaporation

§ 7.31. Brief Notes on Magnetohydrodynamics

Chapter 8 Dimensional Analysis and Model Theory

§ 8.1. Dimensions

§ 8.2. Primitive Application of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.3. Dimensionless Numbers

§ 8.4. The ∏-theorem

§ 8.5. The Dimensionless Equations of Incompressible, Heavy, Inert, and Viscous Liquids

§ 8.6. Derivation of Dimensionless Groups by Division of Types of Properties With Equal Dimensions

§ 8.7. Derivation of Equation for the Carnot Cycle by Means of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.8. The Number of Basic or Fundamental Properties

§ 8.9. Limits and Appraisal of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.10. The Derivation of the Similarity Laws from the Differential Equations

§ 8.11. Dimensionless Groups for Molecular Gases

§ 7.30. Cavitation and Expansion Evaporation

§ 7.31. Brief Notes on Magnetohydrodynamics

Chapter 8 Dimensional Analysis and Model Theory

§ 8.1. Dimensions

§ 8.2. Primitive Application of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.3. Dimensionless Numbers

§ 8.4. The ∏-theorem

§ 8.5. The Dimensionless Equations of Incompressible, Heavy, Inert, and Viscous Liquids

§ 8.6. Derivation of Dimensionless Groups by Division of Types of Properties With Equal Dimensions

§ 8.7. Derivation of Equation for the Carnot Cycle by Means of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.8. The Number of Basic or Fundamental Properties

§ 8.9. Limits and Appraisal of Dimensional Analysis

§ 8.10. The Derivation of the Similarity Laws from the Differential Equations

§ 8.12. Dimensional Analysis—Similarity Laws—Model Technique

§ 8.13. The Way from the Idea to the Full-Size Plant

§ 8.14. Possibilities and Limits of Model Tests

§ 8.15. Wall Effects

§ 8.16. Analogue Methods

§ 8.17. Summary

Chapter 9 Heat, Mass, and Momentum Transfer

§ 9.1. Reversible and Irreversible Thermodynamics

§ 9.2. Examples of Mass Transfer Processes

§ 9.3. Basic Equations and Definitions

*§ 9.4. Other Definitions of the Mass Transfer Coefficients*

§ 9.5. The Dimensionless Numbers Important in Heat Transfer

§ 9.6. The Dimensionless Numbers Important in Mass Transfer

§ 9.7. The Model of Turbulent Transfer

§ 9.8. Relations Derived from The Model of Turbulent Transfer

§ 9.9. Transfer in the Laminar Sublayer

§ 9.10. Simultaneous Treatment of the Resistance in the Turbulent Core and in the Laminar Sublayer

§ 9.11. Graphical Determination of the Nusselt Number for Forced Convection in Pipes

§ 9.12. Influence of Pipe Length

§ 9.13. The Temperature Profile in Pipes as a Function of the Prandtl Number

§ 9.14. The Equivalent Diameter for Heat Transfer

§ 9.15. Calculation of the Temperature Profile in Heat Exchangers and the Mean Temperature Difference

§ 9.16. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Case of Flow Past a Single Body

§ 9.17. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Case of Steady-State Free Convection

§ 9.18. Application and Limits of the Analogy Between Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer

§ 9.19. Suggestions for the Calculation of Heat Exchangers

§ 9.20. Heat Transfer with Simultaneous Change of Phase

§ 9.21. Heat Transfer in Condensation

§ 9.22. Deviations from the Nusselt Water-Film Theory

§ 9.23. Heat Transfer in Boiling

§ 9.24. The Problem of Bubble Formation

§ 9.25. Theories of Nucleate Boiling

§ 9.26. Heat Transfer in Solidification

§ 9.27. Non-Steady Heat Conduction and Diffusion

§ 9.28. Integration of Equations for Non-Steady Heat Flow and Diffusion According to the Point-Source Method

§ 9.29. Non-Steady Heat Flow in an "Infinitely Thick" Plate

§ 9.30. Calculation of the Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient

§ 9.31. Transfer at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

§ 9.32. Means of Attaining High Heat Fluxes

§ 9.33. Transpiration and Ablation Cooling

§ 9.34. Heat Radiation

§ 9.35. Reference Values for Heat Transfer Coefficients and Heat Fluxes

§ 9.36. Systematic Study of Transport Processes

Chapter 10 Multiphase Flow Processes

§ 10.1. Survey of the Field

§ 10.2. The Characteristic Quantities

§ 10.3. Flow Past Single Bodies

§ 10.4. Settling and Centrifuging

§ 10.5. Separation by Sedimentation

§ 10.6. Flow through Fixed Beds

§ 10.7. Filtration

§ 10.8. Fluidized Beds

§ 10.9. Pneumatic Transport

§ 10.10. Similarity Criteria for Gaseous Flow Dispersions

§ 9.5. The Dimensionless Numbers Important in Heat Transfer

§ 9.6. The Dimensionless Numbers Important in Mass Transfer

§ 9.7. The Model of Turbulent Transfer

§ 9.8. Relations Derived from The Model of Turbulent Transfer

§ 9.9. Transfer in the Laminar Sublayer

§ 9.10. Simultaneous Treatment of the Resistance in the Turbulent Core and in the Laminar Sublayer

