Pharmacognosy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021040, 9780128020999

Pharmacognosy

1st Edition

Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies

Authors: Simone Badal McCreath Rupika Delgoda
eBook ISBN: 9780128020999
Paperback ISBN: 9780128021040
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 29th November 2016
Page Count: 738
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Description

Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. This book also provides an in-depth look at natural sources from which medicines are derived, their pharmacological and chemical properties, safety aspects, and how they interact with humans.

The book is vital for future research planning, helping readers understand the makeup, function, and metabolites of plants in a way where the history of their usage can be linked to current drug development research, including in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research data.

By focusing on basic principles, current research, and global trends, this book provides a critical resource for students and researchers in the areas of pharmacognosy, pharmacy, botany, medicine, biotechnology, biochemistry, and chemistry.

Key Features

  • Covers the differences between animal and plant cells to facilitate an easier transition to how the body interacts with these entities
  • Contains practice questions and laboratory exercises at the end of every chapter to test learning and retention
  • Provides a single source that covers fundamental topics and future strategies, with the goal of enabling further research that will contribute to the overall health and well-being of mankind

Readership

Students and researchers in the fields of pharmaceutical science, pharmacy and pharmacognosy;  students and researchers in medicine, biotechnology, botany, biochemistry and chemistry

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Pharmacognosy 101
    • Chapter 1. Background to Pharmacognosy
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Definitions
      • 1.2 History of Pharmacognosy
      • 1.3 Definition of Terms
      • 1.4 Scope of Pharmacognosy
      • 1.5 Emerging Areas in Pharmacognosy
      • 1.6 Pharmacognosists, What They Do?
      • 1.7 Conclusions
      • 1.8 Practice Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Traditional Medicine
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • 2.2 The Indian Systems of Medicine
      • 2.3 African Traditional Medicine
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 3. Areas of Science Embraced by Pharmacognosy: Constituent Sciences of Pharmacognosy
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Botany
      • 3.2 Chemistry
      • 3.3 Enzymology
      • 3.4 Genetics
      • 3.5 Pharmacology
      • 3.6 Horticulture
      • 3.7 Quality Control
      • 3.8 Biotechnology
      • 3.9 Conclusion
      • 3.10 Review Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Plant Anatomy and Physiology
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Plant Structure
      • 4.2 Plant Function
      • 4.3 Practice Questions
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 5. Plant Constituents: Carbohydrates, Oils, Resins, Balsams, and Plant Hormones
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Carbohydrates: Classification, Function, and Uses in Medicine
      • 5.2 Nonessential oils
      • 5.3 Essential Oils
      • 5.4 Resins and Balsams
      • 5.5 Plant Hormones and Growth Factors
      • 5.6 Summary
      • 5.7 Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Plant Crude Drugs
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Background
      • 6.2 Classification of Crude Drugs
      • 6.3 Plant Cultivation and Collection
      • 6.4 Herbarium Specimen Preparation and Significance
      • 6.5 Plant Crude Drug Extraction and Production
      • 6.6 Conclusion
      • 6.7 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
  • Part II: Plant Metabolites: Their Chemistry
    • Chapter 7. Evolutionary Perspectives on the Role of Plant Secondary Metabolites
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 What are Secondary Metabolites?
      • 7.2 At the Beginning
      • 7.3 The Transitions
      • 7.4 Evidence for Evolutionary Theory
      • 7.5 The Expression of Secondary Metabolites
      • 7.6 Secondary Metabolites, A Worthy Investment: Further Support
      • 7.7 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Glycosides
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Extraction of Glycosides
