Phase Transformations in Steels

Phase Transformations in Steels

Fundamentals and Diffusion-Controlled Transformations

1st Edition - May 11, 2012

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  • Editors: Elena Pereloma, David Edmonds
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016275
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096104

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The processing-microstructure-property relationships in steels continue to present challenges to researchers because of the complexity of phase transformation reactions and the wide spectrum of microstructures and properties achievable. This major two-volume work summarises the current state of research on phase transformations in steels and its implications for the emergence of new steels with enhanced engineering properties.Volume 1 reviews fundamentals and diffusion-controlled phase transformations. After a historical overview, chapters in part one discuss fundamental principles of thermodynamics, diffusion and kinetics as well as phase boundary interfaces. Chapters in part two go on to consider ferrite formation, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite transformations, pearlite formation and massive austenite-ferrite phase transformations. Part three discusses the mechanisms of bainite transformations, including carbide-containing and carbide-free bainite. The final part of the book considers additional driving forces for transformation including nucleation and growth during austenite-to-ferrite phase transformations, dynamic strain-induced ferrite transformations (DIST) as well as the effects of magnetic fields and heating rates.With its distinguished editors and distinguished international team of contributors, the two volumes of Phase transformations in steels is a standard reference for all those researching the properties of steel and developing new steels in such areas as automotive engineering, oil and gas and energy production.

Key Features

  • Discusses the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, diffusion and kinetics
  • Considers various transformations, including ferrite formation, proeutectoid ferrite and cementite transformations
  • Considers additional driving forces for transformation including nucleation and growth during austenite-to-ferrite phase transformations


Scientists, metallurgical engineers and senior technicians in research and development laboratories, designers and fabricators, as well as academics and students.

Table of Contents

  • Part I: Fundamentals of phase transformations

    Chapter 1: The historical development of phase transformations understanding in ferrous alloys


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The legacy of ferrous technology, characterization, and understanding prior to 1880

    1.3 The recognition of ferrous phase transformations in the first period (1880–1925)

    1.4 The consolidation of ferrous phase transformations in the second period (1925–1970)

    1.5 Conclusion

    1.6 Bibliography

    Chapter 2: Thermodynamics of phase transformations in steels


    2.1 Introduction: the use of thermodynamics in phase transformations

    2.2 External and internal variables

    2.3 The state of equilibrium

    2.4 The combined first and second law – its application

    2.5 The calculation of thermodynamic properties and equilibrium under fixed T, P and composition

    2.6 Gibbs energy of phases in steel – the Calphad method

    2.7 Various kinds of phase diagrams

    2.8 Effect of interfaces

    2.9 Thermodynamics of fluctuations in equilibrium systems

    2.10 Thermodynamics of nucleation

    Chapter 3: Fundamentals of diffusion in phase transformations


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Driving forces of simultaneous processes

    3.3 Atomistic model of diffusion

    3.4 Change to a new frame of reference

    3.5 Evaluation of mobilities

    3.6 Trapping and transition to diffusionless transformation

    3.7 Future trends

    3.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 4: Kinetics of phase transformations in steels


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 General kinetic models

    4.3 Geometrical/microstructural aspects in kinetics

    4.4 Nucleation

    4.5 Growth

    4.6 Experimental methods

    4.7 Industrial relevance

    4.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Structure, energy and migration of phase boundaries in steels


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Atomic structure of phase boundaries

    5.3 Free energies of phase boundaries

    5.4 Migration of phase boundaries

    5.5 Conclusions and future trends

    Part II: Diffusion-controlled transformations

    Chapter 6: Fundamentals of ferrite formation in steels


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Crystallography

    6.3 Transformation ranges

    6.4 Nucleation

    6.5 Growth

    6.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Proeutectoid ferrite and cementite transformations in steels


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Temperature-composition range of formation of proeutectoid ferrite and cementite

    7.3 The Dubé morphological classification system

    7.4 Three-dimensional morphological classifications

    7.5 Crystallographic orientation relationships with austenite

    7.6 Habit plane, growth direction and interfacial structure of proeutectoid precipitates

    7.7 Future trends

    7.8 Source of further information and advice

    7.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 8: The formation of pearlite in steels


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 An overview of the pearlite reaction

    8.3 Crystallographic aspects of the reaction

    8.4 The role of alloying elements

    8.5 The deformation of pearlite

    8.6 Future trends in pearlitic steels

    8.7 Sources of further information and advice

    8.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 9: Nature and kinetics of the massive austenite-ferrite phase transformations in steels


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Kinetic information based on thermal analysis

    9.3 Modular phase transformation model

    9.4 Characteristics of normal and abnormal transformations

    9.5 Kinetics of the normal transformation

    9.6 Kinetics of the abnormal transformation

    9.7 Transition from diffusion-controlled growth to interface-controlled growth

    9.8 Transition from interface-controlled growth to diffusion-controlled growth

    9.9 Massive transformation under uniaxial compressive stress

    9.10 Conclusion

    Part III: Bainite and diffusional-displacive transformations

    Chapter 10: Mechanisms of bainite transformation in steels


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Bainite: general characteristics

    10.3 Diffusion-controlled growth mechanism

    10.4 Displacive mechanism of transformation

    10.5 Summary and conclusion

    Chapter 11: Carbide-containing bainite in steels


    11.1 Definitions of bainite structure

    11.2 Crystallography and related characteristics of ferrite in bainite

    11.3 Characteristics of carbide precipitation in bainite structure

    11.4 Future trends

    Chapter 12: Carbide-free bainite in steels


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Influence of silicon on cementite precipitation in steels

    12.3 Carbon distribution during the carbide-free bainite reaction

    12.4 Microstructural observations of plastic accommodation in carbide-free bainite

    12.5 Conclusions

    12.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 13: Kinetics of bainite transformation in steels


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Transformation diagrams

    13.3 Nucleation and growth of bainite

    13.4 Start temperature of bainite

    13.5 Effect of alloying elements

    13.6 Overall kinetics

    13.7 Conclusions

    13.8 Acknowledgement

    Part IV: Additional driving forces for transformations

    Chapter 14: Nucleation and growth during the austenite-to-ferrite phase transformation in steels after plastic deformation


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Background

    14.3 Experiments and simulations on the effect of plastic deformation on ferrite formation

    14.4 Future trends and conclusion

    Chapter 15: Dynamic strain-induced ferrite transformation (DSIT) in steels


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 What limits grain refinement in conventional static transformation?

    15.3 Ultrafine ferrite formation in steels

    15.4 Nature of the transformation

    15.5 Modelling

    15.6 Can grain sizes less than 1 μm be achieved?

    15.7 Industrial implementation

    15.8 Future trends

    15.9 Conclusions

    15.10 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 16: The effect of a magnetic field on phase transformations in steels


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Evolution of the magnetic field generators

    16.3 Basic mechanisms of field influence on a phase transformation in steels

    16.4 Effect of magnetic field on phase equilibrium and transformation

    16.5 Future trends and conclusions

    Chapter 17: The effect of heating rate on reverse transformations in steels and Fe-Ni-based alloys


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Effect of heating rate on austenite formation in steels

    17.3 Effect of heating rate on austenite microstructure after γ → α(α) → γ phase transformations in quenched steels

    17.4 Effect of rapid heating on mechanical properties of steels and its applications

    17.5 Effect of heating rate on the reverse austenite transformation in Fe-Ni-based alloys

    17.6 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 656
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: May 11, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081016275
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857096104

About the Editors

Elena Pereloma

Elena Pereloma is Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Director of the BlueScope Steel Metallurgy Centre at the University of Wollongong, Australia.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wollongong, Australia

David Edmonds

David V. Edmonds is Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy at University of Leeds, UK. Both have made major contributions to steel research.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Leeds, UK

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