Petrophysics - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780128031889, 9780128031896


4th Edition

Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties

Authors: Djebbar Tiab Erle C. Donaldson
eBook ISBN: 9780128031896
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128031889
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 12th October 2015
Page Count: 918
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Petrophysics: Theory and Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport Properties, Fourth Edition provides users with tactics that will help them understand rock-fluid interaction, a fundamental step that is necessary for all reservoir engineers to grasp in order to achieve the highest reservoir performance.

The book brings the most comprehensive coverage on the subject matter, and is the only training tool for all reservoir and production engineers entering the oil and gas industry. This latest edition is enhanced with new real-world case studies, the latest advances in reservoir characterization, and a new chapter covering unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, including coverage on production techniques, reservoir characteristics, and the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands from NMR logs.

Key Features

  • Strengthened with a new chapter on shale oil and gas, adding the latest technological advances in the field today
  • Covers topics relating to porous media, permeability, fluid saturation, well logs, Dykstra-Parson, capillary pressure, wettability, Darcy's law, Hooke's law, reservoir characterization, filter-cake, and more
  • Updated with relevant practical case studies to enhance on the job training
  • Continues its longstanding, 20-year history as the leading book on petrophysics


Reservoir Engineers, Production Engineers, Engineering Advisors, Reservoir Management Specialists, Graduate level Petroleum Engineering Students

