Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution

Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: Jerome J. Wolken
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220697

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Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution discusses the important role that visible radiation has played in the development of photoreceptor systems, hence, in the evolution of life on earth. The book examines the spectrum of energies that impinge on the Earth, what kinds of molecules absorb these energies, and how they are structured within the cell to function as a photoreceptor system. The text describes the molecular structure of the cell membrane; the various kinds of pigment molecules; and the structures associated with photobiological phenomena. The relationship between the photoreceptor system and behavior, i.e. phototropism and phototaxis, photosynthesis, and vision, is also considered. The book further tackles the photoprocesses which function in photoperiodic phenomena - the “biological clocks”, aging, memory, and bioluminescence. The text then demonstrates the structure of the invertebrate and vertebrate photoreceptors; and the intervebrate and vertebrate visual pigments and their photochemistry. Photobiologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    I Introduction

    II The Environment

    The Earth and Geological Record

    The Changing Atmosphere and Temperature

    The Ocean

    Molecules in the Environment

    Electromagnetic Energy and Photobiology

    The Physical Nature of Light

    The Absorption and Emission of Light

    III Photosensitivity and Pigments

    Pyrroles and Porphyrins




    The Carotenoids





    Solar Spectrum and Pigment Absorption Spectra

    Action Spectra

    IV The Emergence of the Cell and Its Organelles

    A Model Cell: Euglena

    CO2 Fixation

    Cell Structure

    V Photosynthesis

    The Photosynthetic Process

    Two Photosystems in Photosynthesis

    Comparative Biochemistry of Photosynthesis


    The Chloroplast

    The Chloroplast Structure


    VI Phototropism

    A Model Cell: Phycomyces

    The Photoreceptor Molecule

    Pigment Extraction

    Location of the Photoreceptor

    The Photoreceptor


    VII Phototaxis

    The Photoreceptor System of Euglena

    Photokinesis and the Photoreceptor Molecule

    Phototaxis and the Photoreceptor Molecule

    The Eyespot Pigment and the Photoreceptor Molecule

    The Photoreceptor System and Excitation

    The Flagellum and Excitation

    VIII Invertebrate Eyes



    Related Remarks

    IX Protochordates

    Ciona intestinalis

    The Photoreceptor

    Pigment Cells

    Remarks Regarding the Ocelli

    X The Vertebrate Eye and the Retina

    The Eye

    The Retina

    The Retinal Rods and Cones

    The Elasmobranch Retina

    The Amphibian Retinal Rod

    XI The Vertebrate Visual Pigments

    Vitamin A and the Visual Pigment

    Visual Pigments

    The Photochemistry of Rhodopsin

    The Cone Pigments and Color Vision

    The Oil Globules

    Retinal Rod Molecular Structure

    XII The Invertebrate Visual Pigments



    Color Vision

    Visual Screening Pigments

    Polarized Light Analysis

    XIII The Visual Photoreceptors and Pigments in Evolution

    Visual Photoreceptors

    Photoreceptor Origins

    The Visual Pigments in Evolution


    How Universal Is Retinal?

    XIV Photoperiodic Phenomena and Memory


    Photoperiodism and the Flowering of Plants

    Marine Organisms and Tidal Rhythm

    The Pineal


    Photochemical Memory

    Photochemical Memory and Evolution

    Photoprocesses and Lifetimes

    XV Bioluminescence

    Photophores and Photoreceptors

    Bioluminescence and Evolution

    XVI Summary


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 332
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220697

About the Author

Jerome J. Wolken

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