Photochemistry of Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Photochemistry of Proteins and Nucleic Acids

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology, Volume 22

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Authors: A. D. McLaren, D. Shugar
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483136035

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Photochemistry of Proteins and Nucleic Acids focuses on the effects of ultraviolet and visible radiations on proteins and nucleic acids. The book first discusses some principles of photochemistry, including the laws of photochemistry and factors influencing photochemical reactions in solutions. The text describes absorption and luminescence spectra of nucleoproteins and their components, including principal absorbing groups in proteins, nucleic acids, and nucleoproteins. The selection also highlights the action of ultraviolet light on proteins; photochemical and photosensitized inactivation of enzymes; and the photochemistry of purine and pyrimidine derivatives. The text also discusses nucleic acids and oligo- and polynucleotides. Topics include photochemical degradation of nucleic acid; kinetics of biological inactivation of nucleic acids; nucleoproteins; and reversibility of nucleic acid photolysis. The book also encompasses the inactivation of viruses, including inactivation studies with a plant virus, bacteriophages, and photochemically produced vaccines. The text also presents some problems in photobiology and some techniques in photochemistry. The text is a good source of information for readers interested in the study of proteins and nucleic acids.

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Table of Contents

  • Contents


    I. Some Principles of Photochemistry

    A. Introduction

    1. The Laws of Photochemistry

    2. Absorption Spectroscopy

    3. Transfer Mechanisms of Excitation Energy

    B. Factors of Influence in Photochemical Reactions in Solution

    1. The Absorption of Light and the Quantum Yield

    2. General Nature of Photochemical Reactions in Solution

    II . Absorption and Luminescence Spectra of Nucleoproteins and their Components

    A. Proteins

    1. Principal Absorbing Groups in Proteins

    2. Free and Bound Phenolic Hydroxyl Groups in Proteins

    3. Pep Tide Absorption in the Range 2400-3200Å

    4. Absorption By Fibrous Proteins

    5. Apparent Absorption of Light Attributable to Scattering

    6. Extraneous Absorption in Proteins

    7. Peptide Absorption Below 2400Å

    8. Excited States of Proteins

    B. Nucleic Acids

    1. Purines and Pyrimidines

    2. Nucleosides and Nucleotides

    3. Nucleic Acids, Polynucleotides and Oligonucleotides

    C. Nucleoproteins

    D. Viruses

    III . Action of Ultraviolet Light on Amino-Acids, Peptides and Related Substances

    A. Direct Action

    1. Photochemistry of the End Groups

    2. Photochemistry of the Peptide Bond

    3. Photochemistry of Side Groups and of Amino-Acids

    B. Photosensitized Destruction of Amino-Acids in the Presence of Dyes

    IV . Action of Ultraviolet Light on Proteins : General

    1. Site of Action of Ultraviolet Light On Proteins

    2. Changes in The Absorption Spectra of Proteins with Irradiation

    3. Photolysis and Aggregation of Irradiated Proteins

    (A) Photolysis of the Peptide Bond

    (B) Effect of Ultraviolet Light On Disulfide Linkages

    (C) Aggregation Phenomena

    4. Irradiation of Protein Monolayers

    V. Photochemical and Photosensitized Inactivation of Enzymes

    1. Kinetics of Enzyme Inactivation in Solution

    2. Mechanism of Inactivation of Enzymes By Ultraviolet Light

    3. Kinetics of Inactivation of Dry Enzymes

    4. Photosensitized Inactivation of Enzymes

    VI. Photochemistry of Purine and Pyrimidine Derivatives

    1. Carbohydrates

    2. Purine Derivatives

    3. Purine Nucleotides

    4. Nucleotide Co-Enzymes

    5. Pyrimidine Derivatives

    6. Reversible Photoproducts of Uracil Derivatives

    7. Photochemically Induced Additions to Double Bonds

    8. Dimer Photoproducts

    9. Kinetics and Mechanism of Photochemical Transformation of Some Uracil Analogues

    10. Reversible Photoproducts of Cytosine Derivatives

    (A) Nature of Photoproducts of Cytosine Glycosides

    (B) Cytosine and l-Methylcytosine

    (E) Quantum Yields For Cytosine Derivatives

    (D) Kinetics of Reverse Reaction

    11. Primary Photoproducts of Substituted Pyrimidine Derivatives

    12. Photodegradation Products of Pyrimidine Derivatives

    VII. Nucleic Acids and Oligo - and Polynucleotides

    A. General

    B. Photochemical Degradation of Nucleic Acids

    1. Deoxyribonucleic Acids

    2. Nucleic Acid Films

    3. Ribonucleic Acids

    C. Nucleoproteins

    D. Biological Inactivation

    1. Infectious RNA

    2. Transforming Deoxyriboneucleic Acids (T-DNA)

    3. RNA Core

    E. Kinetics of Biological Inactivation of Nucleic Acids

    F. Reversibility of Nucleic Acid Photolysis

    1. Physico-Chemical Evidence For Reversibility

    2. Reversal of Biological Inactivation

    G. Summary of Primary Effects of Ultraviolet Light On Nucleic Acids

    H. Indirect Irradiation Effects

    VIII. Inactivation of Virus

    A. Introduction

    B. Inactivation Studies with A Plant Virus

    C. Photochemically Produced Vaccines

    D. Bacteriophages

    1. DNA Content and UV Lethality

    2. Action Spectra

    3. Quantum Yields

    4. Kinetics of Inactivation of Infectivity

    5. Phage-Host Interactions

    E. Photosenisitized Inactivation

    IX. Some Selected Problems in Photobiology

    A. Radiation Receptors in Biological Systems : Action Spectra

    1. Wavelength Dependence of Quantum Yields

    2. Examples of Action Spectra Studies

    3. Partial Cell Irradiation

    B. Reversal of Initial Photobiological Effects : Photoreactivation

    1. Ultimate Effects of Ultraviolet Irradiation

    2. Characteristics of Photoreactivation

    3. Radiation Receptors in Photoreactivation

    4. Physical Models As Analogies of Photoreactivation

    5. Alternative Methods For Reversal of Ultraviolet Effects

    6. Potential Reversible Photochemical Transformations In Nucleic Acids

    C. Radiation Induced Syntheses : Origin of Life

    Appendix. Some Techniques in Photochemistry

    A. Light Sources

    1. Mercury Arcs

    2. Carbon Arcs

    3. Xenon Arcs

    4. Low-Pressure Mercury Resonance Lamps

    5. 1849 Å Resonance Lamp

    6. Simple Laboratory Sources of 2537 À Radiation For Inactivation Studies and Preparative Photochemistry

    7. Monochromators

    8. Flash Discharge Sources

    B. Flash-Photolysis Flash-Spectroscopy

    C. Spectral Filters

    1. Solid Filters

    2. Chemical Filter Combinations

    D. Measurement of Light Intensity

    1. Physical Methods

    2. Chemical Actinometry

    E. Microbeam, Or Partial Cell, Irradiation



Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483136035

About the Authors

A. D. McLaren

D. Shugar

About the Editors

P. Alexander

Z. M. Bacq

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