Physical Chemistry An Advanced Treatise

Physical Chemistry An Advanced Treatise

1st Edition - January 28, 1971

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  • Editor: Wilhelm Jost
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143479

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Description

Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise, Volume I: Thermodynamics deals with the applications of thermodynamics to mixtures, fluids, and solid systems at high pressures and temperatures, critical phenomena, practical handling of coupled gas equilibriums, and matter in electric, magnetic, and gravitational fields. This book begins with a survey of basic laws, followed by discussions on questions of stability, irreversible processes, surfaces, the third law, and a short introduction to Caratheodory's axiomatic foundation. The zeroth law of thermodynamics, gaseous mixtures, internal equilibrium in solids, thermodynamic properties of the mixture, and theory of linear differential forms are also elaborated. This publication presents a comprehensive treatment of physical chemistry for advanced students and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    Contents of Previous and Future Volume

    Chapter 1 / Survey of Fundamental Laws

    I. Introduction

    II. Some Basic Concepts

    III. Mass, Amount of Substance, and Composition

    IV. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics (Empirical Temperature)

    V. Equation of State

    VI. Specific, Molar, and Partial Molar Quantities, and Generalized Densities

    VII. Work

    VIII. First Law of Thermodynamics (Energy and Heat)

    IX. Enthalpy

    X. Open Systems

    XI. Second Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy and Thermodynamic Temperature)

    XII. Caratheodory's Approach

    XIII. Generalized Gibbs Equation (Chemical Potential)

    XIV. Connection between Entropy and Heat

    XV. Helmholtz Function and Gibbs Function

    XVI. Fundamental Equations

    XVII. Relation of Empirical to Thermodynamic Temperature

    XVIII. Heat Capacity

    XIX. Generalized Gibbs-Duhe Relation

    XX. Chemical Reactions

    XXI. Galvanic Cells

    XXII. Equilibrium

    XXIII. Nernst Heat Theorem

    XXIV. Unattainability of Absolute Zero

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 2A / Equilibrium, Stability, and Displacements

    Introduction

    I. Thermodynamic Potentials

    II. Affinity

    III. Affinity and Thermodynamic Potentials

    IV. The Gibbs Chemical Potential

    V. The Phase Rule

    VI. The Equilibrium Constant

    VII. Standard Functions and Functions of Mixing

    VIII. Numerical Examples

    IX. Real Gases

    X. Stability of Chemical Systems

    XI. Equilibrium Displacements in Closed Systems

    XII. Equilibrium Displacements in Open Systems

    XIII. Thermodynamics of Solutions

    XIV. Osmotic Pressure

    XV. Equilibrum Curves between Two Phases

    References

    Chapter 2B / Irreversible Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. Conservation of Energy in Open Systems

    III. Equality of Exchange Flow of Energy

    IV. Entropy Production in Open Systems

    V. Continuous Systems

    VI. Transport and Chemical Equations

    VII. Stationary States

    VIII. Diffusion in Systems at Uniform Temperature

    IX. Diffusion in Systems at Nonuniform Temperature

    X. Electrokinetic Effects

    XI. Entropy Production due to Viscosity

    References

    Chapter 2C / Thermodynamics of Surfaces

    I. Mechanical Properties of an Interface

    II. Pressure Tensor in Surface Layers

    III. Gibbs's Surface Model

    IV. Phase Rule

    V. Influence of Temperature on Surface Tension

    VI. Properties of Monolayers

    VII. Multilayer Model and Interfacial Orientation

    VIII. Capillary Condensation

    IX. Surface Tensions of Crystals

    References

    Chapter 3 / Thermodynamic Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solids

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Species and Components

    III. Pure Gases

    IV. Gaseous Mixtures

    V. Pure Liquids

    VI. Liquid Mixtures

    VII. Pure Solids

    VIII. Solid Mixtures

    Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 4 / Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Equilibria at High Pressure, Critical Curves, and Miscibility Gaps

    I. Introduction

    II. General Description

    III. Detailed Description—Weak Interaction in the Gas Phase

    IV. Detailed Description—Strong Interaction in the Gas Phase

    V. Liquid-Gas Critical Phenomena in Binary Systems

    References

    Chapter 5 / Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational, Electric, and Magnetic Fields

    I. Thermodynamics of Matter in Gravitational Fields and in Rotational Frames of Reference

    II. Static Electric and Magnetic Fields

    III. The Thermodynamic Potentials of Dielectric and Magnetic Substances

    IV. Applications

    V. The Magnetic Properties of Matter

    References

    Chapter 6 / The Third Law of Thermodynamics

    I. Introduction

    II. The Third Law and Low-Temperature Physics

    III. Liquid Helium

    IV. The Third Law and the Determination of Entropy

    V. Statistical Mechanics and the Third Law

    VI. Chemical Equilibrium

    VII. Internal Equilibrium in Solids

    VIII. Nuclei and Entropy

    IX. The Third Law and the Entropy of Gases

    X. Thermal Motion on Solids

    XI. The Third Law and Very Low Temperatures

    References

    Chapter 7 / Practical Treatment of Coupled Gas Equilibrium

    I. Introduction

    II. Direct Minimization of the Free Energy

    III. The Equilibrium-Constant Method

    IV. Transformations among Sets of Reference Species

    V. Some Problems in the Calculation of Ideal-Gas Functions for the Individual Species

    VI. The Thermodynamic Properties of the Mixture

    VII. Numerical Methods

    Appendix A. Illustrations of the Matrices Associated with the Stoichiometry of Reacting Gaseous Mixtures

    Appendix B. The Introduction of Real-Gas Effects

    References

    Chapter 8 / Equilibria at Very High Temperatures

    I. Introduction

    II. The Ideal Plasma

    III. Internal Partition Function and Internal Energy

    IV. Transition Equilibria and Characteristic Temperature

    V. Plasma at Higher Densities

    References

    Chapter 9 / High Pressure Phenomena

    I. Introduction

    II. Techniques

    III. Observations

    References

    Chapter 10 / Caratheodory's Formulation of the Second Law

    I . Introduction

    II. Theory of Linear Differential Forms

    III. Caratheodory's Principle

    IV. Carnot's Theorem

    V. Entropy Changes

    VI. Law of Increasing Entropy

    VII. Nonadiabatic Processes

    VIII. Conclusion

    Appendix A. Vector Formulation of the Theory of Differential Expressions

    Appendix B. Solution Curve for Nonintegrable Pfaff Equation

    Appendix C. Proof of Caratheodory's Theorem

    Appendix D. Rigorous Proof of Carnot's Theorem

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 684
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 28, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143479

About the Editor

Wilhelm Jost

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