§ 9.11. Graphical Determination of the Nusselt Number for Forced Convection in Pipes

§ 9.12. Influence of Pipe Length

§ 9.13. The Temperature Profile in Pipes as a Function of the Prandtl Number

§ 9.14. The Equivalent Diameter for Heat Transfer

§ 9.15. Calculation of the Temperature Profile in Heat Exchangers and the Mean Temperature Difference

§ 9.16. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Case of Flow Past a Single Body

§ 9.17. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Case of Steady-State Free Convection

§ 9.18. Application and Limits of the Analogy Between Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer

§ 9.19. Suggestions for the Calculation of Heat Exchangers

§ 9.20. Heat Transfer with Simultaneous Change of Phase

§ 9.21. Heat Transfer in Condensation

§ 9.22. Deviations from the Nusselt Water-Film Theory

§ 9.23. Heat Transfer in Boiling

§ 9.24. The Problem of Bubble Formation

§ 9.25. Theories of Nucleate Boiling

§ 9.26. Heat Transfer in Solidification

§ 9.27. Non-Steady Heat Conduction and Diffusion

§ 9.28. Integration of Equations for Non-Steady Heat Flow and Diffusion According to the Point-Source Method

§ 9.29. Non-Steady Heat Flow in an "Infinitely Thick" Plate

§ 9.30. Calculation of the Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient

§ 9.31. Transfer at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

§ 9.32. Means of Attaining High Heat Fluxes

§ 9.33. Transpiration and Ablation Cooling

§ 9.34. Heat Radiation

§ 9.35. Reference Values for Heat Transfer Coefficients and Heat Fluxes

§ 9.36. Systematic Study of Transport Processes

Chapter 10 Multiphase Flow Processes

§ 10.1. Survey of the Field

§ 10.2. The Characteristic Quantities

§ 10.3. Flow Past Single Bodies

§ 10.4. Settling and Centrifuging

§ 10.5. Separation by Sedimentation

§ 10.6. Flow through Fixed Beds

§ 10.7. Filtration

§ 10.8. Fluidized Beds

§ 10.9. Pneumatic Transport

§ 10.11. Two Fluid Phases

§ 10.12. Gas Bubbles Rising in a Liquid

§ 10.13. The Production of Bubbles by the Slow Introduction of Gases Into Liquids

§ 10.14. Bubble Chains

§ 10.15. Two-Phase Flows in Pipelines; Survey and Basic Relations

§ 10.16. Flow Patterns

§ 10.17. Pressure Drop and Calculation of Gas-Lift Pumps

§ 10.18. Two-Phase Flow Past Bodies of Irregular Shape

§ 10.19. Atomization

§ 10.20. Emulsification and Dispersion of Gases in Liquids

§ 10.21. Foams

Chapter 11 Rheology

§ 11.1. Survey of the Field

§ 11.2. Phenomenological Macrorheology

§ 11.3. Models of Rheological Bodies

§ 11.4. Molecular-Kinetic Interpretations of Rheological Behavior

§ 11.5. Flow of Rheological Bodies through Pipelines

§ 11.6. Pressure and Flow of Particulate Material in Hoppers

Chapter 12 Concluding Remarks

§ 12.1. Introduction

§ 12.2. The Three Stages of Reaction Kinetics

§ 12.3. Type of Operation and Residence Time

§ 12.4. Contact Between Mass Flows

§ 12.5. Counterflow as an Amplification Principle

§ 12.6. Equilibrium Curve and Operating Line

§ 12.7. The Theoretical Plate

§ 12.8. The Ideal Stage and the Transfer Unit

§ 12.9. Stability and Instability of a Reactor

§ 12.10. Falling and Rising Characteristics

§ 12.11. "Kipp" Oscillations

§ 12.12. Hysteresis

§ 12.13. Flip-Flop and Memory

§ 12.14. Time-Lag and Damping

§ 12.15. Optimization

§ 12.16. Laws of Conservation

§ 12.17. Temperature and Pressure Ranges

§ 12.18. Concluding Remarks

Appendix 1 Solutions to Problems

Appendix 2 Dimensionless Numbers

Name Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Series

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 928

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Pergamon 1971

- Published:
- 1st January 1971

- Imprint:
- Pergamon

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483153841