Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectroscopy

Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectroscopy

Principles and Applications

1st Edition - December 1, 2022

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  • Editors: Surya Thakur, Virendra Rai, Jagdish Singh
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323917322

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Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications introduces the basic principles, instrumentation and major developments in the many applications of Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectroscopy over the last three decades. The book explains the processes of sound generation by periodic optical excitation and ultrasonic generation by pulsed laser excitation and describes the workings of photoacoustic cells equipped with microphones and piezoelectric transducers. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is one of the fastest-growing imaging modalities of recent times. It combines the advantages of ultrasound and optical imaging techniques. These non-invasive and non-destructive techniques offer many benefits to users by enabling spectroscopy of opaque and inhomogeneous materials, (solid, liquid, powder, gel, gases) without any sample preparation, and more.

Key Features

  • Written in a non-mathematical, simple-to-read manner
  • Presents recent developments in the field, along with the scope of future progress, including up-to-date references
  • Includes detailed illustrations, such as equipment layout, spectra, experimental setups, tables, photographs, and more


Researchers in physics, analytical chemistry and spectroscopy, environmental science; biologists, health workers, and clinicians who make use of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques; Graduate and post-doctoral researchers in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering

Table of Contents

  • I. Basic physics and instrumentation 

    Chapter 1. Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy: Fundamentals and recent advances 

      1. Introduction 
      2. The Physics of Photothermal signal generation 
      3. Instrumentation for Photoacoustic (PA) and Photothermal (PT) Spectroscopy 
      4. Experimental Systems for PAS and PTS 
      5. Applications of PAS and PTS 
      6. Future Prospects of PTS and PAS 
      7. Conclusion 


     Ib. Photoacoustic spectroscopy 


    Chapter 2. Physics and instrumentation for photoacoustic spectroscopy of solids 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Theory of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy 
      3. Direct and indirect detection of PA signal 
      4. Design and fabrication of photoacoustic cell  
      5. Photoacoustic spectrometer  
      6. Conclusion 


    Chapter 3. Physics and techniques of photoacoustic spectroscopy of liquids 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Theory of photoacoustic signal generation in liquids 
      3. Experimental system for photoacoustic spectroscopy of  liquids 
      4. Photoacoustic Raman spectroscopy (PARS) of liquids 
      5. Photoacoustic two-photon vibronic spectroscopy in liquids 
      6. Photoacoustic vibrational-overtone spectroscopy in liquids 
      7. Conclusion

    Chapter 4. Electret microphone for photoacoustic spectrometer and a simple power meter 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Electrical and mechanical properties of condenser microphone 
      3. Design and Fabrication of Electret microphone 
      4. Design and Fabrication of Photoacoustic cell for power meter 
      5. Calibration of the power meter 
      6. Conclusion 


    Chapter 5. Design, characterization and applications of photoacoustic cells 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Components of Photoacoustic spectrometer 
      3. Photoacoustic cells 
      4. Electronics and signal processing 
      5. Characterization of PA spectrometer 
      6. PA signal from cw Laser without chopping 
      7. Conclusion. 


    Chapter 6. Photoacoustic instrumentation for life sciences 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Laser-tissue interactions 
      3. Photoacoustic measurement systems 
      4. Methods of Photoacoustic Imaging 
      5. Photoacoustic microscopy 
      6. Photoacoustic endoscopy 
      7. Photoacoustic tomography 
      8. Conclusion 


    Chapter 7. Ultrafast Laser Induced Photothermal Spectroscopy 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Theoretical Principles 
      3. Experimental Details 
      4. Development of models  
      5. Conclusions 
      6. Epilogue 


    Ic. Photothermal spectroscopy 


    Chapter 8. Thermo-optic techniques: A tool for interdisciplinary studies 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Physics of photothermal effects 
        1. Theory of photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PTDS) 
        2. Theory of photothermal lens spectroscopy (PTLS) 

      3. Experimental details of PTDS 
      4. Applications of PTDS 
      5. Experimental details of PTLS 
        1. Single beam PTLS 
        2. Dual beam PTLS 

      6. Photothermal lens technique in the study of nonlinear optical effects 
      7. Photothermal lens technique in spectroscopic investigations 
      8. Photothermal lens technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology 
      9. Interdisciplinary applications of thermo-optic spectroscopy 
      10. Conclusion 


    Chapter 9. Photothermal effects in optical materials 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Thermal lensing experiment 
      3. Thermal lensing in Nd-doped gain medium 
      4. Thermal lensing in Er-doped gain medium 
      5. Thermal lensing in Yb-doped gain medium 
      6. Methods of reducing thermal lensing effects 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 10. Photopyroelectric spectroscopy: a direct photothermal technique to evaluate thermal properties of condensed matter 

      1. Introduction 
      2. The photopyroelectric effect: Theory 
      3. Photopyroelectric technique: Instrumentation 
      4. Simultaneous determination of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity 
      5. Monitoring phase transitions in solids 
      6. Results on selected systems and Discussion 
      7. Conclusions 

