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Physical Activity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125815505, 9780323151153

Physical Activity

1st Edition

Human Growth and Development

Editor: G Rarick
eBook ISBN: 9780323151153
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1973
Page Count: 420
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Physical Activity: Human Growth and Development describes the relationship of physical activity and the growth, development, and health of children. This book is composed of 14 chapters that focus on the research of biological and behavioral science that is related to the physical activity needs and problems of children and youth.

The introductory chapters deal with the link between exercise and the growth and development of muscle tissue and bone and joint structures. The next chapters review the several factors affecting the working capacity of children and adolescents; body composition and exercise during growth and development; and the effect of physical activity of motor performance and skills. These topics are followed by discussions of the influence of age and sex on motor learning, as well as the hereditary factors concerning stability and change in motor abilities. A chapter examines the motor performance of mentally retarded children. The final chapters discuss the significance of psychosocial development and the process of socialization in the growth and development of children and youth.

This book is of great value to physicians, graduate students, and researchers who are in the fields of growth and development and exercise physiology.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1. Exercise and the Growth and Development of Muscle Tissue

I. General Muscle Development

II. Overload Hypertrophy of Muscle

III. Hyperplasia

IV. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Growth


Chapter 2. Physical Activity and the Growth and Development of Bone and Joint Structures

I. Introduction

II. Growth and Development of the Skeletal Structures

III. Epiphyseal Development and Growth

IV. Indirect Injuries to the Immature Skeleton

V. Direct Injuries to the Immature Skeleton

VI. Safeguards to the Health of the Younger Child in Physical Activity Programs


Chapter 3. Growth in Muscular Strength and Power

I. Definitions

II. Physiological Considerations

III. Isometric Muscular Strength and Growth

IV. Functional Muscular Strength

V. Growth, and Training of Muscular Strength


Chapter 4. Factors Affecting the Working Capacity of Children and Adolescents

I. Physiology of Exercise in Normal Individuals

II. The Working Capacity and Its Measurements

III. Other Methods of Evaluating Exercise Performance

IV. Factors Affecting the Working Capacity

V. Techniques and Equipment Used in Studying Working Capacity

VI. Summary


Chapter 5. Body Composition and Exercise During Growth and Development

I. Age Changes in Body Composition

II. The Impact of Exercise on Body Composition

III. Dynamic Changes in Body Composition and Body Build in Boys with Different Physical Activity Regimens

IV. Body Composition Changes as Related to Aerobic Capacity in Boys

V. Body Composition and Step Test Results

VI. Effects of Physical Conditioning on Body Composition of Girls

VII. The Reversibility of Body Composition

VIII. Caloric Intake as Related to Body Composition During Training

IX. Metabolic Changes in Fat Tissue as a Result of Exercise

X. Body Composition and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

XI. Changes in Body Composition and Aerobic Capacity in the Obese After Exercise Therapy

XII. Summary


Chapter 6. Growth, Physique, and Motor Performance

I. Introduction

II. Physique and Body Composition

III. Assessment of Physique

IV. Growth and Physique 135

V. Sex Differences in Physique

VI. Maturation and Physique

VII. Ethnic Differences in Physique

VIII. Exercise and Physique

IX. Physique and Strength

X. Physique and Motor Performance


Chapter 7. Age Changes in Motor Skills

I. Early Patterns of Motor Behavior

II. Locomotor Development

III. Development of Phylogenetic Skills

IV. Bases for Sex Differences in Skill Level


Chapter 8. Motor Learning as a Function of Age and Sex

I. Introduction

II. Infancy

III. Early Childhood

IV. Middle Childhood

V. Adolescence


Chapter 9. Stability and Change in Motor Ability

I. Prediction of Developmental Change

II. Stable and Unstable Growth Characteristics

III. Time, Maturity, and Prediction of Change

IV. Hereditary Factors and Human Development

V. Growth in Strength

VI. Motor Performance

VII. Growth Status and Incremental Changes in Strength and Gross Motor Proficiency

VIII. Stability and Change in Physical Fitness

IX. Factors Affecting the Prediction of Motor Performance


Chapter 10. Motor Performance of Mentally Retarded Children

I. Physical Development of Mentally Retarded Children

II. Reflex and Reaction Time in Mental Retardation

III. Motor Abilities in the Retarded

IV. Motor Ability Structure in the Retarded

V. Motor Learning

VI. Physical Working Capacity

VII. School Physical Education Programs and Changes in Motor Performance

VIII. Effects of Perceptual-Motor Training and Physical Activity Programs upon Intelligence and Academic Performance

IX. Summary and Implications


Chapter 11. Play, Games, and Sport in the Psychosociological Development of Children and Youth

I. The Socialization Process

II. Play, Games, and Sport in Socialization


Chapter 12. Becoming Involved in Physical Activity and Sport: A Process of Socialization

I. Sport Socialization: A Conceptual Frame of Reference

II. Sport Socialization: Some Findings

III. A Basis for Future Research

IV. In Conclusion


Chapter 13. Ethnic and Cultural Factors in the Development of Motor Abilities and Strength in American Children

I. Infancy and Early Childhood

II. School Ages

III. A Suggested Hypothesis


Chapter 14. Competitive Sports in Childhood and Early Adolescence

I. Introduction

II. Past Policies on Competitive Sports for Children

III. Extent of Participation in Competitive Sports Programs

IV. Effects of Athletic Competition on Children

V. Competitive Sports for Girls

VI. Policies Governing Competitive Sports for Young Girls

VII. Guidelines for Competitive Sports for Children of Elementary School Age


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1973
28th January 1973
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

G Rarick

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