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • Preface: 4th Edition of Petrophysics
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Units
    • References
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Abstract
    • Introduction to Mineralogy
    • Mineral Constituents of Rocks: A Review
    • Properties of Sedimentary Particles
    • Development and use of Petrophysics
    • Problems
    • Glossary
  • Chapter 2: Introduction to Petroleum Geology
    • Abstract
    • Review of Composition of the Globe
    • Plate Tectonics
    • Geologic Time
    • Sedimentary Geology
    • Hydrocarbon Traps
    • Origin of Petroleum
    • Migration and Accumulation of Petroleum
    • Properties of Subsurface Fluids
    • Petroleum
    • Petroleum Chemistry
    • Problems
  • Chapter 3: Porosity and Permeability
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Porosity
    • Factors Governing the Magnitude of Porosity
    • Engineering Classification of Porosity
    • Geological Classification of Porosity
    • Visual Description of Porosity in Carbonate Rocks
    • Fluid Saturation
    • Quantitative Use of Porosity
    • Permeability
    • Classification of Permeability
    • Factors Affecting the Magnitude of Permeability
    • Permeability-Porosity Relationships
    • Kozeny Correlation
    • Concept of Flow Units
    • Mathematical Theory of Flow Units
    • Specific Surface Area
    • Flow Unit Characterization Factors
    • Flow Units Functions
    • Reservoir Zonation Using Normalized RQI
    • Effect of Packing on Permeability
    • Effect of Water Saturation on Permeability
    • Permeability from NMR
    • Permeability from GR Logs
    • Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Carbonate Rocks
    • Directional Permeability
    • Reservoir Heterogeneity
    • Distribution of Rock Properties
    • Permeability and Porosity Distributions
    • Permeability from Well Test Data
    • Statistical Zonation Technique
    • Problems
  • Chapter 4: Formation Resistivity and Water Saturation
    • Abstract
    • Formation Resistivity Factor
    • Resistivity Measurement
    • Determination of Formation Water Resistivity
    • Spontaneous Potential Curve
    • Shale-Properties Method
    • Correlation Between FR and Porosity
    • Correlations Between FR and Tortuosity
    • Correlations Between FR and Cementation
    • Theoretical Formula for FR
    • Correlation Between FR and Water Saturation
    • Correlation Between FR and Permeability
    • Resistivity of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
    • Water Saturation in Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
    • Approximate Shale Relationship
    • Generalized Shale Relationship
    • Flow Units for Shaly Sandstones
    • Lab-Derived Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
    • Log-Derived Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks
    • Formation Evaluation
    • Core Analysis
    • Well Log Analysis
    • Water Saturation
    • Core Interpretation of Data
    • Interpretation of Well Log Data
    • Problems
  • Chapter 5: Capillary Pressure
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Derivation of the Capillary Pressure Equation
    • Capillary Rise
    • Semipermeable Disk Measurement of Capillary Pressure
    • Centrifuge Measurement of Capillary Pressure
    • Measurement of Capillary Pressure by Mercury Injection
    • Pore-Size Distribution
    • Vertical Saturation Profile in a Reservoir
    • Capillary Pressure J-Function
    • Capillary Number
    • Problems
  • Chapter 6: Wettability
    • Abstract
    • Wettability
    • Interfacial Tension
    • Contact Angle
    • Sessile Drop Measurement of Contact Angles
    • Wilhelmy Plate Measurement of Contact Angles
    • Surface Chemical Properties
    • Evaluation of Wettability
    • Spontaneous Imbibition Wettability Test
    • Fluid Displacement Energy
    • Water-oil-Rock Interfacial Activity
    • Effect of Wettability on Oil Recovery
    • Alteration of Wettability
    • Treatment of the Rock
    • Effects of Temperature and Pressure
    • Fractional Flow Equation
    • Problems
  • Chapter 7: Applications of Darcy’s Law
    • Abstract
    • Darcy’s Law
    • Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids
    • Linear Flow of Gas
    • Darcy’s and Poiseuille’s Laws
    • Linear Flow Through Fractures and Channels
    • Flow Through Fractures
    • Flow Through Solution Channels
    • Radial Flow Systems
    • Steady-State Flow
    • Pseudosteady-State Flow
    • Skin Zone
    • Dimensionless Pressure
    • Radial Laminar Flow of Gas
    • Turbulent Flow of Gas
    • Linear Turbulent Flow
    • Friction Factor of Porous Rocks
    • Turbulent Radial Flow
    • Multiple-Permeability Rocks
    • Layered Reservoirs With Crossflow
    • Layered Reservoirs Without Crossflow
    • Composite Reservoirs
    • Linear Flow Systems
    • Radial Flow Systems
    • Problems
  • Chapter 8: Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Origin of Permeability in Carbonate Rocks
    • Geological Classifications of Natural Fractures
    • Engineering Classification of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
    • Indicators of Natural Fractures
    • Visual Identification of Fractures
    • Petrophysical Properties of Naturally Fractured Rocks
    • Fracture Porosity Determination
    • RQI, FZI, and m for Carbonates
    • Porosity Partitioning Coefficient
    • Fracture Intensity Index
    • Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Double Porosity Systems
    • Porosity and Permeability Relationships in Type 1 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
    • Fractures Porosity and Aperture from Cores
    • Specific Area of Fractures
    • Effect of Fracture Shape
    • Hydraulic Radius of Fractures
    • Type 2 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
    • Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures
    • Fracture Area
    • Fracture Storage Capacity
    • Fracture Conductivity
    • Characterizing Natural Fractures from Well-Test Data
    • Fracture Porosity and Permeability from Pressure Tests
    • Fracture Corridors in Carbonates
    • Problems
  • Chapter 9: Effect of Stress on Reservoir Rock Properties
    • Abstract
    • Static Stress-Strain Relation
    • Stress Analysis
    • Strain Analysis
    • Two-Dimensional Stress-Strain Systems
    • Rock Deformation
    • Hooke’s Law
    • Stress-Strain Diagrams
    • The Mohr Diagram
    • Dynamic Elastic Properties
    • Dynamic versus Static Modulus of Elasticity
    • Rock Strength and Hardness
    • Rock Hardness
    • Compressibility of Porous Rocks
    • Pore Compressibility
    • Effectiveness of Pore Pressure in Countering Stress
    • Rock Compressibility Correlations
    • Effect of Pore Compressibility on Reserves Calculations
    • Converting Lab Data to Reservoir Data
    • Effect of Stress on Core Data
    • Effect of Stress on Porosity
    • Effect of Stress on Permeability
    • Effect of Stress on Resistivity
    • Porosity-Permeability-Stress Relationship
    • Effect of Stress on Fracturing
    • Effect of Poisson’s Ratio on Fracture Gradient
    • FG for Offshore Wells
    • Effect of Poisson’s Ratio on Fracture Dimensions
    • In Situ Stress Distribution
    • Effect of Stress Change on Rock Failure
    • Change in Stress Field due to Depletion and Repressurization
    • Stress Relationship at the Wellbore
    • Estimating Critical Borehole Pressure in Vertical Wells Overbalanced Conditions
    • Balanced and Underbalanced Conditions
    • Critical Borehole Pressure in Horizontal Wells
    • Overbalanced Conditions
    • Underbalanced Conditions
    • Critical Pore Pressure
    • Example of a North Sea Reservoir
    • Stress Field and Reservoir Stress Paths
    • Analysis
    • Porosity as Strength Indicator to Evaluate Sand Production
    • Problems
    • Additional Sample Data
  • Chapter 10: Reservoir Characterization
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Reservoir Volumes
    • Hydraulic Flow Units
    • Mobility Ratio
    • J-Function
    • Analysis of Reservoir Performance
    • Decline Curves
    • Material Balance
    • Development of the General Material Balance Equation
    • Straight-line Solution of the Material Balance Equation
    • Basic Well-log Interpretation
    • Problems
  • Chapter 11: Fluid-Rock Interactions
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Importance of Near-Wellbore Permeability
    • Nature of Permeability Damage
    • Origin of Permeability Damage
    • Types of Permeability Damage
    • Effect of Fines Migration on Permeability
    • Types and Sizes of Fines
    • Fines Migration
    • Chemical Damage
    • Mechanical Damage
    • Migration of Foreign Solids
    • Critical Velocity Concept
    • Entrainment and Surface Deposition
    • Entrainment and Plugging
    • Identification of Permeability Damage Mechanisms
    • Permeability Damage from Foreign Solids
    • Permeability Damage from Formation Fines
    • Effect of Water Quality on Permeability
    • External Filter-Cake Buildup
    • Internal Filter-Cake Buildup
    • Injectivity Decline from Plugging of Perforations
    • Impairment from Wellbore Fill-Up
    • Membrane Filtration Tests
    • Core Filtration Tests
    • External Filter-Cake Formation
    • Internal Filter-Cake Formation
    • Problems
  • Chapter 12: Shale-Gas Reservoirs
    • Unconventional Hydrocarbon Generation
    • Kerogen and Total Organic Content
    • Rock-Evaluation Pyrolysis
    • Vitrinite Reflectance
    • Petrophysical Evaluation
    • Total Porosity
    • Effective Porosity
    • Total Gas in Place in Shale-Gas Reservoirs
    • Two-Volume Petrophysical Model
    • Gas Recovery Factor
    • Free Gas in Place (Gf)
    • Three-Volume Petrophysical Model
    • Empirical Correlations of TOC
    • Permeability
    • Problems
  • Appendix A: Measurement of Rock and Fluid Properties
    • Experiment 1: Fluid Content of Rocks by the Retort Method
    • Experiment 2: Measurement of Saturation by Solvent Extraction
    • Experiment 3: Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity
    • Experiment 4: Specific Gravity of Gases
    • Experiment 5: Viscosity
    • Experiment 6: Fluorescence
    • Experiment 7: Absolute and Effective Porosity
    • Experiment 8: Sieve Analysis (Particle-Size Distribution)
    • Experiment 9: Surface Area of Sediments
    • Experiment 10: Absolute Permeability
    • Experiment 11: Absolute Permeability Measured with a Gas
    • Experiment 12: Relative Permeability
    • Experiment 13: Surface and Interfacial Tensions
    • Experiment 14: Capillary Pressure
    • Experiment 15: Determination of Z-Factors for Imperfect Gases
    • Experiment 16: Basic Sediment and Water Analysis (BS&W)
    • Experiment 17: Point-Load Strength Test
  • Appendix B: Computer Programs
    • Introduction
  • Index


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About the Author

Djebbar Tiab

Djebbar Tiab is the Senior Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, and Petroleum Engineering consultant. He received his B.Sc. (May 1974) and M.Sc. (May 1975) degrees from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and his Ph.D. degree (July 1976) from the University of Oklahoma-all in petroleum engineering. He is the Director of the University of Oklahoma Graduate Program in Petroleum Engineering in Algeria. At the University of Oklahoma, he taught fifteen different petroleum and general engineering courses including: well test analysis, petrophysics, oil reservoir engineering, natural gas engineering, and properties of reservoir fluids. Dr. Tiab has consulted for a number of oil companies and offered training programs in petroleum engineering in the USA and overseas. He worked for over two years in the oilfields of Algeria for Alcore, S.A., an association of Sonatrach and Core Laboratories. He has also worked and consulted for Core Laboratories and Western Atlas in Houston, Texas, for four years as a Senior Reservoir Engineer Advisor.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant and Senior Professor of Petroleum Engineering, University of Oklahoma

Erle C. Donaldson

Erle C. Donaldson began his career as a pilot plant project manager for Signal Oil and Gas Research in Houston, Texas. Later he joined the U.S. Bureau of Mines Petroleum Research Center in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, as a project manager of subsurface disposal and industrial wastes and reservoir characterization; when the laboratory was transferred to the U.S. Department of Energy, Dr. Donaldson continued as chief of petroleum reservoir characterization. When the laboratory shifted to private industry for operations, he joined the faculty of the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma as associate professor. Since retiring from the university in 1990, he has consulted for various oil companies, universities, and U.S. agencies including: the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Navy Ordinance Center, King Fahd Research Institute of Saudi Arabia, and companies in the U.S., Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Thailand.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Engineering Consultant, Tetrahedron, Inc.