Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127620503, 9781483220697

Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution

1st Edition

Authors: Jerome J. Wolken
eBook ISBN: 9781483220697
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 332
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Description

Photoprocesses, Photoreceptors, and Evolution discusses the important role that visible radiation has played in the development of photoreceptor systems, hence, in the evolution of life on earth. The book examines the spectrum of energies that impinge on the Earth, what kinds of molecules absorb these energies, and how they are structured within the cell to function as a photoreceptor system. The text describes the molecular structure of the cell membrane; the various kinds of pigment molecules; and the structures associated with photobiological phenomena. The relationship between the photoreceptor system and behavior, i.e. phototropism and phototaxis, photosynthesis, and vision, is also considered. The book further tackles the photoprocesses which function in photoperiodic phenomena - the “biological clocks”, aging, memory, and bioluminescence. The text then demonstrates the structure of the invertebrate and vertebrate photoreceptors; and the intervebrate and vertebrate visual pigments and their photochemistry. Photobiologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

I Introduction

II The Environment

The Earth and Geological Record

The Changing Atmosphere and Temperature

The Ocean

Molecules in the Environment

Electromagnetic Energy and Photobiology

The Physical Nature of Light

The Absorption and Emission of Light

III Photosensitivity and Pigments

Pyrroles and Porphyrins

Chlorophyll

Heme

Cytochromes

The Carotenoids

Phycobiliproteins

Ferredoxins

Flavins

Melanins

Solar Spectrum and Pigment Absorption Spectra

Action Spectra

IV The Emergence of the Cell and Its Organelles

A Model Cell: Euglena

CO2 Fixation

Cell Structure

V Photosynthesis

The Photosynthetic Process

Two Photosystems in Photosynthesis

Comparative Biochemistry of Photosynthesis

Enzymes

The Chloroplast

The Chloroplast Structure

Chloroplastin

VI Phototropism

A Model Cell: Phycomyces

The Photoreceptor Molecule

Pigment Extraction

Location of the Photoreceptor

The Photoreceptor

Electrophysiology

VII Phototaxis

The Photoreceptor System of Euglena

Photokinesis and the Photoreceptor Molecule

Phototaxis and the Photoreceptor Molecule

The Eyespot Pigment and the Photoreceptor Molecule

The Photoreceptor System and Excitation

The Flagellum and Excitation

VIII Invertebrate Eyes

Arthropods

Molluscs

Related Remarks

IX Protochordates

Ciona intestinalis

The Photoreceptor

Pigment Cells

Remarks Regarding the Ocelli

X The Vertebrate Eye and the Retina

The Eye

The Retina

The Retinal Rods and Cones

The Elasmobranch Retina

The Amphibian Retinal Rod

XI The Vertebrate Visual Pigments

Vitamin A and the Visual Pigment

Visual Pigments

The Photochemistry of Rhodopsin

The Cone Pigments and Color Vision

The Oil Globules

Retinal Rod Molecular Structure

XII The Invertebrate Visual Pigments

Molluscs

Arthropods

Color Vision

Visual Screening Pigments

Polarized Light Analysis

XIII The Visual Photoreceptors and Pigments in Evolution

Visual Photoreceptors

Photoreceptor Origins

The Visual Pigments in Evolution

Opsins

How Universal Is Retinal?

XIV Photoperiodic Phenomena and Memory

Photoperiodism

Photoperiodism and the Flowering of Plants

Marine Organisms and Tidal Rhythm

The Pineal

Memory

Photochemical Memory

Photochemical Memory and Evolution

Photoprocesses and Lifetimes

XV Bioluminescence

Photophores and Photoreceptors

Bioluminescence and Evolution

XVI Summary

Bibliography

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
332
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1975
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483220697

About the Author

Jerome J. Wolken