Physical Activity

Physical Activity

Human Growth and Development

1st Edition - January 28, 1973

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  • Editor: G Rarick
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151153

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Physical Activity: Human Growth and Development describes the relationship of physical activity and the growth, development, and health of children. This book is composed of 14 chapters that focus on the research of biological and behavioral science that is related to the physical activity needs and problems of children and youth. The introductory chapters deal with the link between exercise and the growth and development of muscle tissue and bone and joint structures. The next chapters review the several factors affecting the working capacity of children and adolescents; body composition and exercise during growth and development; and the effect of physical activity of motor performance and skills. These topics are followed by discussions of the influence of age and sex on motor learning, as well as the hereditary factors concerning stability and change in motor abilities. A chapter examines the motor performance of mentally retarded children. The final chapters discuss the significance of psychosocial development and the process of socialization in the growth and development of children and youth. This book is of great value to physicians, graduate students, and researchers who are in the fields of growth and development and exercise physiology.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. Exercise and the Growth and Development of Muscle Tissue

    I. General Muscle Development

    II. Overload Hypertrophy of Muscle

    III. Hyperplasia

    IV. Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Growth


    Chapter 2. Physical Activity and the Growth and Development of Bone and Joint Structures

    I. Introduction

    II. Growth and Development of the Skeletal Structures

    III. Epiphyseal Development and Growth

    IV. Indirect Injuries to the Immature Skeleton

    V. Direct Injuries to the Immature Skeleton

    VI. Safeguards to the Health of the Younger Child in Physical Activity Programs


    Chapter 3. Growth in Muscular Strength and Power

    I. Definitions

    II. Physiological Considerations

    III. Isometric Muscular Strength and Growth

    IV. Functional Muscular Strength

    V. Growth, and Training of Muscular Strength


    Chapter 4. Factors Affecting the Working Capacity of Children and Adolescents

    I. Physiology of Exercise in Normal Individuals

    II. The Working Capacity and Its Measurements

    III. Other Methods of Evaluating Exercise Performance

    IV. Factors Affecting the Working Capacity

    V. Techniques and Equipment Used in Studying Working Capacity

    VI. Summary


    Chapter 5. Body Composition and Exercise During Growth and Development

    I. Age Changes in Body Composition

    II. The Impact of Exercise on Body Composition

    III. Dynamic Changes in Body Composition and Body Build in Boys with Different Physical Activity Regimens

    IV. Body Composition Changes as Related to Aerobic Capacity in Boys

    V. Body Composition and Step Test Results

    VI. Effects of Physical Conditioning on Body Composition of Girls

    VII. The Reversibility of Body Composition

    VIII. Caloric Intake as Related to Body Composition During Training

    IX. Metabolic Changes in Fat Tissue as a Result of Exercise

    X. Body Composition and Aerobic Capacity in Obese Children

    XI. Changes in Body Composition and Aerobic Capacity in the Obese After Exercise Therapy

    XII. Summary


    Chapter 6. Growth, Physique, and Motor Performance

    I. Introduction

    II. Physique and Body Composition

    III. Assessment of Physique

    IV. Growth and Physique 135

    V. Sex Differences in Physique

    VI. Maturation and Physique

    VII. Ethnic Differences in Physique

    VIII. Exercise and Physique

    IX. Physique and Strength

    X. Physique and Motor Performance


    Chapter 7. Age Changes in Motor Skills

    I. Early Patterns of Motor Behavior

    II. Locomotor Development

    III. Development of Phylogenetic Skills

    IV. Bases for Sex Differences in Skill Level


    Chapter 8. Motor Learning as a Function of Age and Sex

    I. Introduction

    II. Infancy

    III. Early Childhood

    IV. Middle Childhood

    V. Adolescence


    Chapter 9. Stability and Change in Motor Ability

    I. Prediction of Developmental Change

    II. Stable and Unstable Growth Characteristics

    III. Time, Maturity, and Prediction of Change

    IV. Hereditary Factors and Human Development

    V. Growth in Strength

    VI. Motor Performance

    VII. Growth Status and Incremental Changes in Strength and Gross Motor Proficiency

    VIII. Stability and Change in Physical Fitness

    IX. Factors Affecting the Prediction of Motor Performance


    Chapter 10. Motor Performance of Mentally Retarded Children

    I. Physical Development of Mentally Retarded Children

    II. Reflex and Reaction Time in Mental Retardation

    III. Motor Abilities in the Retarded

    IV. Motor Ability Structure in the Retarded

    V. Motor Learning

    VI. Physical Working Capacity

    VII. School Physical Education Programs and Changes in Motor Performance

    VIII. Effects of Perceptual-Motor Training and Physical Activity Programs upon Intelligence and Academic Performance

    IX. Summary and Implications


    Chapter 11. Play, Games, and Sport in the Psychosociological Development of Children and Youth

    I. The Socialization Process

    II. Play, Games, and Sport in Socialization


    Chapter 12. Becoming Involved in Physical Activity and Sport: A Process of Socialization

    I. Sport Socialization: A Conceptual Frame of Reference

    II. Sport Socialization: Some Findings

    III. A Basis for Future Research

    IV. In Conclusion


    Chapter 13. Ethnic and Cultural Factors in the Development of Motor Abilities and Strength in American Children

    I. Infancy and Early Childhood

    II. School Ages

    III. A Suggested Hypothesis


    Chapter 14. Competitive Sports in Childhood and Early Adolescence

    I. Introduction

    II. Past Policies on Competitive Sports for Children

    III. Extent of Participation in Competitive Sports Programs

    IV. Effects of Athletic Competition on Children

    V. Competitive Sports for Girls

    VI. Policies Governing Competitive Sports for Young Girls

    VII. Guidelines for Competitive Sports for Children of Elementary School Age


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 420
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1973
  • Published: January 28, 1973
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151153

About the Editor

G Rarick

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