Phase Transformations in Steels

Phase Transformations in Steels

Diffusionless Transformations, High Strength Steels, Modelling and Advanced Analytical Techniques

1st Edition - May 11, 2012

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  • Editors: Elena Pereloma, David Edmonds
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699710
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096111

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Description

The processing-microstructure-property relationships in steels continue to present challenges to researchers because of the complexity of phase transformation reactions and the wide spectrum of microstructures and properties achievable. This major two-volume work summarises the current state of research on phase transformations in steels and its implications for the emergence of new steels with enhanced engineering properties.Volume 2 reviews current research on diffusionless transformations and phase transformations in high strength steels, as well as advances in modelling and analytical techniques which underpin this research. Chapters in part one discuss the crystallography and kinetics of martensite transformations, the morphology, substructure and tempering of martensite as well as shape memory in ferrous alloys. Part two summarises research on phase transformations in high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels, quenched and partitioned steels, advanced nanostructured bainitic steels, high manganese twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) and maraging steels. The final two parts of the book review advances in modelling and the use of advanced analytical techniques to improve our understanding of phase transformations in steels.With its distinguished editors and distinguished international team of contributors, the two volumes of Phase transformations in steels is a standard reference for all those researching the properties of steel and developing new steels in such areas as automotive engineering, oil and gas and energy production.

Key Features

  • Alongside its companion volume, this major two-volume work summarises the current state of research on phase transformations in steels
  • Reviews research on diffusionless transformations and phase transformations in high strength steels
  • Examines advances in modelling and the use of advanced analytical techniques to improve understanding of phase transformations in steels

Readership

Scientists, metallurgical engineers and senior technicians in research and development laboratories, designers and fabricators, as well as academics and students.

Table of Contents

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    Foreword

    Introduction

    Part I: Diffusionless transformations

    Chapter 1: Crystallography of martensite transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Martensite transformations in steels

    1.3 Phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography (PTMC)

    1.4 The post phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography (PTMC) period

    1.5 Strain energy – the Eshelby/Christian model and the infinitesimal deformation (ID) approach

    1.6 Interfacial dislocation models

    1.7 Future trends

    1.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 2: Morphology and substructure of martensite in steels

    Abstract:

    2.1 Morphology and crystallographic features of martensite in ferrous alloys

    2.2 Morphology and substructure of lath martensite

    2.3 Morphology and substructure of lenticular martensite

    2.4 Morphology and substructure of thin plate martensite

    2.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 3: Kinetics of martensite transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Mechanism and kinetics of martensitic transformation

    3.3 Mechanically induced transformations

    3.4 Transformation plasticity constitutive relations and applications

    3.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 4: Shape memory in ferrous alloys

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Fe-Pt alloys

    4.3 Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-C alloys

    4.4 Fe-Ni-Co-based alloys

    4.5 Austenitic stainless steels with low stacking fault energy (SFE)

    4.6 Fe-Mn-based alloys

    4.7 Summary

    4.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Tempering of martensite in carbon steels

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Martensitic microstructures prior to tempering heat treatments

    5.3 Classification of aging and tempering stages: general considerations

    5.4 Changes in martensitic fine structure due to aging

    5.5 The stages of tempering

    5.6 Conclusions

    Part II: Phase transformations in high strength steels

    Chapter 6: Phase transformations in microalloyed high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction to microalloyed high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels

    6.2 Brief historical review of the development of microalloyed steels

    6.3 Solubility of microalloying elements in austenite and ferrite

    6.4 Precipitation

    6.5 Effects of microalloying on transformation kinetics

    6.6 Phase transformations during high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels processing

    6.7 Controlled processed ferrite/bainite and acicular ferrite steels

    6.8 Conclusions and future trends

    6.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 7: Phase transformations in transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Historical perspectives on the emergence of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels

    7.3 Influence of parameters of the thermomechanical process on the formation of multiphase microstructures containing retained austenite

    7.4 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 8: Phase transformations in quenched and partitioned steels

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction to the quenching and partitioning concept

    8.2 Microstructure development fundamentals and alloy designs

    8.3 Mechanical behavior, potential applications, and implementation status

    8.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Phase transformations in advanced bainitic steels

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Design of third generation of advanced high strength steels

    9.3 Carbide-free bainitic steels: a material ready for the nanocentury

    9.4 Conclusions and future trends

    9.5 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 10: Phase transformations in high manganese twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Fe-Mn-X alloys

    10.3 Strain-induced twinning

    10.4 Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) industrialization

    10.5 Conclusions

    10.6 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 11: Phase transformations in maraging steels

    Abstract:

    11.1 State of the art of ultra high strength steels

    11.2 Types of maraging steels

    11.3 Microstructure and precipitates in maraging steels

    11.4 Reverted austenite and mechanical properties

    11.5 Evolution of precipitates and the overall process

    11.6 Precipitation kinetic theory in Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging type alloy

    11.7 Research trends

    Part III: Modelling phase transformations

    Chapter 12: First principles in modelling phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Ab initio description of phase stability of pure iron

    12.3 Ab initio phase stability of iron carbides

    12.4 Substitutional alloying elements

    12.5 Ab initio description of diffusivity in bcc Fe

    12.6 Future trends

    Chapter 13: Phase field modelling of phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Phase field methodology

    13.3 Austenite formation

    13.4 Austenite decomposition

    13.5 Future trends

    Chapter 14: Molecular dynamics modeling of martensitic transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Interatomic interaction potentials

    14.3 Martensitic transformations in iron: case studies

    14.4 Transformations in ferrous nanosystems

    14.5 Conclusions and future trends

    14.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 15: Neural networks modeling of phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Essence of the method

    15.3 On the quest of critical temperatures

    15.4 Determining microstructural parameters

    15.5 Development of continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams

    15.6 Conclusions and future trends

    Part IV: Advanced analytical techniques for studying phase transformations in steels

    Chapter 16: Application of modern transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to the study of phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation

    16.3 Conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) of steels

    16.4 Modern transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of steels

    16.5 In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    16.6 Future trends: emerging transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques

    16.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 17: Atom probe tomography for studying phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Outline of the technique

    17.3 Specimen requirements

    17.4 Recent developments

    17.5 Interpretation of data

    17.6 Characterizing and understanding phase transformations in various steels

    17.7 Future trends

    17.8 Conclusion

    17.9 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 18: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques for studying phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Fundamentals of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique

    18.3 The current standard of 2D electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) applications

    18.4 3D electron backscatter diffraction (3D-EBSD)

    18.5 Conclusions and future development of the technique

    Chapter 19: Application of synchrotron and neutron scattering techniques for tracking phase transformations in steels

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 X-ray and neutron scattering techniques

    19.3 Measurements of phase transformation in steels

    19.4 Conclusions and future trends

    19.5 Acknowledgements

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 680
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: May 11, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699710
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096111

About the Editors

Elena Pereloma

Elena Pereloma is Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Director of the BlueScope Steel Metallurgy Centre at the University of Wollongong, Australia.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wollongong, Australia

David Edmonds

David V. Edmonds is Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy at University of Leeds, UK. Both have made major contributions to steel research.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Leeds, UK

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