Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics

Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics

1st Edition - January 3, 1992

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  • Authors: E. Fjær, P. Horsrud, A.M. Raaen, R. Risnes, R.M. Holt
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080868912

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Description

This long-awaited volume, written specifically for petroleum workers, explores the fundamental concepts of rock mechanics along with various petroleum-related applications. Emphasis is placed on the weak sedimentary rocks which normally fall between traditional rock mechanics and soil mechanics. Elasticity, failure mechanics, acoustic wave propagation, and geological aspects of rock materials are all detailed. Application areas discussed include: stability during drilling, sand production, fracturing and reservoir compaction. Methods for acquisition of data from field and laboratory analyses are also described.Engineers and geologists in the petroleum industry will find this book a powerful resource in providing a basis of rock mechanical knowledge - a knowledge which can greatly assist in the understanding of field behaviour, design of test programmes and the design of field operations.

Table of Contents

  • Elasticity. Linear elasticity. Non-linear elasticity. Poroelasticity. Time-dependent effects. Failure mechanics. Basic concepts. The failure surface. Shear failure - Mohr's hypothesis. Failure criteria which depend on the intermediate stress. Representation of experimental data. Extension tests. Post-failure behaviour. The theory of plasticity. Soil mechanics. Failure mechanics of saturated rocks. Anisotropy and rock mechanical failure. Some geological aspects of rock mechanics. Underground stresses. Pore pressure. Rock mechanical properties. Stresses around boreholes, and borehole failure criteria. Stresses around boreholes. Borehole failure criteria. Beyond failure initiation. Acoustic wave propagation in rocks. The wave equation. P- and S-waves. Sound velocities in rocks. Acoustic attenuation in rocks. Biot's theory of acoustic wave propagation. Acoustic anisotropy. Rock mechanics and rock acoustics. Micromechanical models. Grain pack models. Effective medium theories of rocks containing cracks. Fractured rocks. Mechanical properties from laboratory analysis. Core samples for rock mechanical laboratory analysis. Laboratory equipment. Rock mechanical test procedures. Index Tests. Acoustic measurements. Mechanical properties from field data. Estimation of elastic parameters. Estimation of in situ stresses. Estimation of strength parameters. Stability during drilling. Unstable boreholes - reasons and consequences. The principle of a stability analysis. Calculation of minimum mudweight required to prevent borehole collapse. Calculation of maximum mudweight before fracturing. Example calculation. Evaluation of the method and the results. Other aspects of practical importance. Sand prediction. What is sand production? How can sand production be controlled? Mechanisms for sand production. What is sand prediction? Examples of problems to be considered. Modelling for sand prediction. Fracturing. Conditions for tensile failure. Orientation and confinement of fractures. Fracturing pressures. Formation break-down pressures. Determination of fracturing pressures from minifrac tests. Pressures during frac jobs. Fracture gradients in drilling. Reservoir compaction. Subsidence and well problems. Elastic modelling of compaction and subsidence. Consolidation theory. A Consolidation type subsidence model. Laboratory testing for compaction predictions. Numerical modelling of compaction and subsidence. Well Problems associated with compaction. Appendix A. Appendix B. Symbols. Index.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 337
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1992
  • Published: January 3, 1992
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080868912

About the Authors

E. Fjær

P. Horsrud

Per Horsrud is currently Specialist in Drilling & Well Technology (Rock Mechanics) for Equinor ASA (previously Statoil ASA), located in Trondheim, Norway. He has been with Equinor since 1998. He holds an MS degree in Physics from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim (1977). He has previously held various positions with Rogaland Research Institute, Continental Shelf Institute (IKU), RockMech AS, and SINTEF Petroleum Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Specialist in Drilling and Well Technology (Rock Mechanics) for Equinor ASA (previously Statoil ASA), Trondheim, Norway

A.M. Raaen

Arne Marius Raaen has a Ph.D. (1983) in solid state physics, specializing in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. He worked at SINTEF from 1984, mainly with rock acoustics and rock mechanics. From 1991 to 2016 he held positions at various offices in Statoil. In Statoil, the main activity was in rock mechanics and related fields, including water injection, and prediction and stress measurements. He has offshore experience from a period as a production engineer, and from offshore supervision of several stress measurement tests. He is presently with SINTEF, in Trondheim, Norway.

Affiliations and Expertise

IKU, Trondheim, Norway

R. Risnes

Affiliations and Expertise

Rogaland University Centre, Stavanger, Norway

R.M. Holt

Rune Martin Holt is Professor at NTNU (Department of Geoscience and Petroleum) and Special Advisor to SINTEF, both in Trondheim, Norway. He holds a PhD in solid state physics from NTNU in 1980. His main area of competence is rock mechanics and rock physics applied to petroleum geoscience and engineering. The work is based on experimental, analytical, and numerical modelling. Focused areas have been shale studies related to overburden characterization for improved interpretation of time-lapse seismic as well as to aspects of borehole stability for drilling and well completion. Further work has been devoted to quantification of coring induced rock damage, both through laboratory experiments with synthetic rocks formed under stress and discrete particle numerical modelling.

Affiliations and Expertise

Norwegian University of Science and Technology and SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim, Norway

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