      • 8.3 Chemical Tests
      • 8.4 Phenolic Glycosides (PHG)
      • 8.5 Coumarin Glycosides (CMG) and Chromone Glycosides (CHG)
      • 8.6 Flavonoid Glycosides (FLG)
      • 8.7 Anthraquinone Glycosides (AQG)
      • 8.8 Saponin Glycosides (SPG)
      • 8.9 Cardiac Glycosides (CRG)
      • 8.10 Cyanogenic Glycosides (CNG)
      • 8.11 Thioglycosides (THG)
      • 8.12 Conclusions
      • 8.13 Self-evaluation questions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Alkaloids
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Physicochemical Properties of Alkaloids
      • 9.3 Tests for Alkaloids
      • 9.4 Classification of Alkaloids
      • 9.5 Heterocyclic Alkaloids
      • 9.6 L-Tyrosine Derivatives
      • 9.7 L-Ornithine Derivatives
      • 9.8 Asparaginate and Glutamate Derivatives
      • 9.9 L-Tryptophan Derivatives
      • 9.10 Anthranilic Acid Derivatives
      • 9.11 L-Lysine Derivatives
      • 9.12 Histidine Derivatives
      • 9.13 Other Alkaloids
      • 9.14 Nonheterocyclic Alkaloids
      • 9.15 Conclusions
      • 9.16 Self Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Tannins
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Definition
      • 10.2 Types of Tannins
      • 10.3 Bioactivity of Tannins
      • 10.4 Clinical Trials
      • 10.5 Extraction Processes
      • 10.6 Chemical Tests
      • 10.7 Spectroscopic Determinations
      • 10.8 Nutraceutical Application
      • 10.9 Pharmaceutical Application
      • 10.10 Adverse Effects
      • 10.11 Metabolic Profile of Widely Used Tannin Products
      • 10.12 Conclusions
      • 10.13 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Terpenoids
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Definition
      • 11.2 Types of Terpenoids
      • 11.3 Plants Containing Terpenoids
      • 11.4 Bioactivity of Terpenoids
      • 11.5 Extraction and Chemical Tests
      • 11.6 Pharmaceutical Application
      • 11.7 Nutraceutical Applications
      • 11.8 Conclusions
      • 11.9 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Other Plant Metabolites
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Lignins
      • 12.2 Polyacetylenes
      • 12.3 Conclusions
      • 12.4 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Vitamins
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Water-Soluble Vitamins
      • 13.3 Fat-soluble Vitamins
      • 13.4 Conclusion
      • 13.5 Sample Questions
      • References
  • Part III: Plant Metabolites: Their Effects
    • Chapter 14. Chemotherapeutics
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Chemotherapy Types
      • 14.2 What Is Cancer?
      • 14.3 Types of Cancer
      • 14.4 Leading Cancers Worldwide
      • 14.5 Drugs That Treat and Prevent Cancer
      • 14.6 Recent Research Natural Isolates and Extracts
      • 14.7 Practice Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Bioactive Plant Molecules, Sources and Mechanism of Action in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction—The Problem and Need for Novel Cardiovascular Disease Therapies
      • 15.2 Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerosis
      • 15.3 Hypertension
      • 15.4 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • 15.5 Knowledge Assessment Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Plant Metabolites and More Treating Various Ailments: Natural Products Treating Diseases
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Diseases
      • 16.3 Age-related
      • 16.4 Biochemical Derailments, Metabolic Diseases
      • 16.5 Role of Microbiome in GI Tract
      • 16.6 Fertility and Reproduction
      • 16.7 Neurodegenerative Disease
      • 16.8 Conclusion
      • 16.9 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Psychoactive Drugs
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Definition
      • 17.2 Examples
      • 17.3 Plant Sources
      • 17.4 Myristica Fragrans
      • 17.5 Cannabis
      • 17.6 Conclusions
      • References
  • Part IV: Metabolites from Other Sources
    • Chapter 18. Marine Metabolites: Oceans of Opportunity
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Collection, Extraction, and Isolation of Marine Natural Products
      • 18.3 In Vivo and In Vitro Bioactivity of Metabolites From Macroinvertebrates, Macroalgae, and Microorganisms
      • 18.4 Evaluation of Marine Extracts
      • 18.5 Drugs in Clinical Trials
      • 18.6 Drugs of Marine Origin to Treat Diseases
      • 18.7 Discussion
