This book is mainly concerned with building a narrow but secure ladder which polymer chemists or engineers can climb from the primary level to an advanced level without great difficulty (but by no means easily, either).
This book describes some fundamentally important topics, carefully chosen, covering subjects from thermodynamics to molecular weight and its distribution effects. For help in self-education the book adopts a "Questions and Answers" format. The mathematical derivation of each equation is shown in detail. For further reading, some original references are also given.
Numerous physical properties of polymer solutions are known to be significantly different from those of low molecular weight solutions. The most probable explanation of this obvious discrepancy is the large molar volume ratio of solute to solvent together with the large number of consecutive segments that constitute each single molecule of the polymer chains present as solute. Thorough understanding of the physical chemistry of polymer solutions requires some prior mathematical background in its students. In the original literature, detailed mathematical derivations of the equations are universally omitted for the sake of space-saving and simplicity. In textbooks of polymer science only extremely rough schemes of the theories and then the final equations are shown. As a consequence, the student cannot learn, unaided, the details of the theory in which he or she is interested from the existing textbooks; however, without a full understanding of the theory, one cannot analyze actual experimental data to obtain more basic and realistic physical quantities. In particular, if one intends to apply the theories in industry, accurate understanding and ability to modify the theory are essential.
For students at universities and researchers, who are studying the physical chemistry of polymer solutions. Also as a reference text for technologists intending to apply the physical chemistry of polymer solutions to industrial practice and to educators teaching this or related subjects.
Preface. Glossary. Fundamentals of thermodynamics. Internal energy, free energy and enthalpy. Partial molar quantities. Gibbs-Duhem relation. Mixing volume change and mixing entropy. Gibbs condition for two-phase equilibrium. Heat of mixing. Ideal and non-athermal solutions. Ideal solution. Molar quantities in mixing. Entropy of mixing for ideal solution. Raoult's law. Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression (I). Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression (II). Membrane osmometry. van 't Hoff's equation. Empirical determination of osmotic pressure. Empirical determination of number-average molecular weight. Non-ideal solution (I). Non-ideal solution (II). Mixing in non-ideal solution. Real solution. Vapor pressure osmometry (I). Vapor pressure osmometry (II). Vapor pressure osmometry (III). Vapor pressure osmometry (IV). Vapor pressure osmometry (V). Vapor pressure osmometry (VI). Vapor pressure osmometry (VII). Vapor pressure osmometry (VIII). Lattice Theory. Lattice theory for low molecular weight solution. Bragg-Williams approximation. Free energy of mixing for random mixing. Free energy of mixing for athermal solution. Flory's theory (I): 0th approximation theory for polymer solution. Flory's theory (II): entropy of polymer solution. Flory's theory (III): entropy of mixing for polymer solution. Flory's theory (IV): partial molar entropy of mixing of solvent and polymer. Flory's theory (V): van Laar-Scatchard approximation. Flory's theory (VI): Gibbs free energy of mixing of polymer solution. Flory's theory (VII): chemical potential of solvent for non-athermal random mixing polymer solution. Flory's theory (VIII): chemical potential of polymer for non-athermal random mixing polymer solution. Flory's theory (IX): Gibbs-Duhem relation for polymer solution. Flory's theory (X): assumptions in Flory's 0th approxima
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- © Elsevier Science 2000
- 16th October 2000
- Elsevier Science
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Faculty of Economics, Nara Sangyo University, Nara 636-8503, Japan
Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Gunma 376-8515, Japan