    II.  PAS and PTS applications 

    IIa. Material science and radiation damage 


    Chapter 11. Photothermal studies in semiconductor materials 

      1. Photothermal (PT) effect in semiconductors 
      2. 1-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional theoretical models for PT signal generation 
      3. Measurement of thermal and electronic transport properties of semiconductors 
      4. Photothermal signals due to defect bands in semiconductors 
      5. Photothermal studies in semiconductor devices 
      6. Plasmon assisted photothermal effect in semiconductors 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 12. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of some layered systems and Rare-Earth ions 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Requirements of Photoacoustic spectrometer  
      3. Design and Calibration of photoacoustic cell and spectrometer 
      4. Photoacoustic signal in a layered sample 
      5. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of RE ions with a Microphone detector 
      6. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of RE ions with a Piezoelectric detector 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 13. Photoacoustic studies on neutron irradiated RE-oxide powder and γ- irritated Nd-doped glasses 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Relaxation processes of RE-ions in lattices 
      3. Photoacoustic spectra of RE-oxide powder 
      4. Effect of neutron irradiation on Er2O3 
      5. Optical absorption spectra of gamma-irradiated Nd-doped glass 
      6. FTIR spectroscopy of gamma-irradiated Nd-doped glass 
      7. EDX and XPS of gamma-irradiated Nd-doped glass 
      8. Conclusion 


    Chapter 14. A comparative Investigation of polymers exposed to neutrons, protons and γ-rays using optical and photoacoustic techniques 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Effects of high energy particles on polymers 
      3. PA spectroscopy of neutron and proton irradiated Kapton 
      4. UV-Vis spectroscopy of γ- irradiated Kapton and PMMA 
      5. FTIR spectroscopy of γ- irradiated Kapton and PMMA 
      6. Degradation processes in Kapton and PMMA 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 15. Photoacoustic and optical spectroscopy of dye-coated plasmonic thin films of silver and gold 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Optical properties of thin film of metal and it's composite with dye 
      3. PA spectra of thin silver films 
      4. PA spectra of composite of silver films with dye 
      5. Theoretically calculated spectra of silver films and it's dye composite 
      6. Surface morphology of thin gold film 
      7. Optical properties of gold and dye composite films 
      8. Conclusion 


    Chapter 16. Photoacoustic studies on organic dye solutions 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Energy levels and relaxation processes in dyes 
      3. Excitation-transfer and kinetic processes in solutions 
      4. PA spectroscopy of Rh6G and RhB dye mixture 
      5. PA spectroscopy of dyes adsorbed on Al2O3 surface 
      6. Evaluation of rate constant 
      7. Fluorescence quenching in RhB by O2 
      8. Conclusion  


    IIb. Environmental monitoring 


    Chapter 17. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of liquid samples and polluted water 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Experimental techniques for PAS of liquids 
      3. Photoacoustic Raman gain spectroscopy of liquids 
      4. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of actinides in solutions 
      5. PAS detection of orthophosphate and ammonium in solution 
      6. PAS of low volatility liquids 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 18. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of gases and harmful vapours 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Photoacoustic cells for measurements on gases 
      3. Photoacoustic gas temperature monitoring 
      4. Trace detection of polluting gases 
      5. PA spectroscopy of ozone 
      6. PA spectroscopy of gases emanating from human body 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 19. Thermal lensing spectroscopy of hydrocarbon molecules 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Mechanism of laser-induced lens 
      3. Vibrational modes of molecules 
      4. Experimental setup for overtone spectroscopy 
      5. Overtone spectroscopy of benzene molecule 
      6. Overtone spectroscopy of substituted benzene molecules 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 20. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Experimental setup 
      3. Photoacoustic electronic spectroscopy of I2 molecule                                                                                                                
      4. Photoacoustic electronic spectroscopy of Br2 molecule                                                                                                          
      5. Two-photon spectroscopy of acetone molecule      

    IIc. Homeland security 


    Chapter 21. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy of explosives and drugs 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of explosives 
      3. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of drugs 
      4. Conclusion 


    Chapter 22. Laser Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectroscopy for Homeland Security and Defense 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Security environment 
      3. Technology of PA detection in hazardous atmosphere 
      4. Experimental Systems 
      5. Conclusion 


    IId. Agriculture and food 


    Chapter 23. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A novel optical characterization technique in Agricultural science 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Photoacoustic spectroscopy in Agricultural science 
      3. Design and fabrication of photoacoustic cell 
      4. Experimental setup for PAS of samples 
      5. PA spectral characterization of disease in plants 
      6. Conclusion 
      7. Future of PAS in Agricultural science 


    Chapter 24. Photoacoustic spectroscopy of foodstuff 

      1. Introduction 
      2. PA spectroscopy of grains and legumes 
      3. PA spectroscopy of fruits and vegetables 
      4. PA spectroscopy of food dyes 
      5. PA spectroscopy in agrofood industry 
      6. Conclusions 


    IIe. Life science and biomedical  


    Chapter 25. Application of modulated optical excitation in the investigation and cure of diseases 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Experimental setup 
      3. Photoacoustic signal generation in tissue 
      4. Spectroscopic applications 
      5. Photothermal and optical excitation in wound healing 
      6. Conclusion 


    Chapter 26. Applications of optical and photothermal excitations in cervical and breast cancers 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Effect of modulated laser radiation on tissue 
      3. Disease diagnosis with photothermal spectroscopy 
      4. Photoacoustic imaging in cervical cancer 
      5. Photoacoustic imaging in breast cancer 
      6. Conclusion 


    Chapter 27. Applications of photoacoustic spectroscopy in gastroenterology 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Principles of photoacoustic imaging 
      3. Gastrointestinal tract and its disorders 
      4. Photoacoustic endoscopy of esophagus 
      5. Multispectral photoacoustic tomography 
      6. Photoacoustic imaging in pancreatic cancer 
      7. Conclusion 


    Chapter 28. A Comparative account of PAS and LIBS for compositional studies of gallbladder stones 

      1. Introduction  
      2. LIBS analysis of gallbladder stone 
      3. PAS analysis of gallbladder stones 
      4. Conclusion 


    Chapter 29. Photoacoustic imaging of the mouse brain to get insights into the human brain 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Principle of photoacoustic tomography  
      3. Photoacoustic focused scanning tomography 
      4. Photoacoustic computed tomography 
      5. Photoacoustic imaging of brain 
      6. PAT of the brain in action and at rest 
      7. Photoacoustic molecular imaging in the brain 
      8. Conclusion 


    Chapter 30. Photoacoustic Tomography and its Applications 

      1. Introduction 
      2. Optical and photoacoustic tomography 
      3. Experimental systems  
      4. Applications 
      5. Conclusion 

Product details

  • No. of pages: 676
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: December 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323917322

About the Editors

Surya Thakur

Surya N. Thakur is a retired Professor of Physics at Banaras Hindu University, India. He has taught courses in Physical Optics, Atomic Spectroscopy, Electronic & Vibrational Spectroscopy of Molecules, Spectro-Chemical Analysis, Lasers & Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Molecular Vibrations & Nonradiative Transitions and Experimental Techniques of Supersonic Molecular Beam Spectroscopy, Photoacoustic & Photothermal Spectroscopy, Optogalvanic Spectroscopy, and Raman Spectroscopy. He received his PhD in Experimental Spectroscopy from Banaras Hindu University and carried out postdoctoral work at Reading University, UK and SUNY Binghamton, USA. His interests are nonlinear spectroscopy, potential surfaces and nonradiative transitions in large molecules. He has held 1851 Exhibition Fellowship of the Royal Commission (London) and the Career Award of the University Grants Commission (New Delhi, India). He was President of the Physics Section of Indian National Science Congress in 1991 and is a Fellow of the Laser and Spectroscopy Society of India. He has over 100 research publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Virendra Rai

Dr. Virendra N Rai obtained his PhD in Physics from the Banaras Hindu University in 1983. He has specialization in Laser Produced Plasma, Plasma Diagnostics, Magnetic Confinement of Plasma, Laser Spectroscopy, Material Characterization, and Radiation effect on Material. Dr. Rai is an adjunct Professor (Hon.), Devi Ahilya University, Indore, since April 2018. Prior to this he was a scientific officer in Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, where he also worked as a scientific officer in Laser Plasma Division. He has guided 4 M. Tech students and 5 PhD students. He is Life Member of Indian Laser Association (ILA), Plasma Science Society of India (PSSI), Laser and Spectroscopy Society of India (LASSI), Indian Society for Radiation Physics (ISRP). He has over 150 research publications and he has been a reviewer of a dozen international journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Scientific Officer, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, India

Jagdish Singh

Dr. Singh received his M.Sc. and PhD from Banaras Hindu University, India. His field of specialization is Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Fiber Sensors, Explosive detection, Molecular Dynamics, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion, Laser Ultrasonic and Hazardous Waste Management. Dr. Singh is currently working on laser-based advanced optical diagnostics such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the composition of the Plutonium Oxide residue produced during weapons-grade Plutonium processing. He has developed LIBS for measuring the concentration of toxic metals in the off-gases and in melt glass. Dr. Singh has worked in laser photo fragmentation laser induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to measure the concentration of explosives. Dr. Singh has also developed Non-linear laser diagnostic techniques such as Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy for high temperature, high luminescence and turbulent combustion flows. He has published 165 papers in International Journals, 176 presentations and 8 patents. Dr. Singh is Fellow of OSA and LASSI.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute for Clean Energy Technology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University – Starkville, MS, USA

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