      • 18.8 Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Animal Metabolites: From Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves/Birds, and Invertebrates
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Extraction of Metabolites
      • 19.3 Metabolites in Vertebrates
      • 19.4 Metabolites in Invertebrates
      • 19.5 Importance of Metabolites
      • 19.6 Conclusion
      • 19.7 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Fungal Metabolites
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Transmission
      • 20.3 Bioactive Fungal Metabolites
      • 20.4 Extraction of Fungal Metabolites
      • 20.5 Types of Fungal Metabolites
      • 20.6 Applications of Secondary Metabolites
      • 20.7 Conclusion
      • 20.8 Self-Evaluation Questions
      • References
  • Part V: Crude Drugs from Animals
    • Chapter 21. Fats
      • Abstract
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Classification of Lipids
      • 21.3 Extraction of Animal Fats
      • 21.4 Nutraceutical Applications
      • 21.5 Pharmaceutical Applications
      • 21.6 Fats and Health
      • 21.7 Conclusion
      • 21.8 Practice Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Waxes
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Characteristics of Waxes
      • 22.3 Composition of Waxes
      • 22.4 Classification of Waxes
      • 22.5 Sources of Waxes
      • 22.6 Biosynthesis of Plant Waxes
      • 22.7 Applications of Waxes
      • 22.8 Synthetic Waxes and Esters
      • 22.9 Plant Waxes
      • 22.10 Animal Waxes
      • 22.11 Marine Waxes
      • 22.12 Mineral Waxes
      • 22.13 Bioactivity of Waxes
      • 22.14 Practice Questions
      • References
  • Part VI: Basic Animal Anatomy and Physiology
    • Chapter 23. Form and Function of the Animal Cell
      • Abstract
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 The Cytoplasm
      • 23.3 The Cell Membranes
      • 23.4 Mitochondria
      • 23.5 Lysosomes
      • 23.6 Peroxisomes
      • 23.7 The Nucleus
      • 23.8 Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • 23.9 Golgi Apparatus
      • 23.10 Cell Signaling
      • 23.11 Test Your Knowledge
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Proteins
      • Abstract
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 General Properties
      • 24.3 From Amino Acid to Protein: Protein Biosynthesis
      • 24.4 Effect of Heat, pH, and Chemical Agents on Protein Folding
      • 24.5 Protein Classification
      • 24.6 Pharmaceutical Applications
      • 24.7 Conclusion
      • 24.8 Self-Assessment Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Pharmacokinetics
      • Abstract
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
      • 25.3 Determination of Pharmacokinetic Parameters
      • 25.4 Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions
      • 25.5 Conclusion and Future Work
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Pharmacodynamics—A Pharmacognosy Perspective
      • Abstract
      • 26.1 Definitions
      • 26.2 Drug Targets
      • 26.3 Adverse Drug Reactions
      • 26.4 Concluding Remarks
      • 26.5 Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 27. Drug Metabolism
      • Abstract
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Function of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes
      • 27.3 Pharmacogenetic Variation
      • 27.4 Induction
      • 27.5 Nomenclature
      • 27.6 Phase 0
      • 27.7 Phase I
      • 27.8 Phase II
      • 27.9 Polymorphisms in Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes
      • 27.10 Consequences of Phases I and II metabolism
      • 27.11 Phase III
      • 27.12 Importance of Recent Developments
      • 27.13 Review Questions
      • References
  • Part VII: Technological Applications Using Biological Systems
    • Chapter 28. Biotechnology
      • Abstract
      • 28.1 Definition
      • 28.2 Biotechnology, Bioengineering, and Biomedical Engineering
      • 28.3 History of Biotechnology
      • 28.4 Biotechnology in Color
      • 28.5 White Biotechnology (Industrial)
      • 28.6 Blue Biotechnology (Marine)
      • 28.7 Red Biotechnology (Medical)
      • 28.8 Green Biotechnology (Agricultural)
      • 28.9 Genetic Engineering Techniques
      • 28.10 Nucleic Acid Isolation
      • 28.11 Gel Electrophoresis
      • 28.12 Southern Blotting
      • 28.13 DNA Hybridization
      • 28.14 DNA Sequencing
      • 28.15 Polymerase Chain Reaction
      • 28.16 DNA Cloning and Restriction Digestion
      • 28.17 Review Questions
      • References
  • Part VIII: Current Trends in Pharmacognosy Research
