Photophysiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483227399, 9781483262666

Photophysiology

1st Edition

Action of Light on Animals and Microorganisms; Photobiochemical Mechanisms; Bioluminescence

Editors: Arthur C. Giese
eBook ISBN: 9781483262666
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 456
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Description

Photophysiology, Volume II: Action of Light on Animals and Microorganisms; Photobiochemical Mechanisms; Bioluminescence presents the effects of light upon animals and microorganisms. This book discusses the fundamental photobiochemical mechanisms underlying some of the effects of light. Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the periodic functions of animals that can be manipulated by photoperiod. This text then examines the biosynthetic relationships between proteins and nucleic acids, which have been explored in part by observing the inactivating and reactivating effects of UV and visible light. Other chapters consider the physical factors that limit the performance of the eye to exact information about the environment from the light that reaches an animal. This book discusses as well the various anatomical and physiological features of the eye in relation to its limits. The final chapter deals with the occurrence of bioluminescence in nature. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, physiologists, and scientists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume I

Chapter 12. Animal Photoperiodism

1. Discovery of Photoperiodism in Birds

2. General Nature of Photoperiodic Phenomena in Animals

3. Studies on Photoperiodism in Birds

4. Studies in Other Animals

5. General Conclusions

References

Chapter 13. Phototaxis in Microorganisms

1. Introduction

2. General Characteristics of Motility and Phototaxis in Photosynthetic Microbes

3. The Interpretation of Experiments in Phototaxis

4. Phototaxis in Purple Photosynthetic Bacteria

5. Phototaxis in Green Flagellates

6. Phototaxis in Filamentous Blue-Green Algae and Diatoms

7. Some Applications of the Study of Motility and Taxis in Microbes

References

Chapter 14. The Photoreceptor Process in Lower Animals

1. Introduction

2. Photosensitivity at the Cellular Level

3. Visual Pigments and Spectral Sensitivity

4. Visual Pigments and Color Vision in Insects

5. General Electrophysiology of Invertebrate Photoreceptors

6. Neural Interaction and the Integration of Receptor Activity

References

Chapter 15. Vision as a Photic Process

1. Rhodopsin

2. Twilight Vision

3. Cones and Color in Man

4. Conclusions

References

Chapter 16. The Physical Limits of Visual Discrimination

1. Introduction

2. Quantum Fluctuations at Threshold

3. Limits to Measurement above Threshold

4. Noise as a Limit to Light Measurement

5. Instrumental Factors Limiting Measurements

6. Splitting up the Light

7. Chromatic Aberration

8. Collecting, Comparing, and Deciding

9. Summary

References

Chapter 17. Studies on Ultraviolet Radiation Action Upon Animal Cells

1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation

2. Effects of Far- and Near-Ultraviolet Radiation

3. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Cell Nucleus

4. Action Spectra of Ultraviolet-Radiation Effects on Animal Cells

5. Influence of Physiological State on the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation

6. Evidence for Thermal Reactions Following Irradiation of Animal Cells

7. Sensitivity of Cells to Ultraviolet Radiation during Various Phases of the Mitotic Cycle

8. Stimulation of Cell Division by Ultraviolet Radiation

9. Changes in Sensitivity of Nerve Cells after Ultraviolet Irradiation

10. Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation of Parts of a Cell

11. Summary

References

Chapter 18. Mutagenic Effects of Ultraviolet and Visible Light

1. Introduction

2. Mutation Defined

3. Ultraviolet and Visible Light

4. Action Spectra

5. Dose-Effect Relationships

6. Effects of Temperature and Intensity

7. Influence of Oxygen and Peroxides

8. Influence of Metabolic Processes

9. Photodynamically Induced Mutations

10. Genetic Modification of UV-Induced Mutation Frequency

11. Light-Induced Gene Mutation on Molecular Basis

References

Chapter 19. Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage

1. Ultraviolet Radiation and Biological Systems

2. Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage in Organisms

3. Photoreactivation of Ultraviolet Damage to DNA

4. Relation of the in Vitro and in Vivo Systems

5. Role of the Photoreactivation Process in Nature

6. Prospectus

References

Chapter 20. Photochemistry of the Nucleic Acids

1. Introduction

2. Photoproducts Reversed in the Dark by Acid or Heat

3. Photoproducts Reversed by Light of Short Wavelength

4. Photochemistry of Oligonucleotides and Polynucleotides

5. Photochemistry of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

6. Photochemistry of Ribonucleic Acid

7. Photochemistry of 5-Bromouracil in Vivo and in Vitro

8. Unsolved Problems

References

Chapter 21. Bioluminescence—Production of Light by Organisms

1. Introduction: Distribution of Bioluminescence and the Classical "Luciferin-Luciferase" Reaction

2. General Physiology and Chemistry of Bioluminescent Systems

3. Miscellaneous Bioluminescent Systems Whose Chemistry is Relatively Unknown

4. Role of the Bioluminescent Reaction

References

Author Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
456
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483262666

About the Editor

Arthur C. Giese