    • Chapter 29. Natural Product Structure Elucidation by NMR Spectroscopy
      • Abstract
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Basics of NMR Spectroscopy
      • 29.3 Basic NMR Parameters
      • 29.4 Pulsed Fourier Transform NMR
      • 29.5 Key Features of NMR Spectrometers
      • 29.6 Acquiring and Processing 1H and 13C Spectra
      • 29.7 Dereplication of Natural Products
      • 29.8 Two-Dimensional NMR
      • 29.9 Using Combinations of Spectra to Determine Structures and Fully Assign Spectra
      • 29.10 Review Questions
      • 29.11 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 30. Metabolomics Approach in Pharmacognosy
      • Abstract
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 Important Aspects in Metabolomics
      • 30.3 Important Issues in Metabolomics-Based Research
      • 30.4 NMR and MS Platforms in Metabolomics-Based Analysis
      • 30.5 Data Acquisition and Processing
      • 30.6 Statistical Data Processing
      • 30.7 Metabolite Identification
      • 30.8 Plant Metabolomics
      • 30.9 Metabolomics in Herbal Medicinal (Phytomedicinal) Research
      • 30.10 Metabolomics in Drug Discovery and Development
      • 30.11 Summary
      • 30.12 Review Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Novel Targets in Drug Discovery
      • Abstract
      • 31.1 Strategies and Techniques in Target Discovery
      • 31.2 Selected Examples of Novel Targets
      • 31.3 Drug Development and Future Prospects
      • Acknowledgments
      • 31.4 Review Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 32. Nanotechnology: Building and Observing at the Nanometer Scale
      • Abstract
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 How We Make Small Things
      • 32.3 Microfabrication and Optical Lithography
      • 32.4 Electron Beam Lithography
      • 32.5 Atomically Precise Thickness—2D Materials
      • 32.6 Bottom-Up Biological Assembly
      • 32.7 How We Observe Small Things
      • 32.8 High-Resolution Light Microscopy
      • 32.9 Nonlight Techniques: Electron Microscopy, X-ray Scattering, and Force Microscopy
      • 32.10 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 33. Ethical Aspects of Working With Local Communities and Their Biological Resources
      • Abstract
      • 33.1 Introduction
      • 33.2 Local Communities, LK versus Traditional Knowledge
      • 33.3 Intellectual Property Rights
      • 33.4 The Legal Framework of Field Research With Local Communities
      • 33.5 Beyond the Legal: Establishing Ethical Research Partnerships With Local Communities
      • 33.6 What About Ethics in Laboratory Research?
      • 33.7 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Factors to Consider in Development of Nutraceutical and Dietary Supplements
      • Abstract
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Botanicals as Nutraceutical and Dietary Supplements
      • 34.3 Development and Process Validation of Botanicals as Functional Food
      • 34.4 Identification and Authentication of the Plant Material
      • 34.5 Metabolite Profiling and Chemo-Analysis
      • 34.6 Regulatory Aspects, Standardization, and Scientific Validation
      • 34.7 Pharmacovigilance
      • 34.8 Review Questions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 35. The Global Regulatory Framework for Medicinal Plants
      • Abstract
      • 35.1 Why Regulate?
      • 35.2 Regulatory Categories and Frameworks
      • 35.3 Review of Current Regulations
      • 35.4 The Challenges in Regulating MP Products
      • 35.5 Conclusion
      • 35.6 Review Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 36. The Potential Role of Bioscience Industries in Small Developing Economies
      • Abstract
      • 36.1 An Age of Change
      • 36.2 Global Economic Transformation
      • 36.3 Closing Doors
      • 36.4 An Aging World
      • 36.5 Bioindustry Development Options for the Future
      • 36.6 Biofuels
      • 36.7 Industrial Crops
      • 36.8 Flavorings and Essences
      • 36.9 Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods
      • 36.10 Penetrating the New Bioindustry Markets
      • 36.11 Establishing a Competitive Position in the Nutraceuticals Market
      • 36.12 Products
      • 36.13 Developing Bioindustry Clusters in the Caribbean
      • 36.14 Building a Skill-Based Economy
      • 36.15 Developing the Business Strategies
      • 36.16 Conclusion
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
738
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128020999
Paperback ISBN:
9780128021040

About the Author

Simone Badal McCreath

Simone Badal McCreath

Dr. Badal McCreath is a distinguished young scientist who holds the 2014 Elsevier Early Career Woman Scientist award in Chemical Sciences for the Latin America and Caribbean region. She has over 10 years’ experience in natural products research and holds a patent pending for the anticancer potential of natural products using cancer and normal cell lines.

Dr. Badal McCreath holds a number of national and international awards and distinctions. At the University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, she was the 2010 Inaugural Luther Speare Scholar in addition to being the Young Scientist/Technologist awardee at the biennial 23rd Science and Technology Conference and Expo hosted by the Scientific Research Council and the Jamaica Public Service Co. She along with collaborators was also the recipient of the 2013-2014 Principal’s award for best work in anticancer research, UWI, Mona. She is a current member of various editorial boards including: The Journal of Cancer Science & Clinical Research and American International Journal of Biology. She is also an advisory board member and reviewer affiliated with Open Access Biochemistry, London.

Dr. Badal McCreath is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Basic Medical Sciences at the UWI, Mona, Jamaica. In addition to having taught Pharmacognosy for 3 years at the University of Technology, Jamaica, her current work involves pioneering the development of novel Jamaican prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines - a project that received national funding totaling approximately 100,000 USD. As PCa incidence and mortality rates are highest among men of African descent, the development of these tools representative of PCa tumors will be available to the global scientific community in order to delineate reasons for the reduced survivorship among this group. These novel cell lines can be used to screen potentially derived natural drug leads for anticancer efficacy utilizing a personalized framework.

Dr. Badal McCreath is a well published author who is currently penning her first book, “A woman’s journey to success.” She is a dynamic scientific orator who has presented at many scientific meetings and conferences. She continues to share her expertise by training and supervising students at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels while volunteering on various nonprofit organizational boards including the Society for Scientific Advancement. She is passionate about implementing a framework that can elevate the nature of biomedical research in Jamaica and the Caribbean with a specific focus on anticancer research. Such a framework that will utilize the country's own natural resources can contribute to improving Jamaica's and the Caribbean's economic standing as they obtain a global competitive edge. She is also deeply committed to improving science awareness and interest at the primary and secondary levels.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer & Anticancer Researcher, Biochemistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences Teaching & Research Complex University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica

Rupika Delgoda

Rupika Delgoda

Rupika Delgoda, D.Phil. is a Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Science and Technology and Head of the Natural Products Institute, at the University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona. Following a doctoral degree in Pharmacology at Oxford University, U.K. and a post-doctoral research Fellowship in Biochemistry at the University of Leicester, U.K., she commenced research in Jamaica at UWI in 2002. Her current research is focused on bio-prospecting Caribbean natural products. With the support of local and overseas granting agencies, Dr. Delgoda has established dedicated research facilities for identification of cytotoxic, chemopreventive natural products; the evaluation of drug-herb interactions, and has an interest in developing effective ways of controlling mosquito borne diseases. She has been the recipient of the UWI Principal’s Best researcher award and serves on several committees including the National Nutraceutical Industry, the Cannabis Research and Development Evaluation and Monitoring and the International Society for the Development of Natural Products.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Natural Products Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica