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Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750682701, 9780080479958

Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach

1st Edition

Author: Boyun Guo, PhD
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750682701
Paperback ISBN: 9781493303243
eBook ISBN: 9780080479958
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 5th February 2007
Page Count: 312
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Description

Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach provides handy guidelines to designing, analyzing and optimizing petroleum production systems. Broken into four parts, this book covers the full scope of petroleum production engineering, featuring stepwise calculations and computer-based spreadsheet programs. Part one contains discussions of petroleum production engineering fundamentals, empirical models for production decline analysis, and the performance of oil and natural gas wells. Part two presents principles of designing and selecting the main components of petroleum production systems including: well tubing, separation and dehydration systems, liquid pumps, gas compressors, and pipelines for oil and gas transportation. Part three introduces artificial lift methods, including sucker rod pumping systems, gas lift technology, electrical submersible pumps and other artificial lift systems. Part four is comprised of production enhancement techniques including, identifying well problems, designing acidizing jobs, guidelines to hydraulic fracturing and job evaluation techniques, and production optimization techniques.

Key Features

  • Provides complete coverage of the latest techniques used for designing and analyzing petroleum production systems
  • Increases efficiency and addresses common problems by utilizing the computer-based solutions discussed within the book
  • Presents principles of designing and selecting the main components of petroleum production systems

Readership

Pipeline Engineering, Petroleum engineering

Table of Contents

Preface
List of Symbols
List of Tables
List of Figures
Part I: Petroleum Production Engineering Fundamentals
Chapter 1: Petroleum Production System
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Reservoir
1.3 Well
1.4 Separator
1.5 Pump
1.6 Gas Compressor
1.7 Pipelines
1.8 Safety Control System
1.9 Unit Systems
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 2: Properties of Oil and Natural Gas
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Properties of Oil
2.2.1 Solution Gas Oil Ratio
2.2.2 Density of Oil
2.2.3 Formation Volume Factor of Oil
2.2.4 Viscosity of Oil
2.2.5 Oil Compressibility
2.3 Properties of Natural Gas
2.3.1 Specific Gravity of Gas
2.3.2 Gas Pseudocritical Pressure and Temperature
2.3.3 Viscosity of Gas
2.3.4 Gas Compressibility Factor
2.3.5 Density of Gas
2.3.6 Formation Volume Factor of Gas
2.3.7 Gas Compressibility
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 3: Reservoir Deliverability
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Flow Regimes
3.2.1 Transient Flow
3.2.2 Steady State Flow
3.2.3 Pseudosteady State Flow
3.2.4 Horizontal Well
3.3 Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
3.3.1 IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs
3.3.2 IPR for Two-Phase Reservoirs
3.3.3 IPR for Partial Two-Phase Oil Reservoirs
3.4 Construction of IPR Curves Using Test Points
3.5 Composite IPR of Stratified Reservoirs
3.5.1 Composite IPR Models
3.5.1.1 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
3.5.1.2 Two-Phase Flow
3.5.1.3 Partial Two-Phase Flow
3.5.2 Applications
3.6 Future IPR
3.6.1 Vogel’s Method
3.6.2 Fetkovich’s Method
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 4: Wellbore Performance
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
4.3 Multiphase Flow in Oil Wells
4.3.1 Flow Regimes
4.3.2 Liquid Holdup
4.3.3 TPR Models
4.3.3.1 Homogeneous-Flow Models
4.3.3.2 Separated-Flow Models
4.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow
4.4.1 The Average Temperature and Compressibility Factor Method
4.4.2 The Cullender and Smith Method
4.5 Mist Flow in Gas Wells
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 5: Choke Performance
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sonic and Subsonic Flow
5.3 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
5.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow
5.4.1 Subsonic Flow
5.4.2 Sonic Flow
5.4.3 Temperature at Choke
5.4.4 Applications
5.5 Multiphase Flow
5.5.1 Critical (Sonic) Flow.
5.5.2 Subcritical (Subsonic) Flow
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 6: Well Deliverability
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Nodal Analysis
6.2.1 Analysis with the Bottom Hole Node
6.2.1.1 Gas Well
6.2.1.2 Oil Well
6.2.2 Analysis with Wellhead Node
6.2.2.1 Gas Well
6.2.2.2 Oil Well
6.3 Deliverability of Multilateral Well
6.3.1 Gas Well
6.3.2 Oil Well
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 7: Forecast of Well Production
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Oil Production during Transient Flow Period
7.3 Oil Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period
7.3.1 Oil Production during Single-Phase Flow Period
7.3.2 Oil Production during Two-Phase Flow Period
7.4 Gas Production during Transient Flow Period
7.5 Gas Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 8: Production Decline Analysis
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Exponential Decline
8.2.1 Relative Decline Rate
8.2.2 Production Rate Decline
8.2.3 Cumulative Production
8.2.4 Determination of Decline Rate
8.2.5 Effective Decline Rate
8.3 Harmonic Decline
8.4 Hyperbolic Decline
8.5 Model Identification
8.6 Determination of Model Parameters
8.7 Illustrative Examples
Summary
References
Problems
Part II: Equipment Design and Selection
Chapter 9: Well Tubing
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Strength of Tubing
9.3 Tubing Design
9.3.1 Tension, Collapse, and Burst Design
9.3.2 Buckling Prevention During Production
9.3.3 Considerations for Well Treatment and Stimulation
9.3.3.1 Temperature Effect
9.3.3.2 Pressure Effect
9.3.3.3 Total Effect of Temperature and Pressure
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 10: Separation Systems
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Separation Systems
10.2.1 Principles of Separation
10.2.2 Types of Separators
10.2.2.1 Vertical Separators
10.2.2.2 Horizontal Separators
10.2.2.3 Spherical Separators
10.2.3 Factors Affecting Separation
10.2.4 Selection of Separators
10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity
10.2.4.2 Liquid Capacity
10.2.5 Stage Separation
10.3 Dehydration Systems
10.3.1 Water Content of Natural Gas Streams
10.3.2 Methods for Dehydration
10.3.2.1 Dehydration by Cooling
10.3.2.2 Dehydration by Adsorption
10.3.2.3 Dehydration by Absorption
10.3.2.3.1 Glycol Dehydration Process
10.3.2.3.2 Advantages and Limitations
10.3.2.3.3 Sizing Glycol Dehydrator Unit
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 11: Transportation Systems
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Pumps
11.2.1 Triplex Pumps
11.2.2 Duplex Pumps
11.3 Compressors
11.3.1 Types of Compressors
11.3.2 Reciprocating Compressors
11.3.3 Centrifugal Compressors
11.4 Pipelines
11.4.1 Flow in Pipelines
11.4.1.1 Oil Flow
11.4.1.2 Gas Flow
11.4.1.2.1 Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
11.4.1.2.2 Weymouth Equation for Non-horizontal Flow
11.4.1.2.3 Panhandle-A Equation for Horizontal Flow
11.4.1.2.4 Panhandle-B Equation for Horizontal Flow
11.4.1.2.5 Clinedinst Equation for Horizontal Flow
11.4.1.2.6 Pipeline Efficiency
11.4.2 Design of Pipelines
11.4.2.1 Wall Thickness Design
11.4.2.1.1 Design Procedure
11.4.2.1.2 Design for Internal Pressure
11.4.2.1.3 Design for External Pressure
11.4.2.1.4 Corrosion Allowance
11.4.2.1.5 Check for Hydrotest Condition
11.4.2.2 Insulation Design
11.4.2.2.1 Insulation Materials
11.4.2.2.2 Heat Transfer Models
Summary
References
Problems
Part III: Artificial Lift Methods
Chapter 12: Sucker Rod Pumping
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Pumping System
12.3 Polished Rod Motion
12.4 Load to the Pumping Unit
12.4.1 Maximum PRL
12.4.2 Minimum PRL
12.4.3 Counterweights
12.4.4 Peak Torque and Speed Limit
12.4.5 Tapered Rod Strings
12.5 Pump Deliverability and Power Requirements
12.5.1 Effective Plunger Stroke Length
12.5.2 Volumetric Efficiency
12.5.3 Power Requirements
12.6 Procedure for Pumping Unit Selection
12.7 Principles of Pump Performance Analysis
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 13: Gas Lift
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Gas Lift System
13.3 Evaluation of Gas Lift Potential
13.4 Gas Lift Gas Compression Requirements
13.4.1 Gas Flow Rate Requirement
13.4.2 Output Gas Pressure Requirement
13.4.2.1 Injection Pressure at Valve Depth
13.4.2.2 Injection Pressure at Surface
13.4.2.3 Pressure Upstream the Choke
13.4.2.4 Pressure of the Gas Distribution Line
13.4.3 Compression Power Requirement
13.4.3.1 Reciprocating Compressors
13.4.3.1.1 Volumetric Efficiency
13.4.3.1.2 Stage Compression
13.4.3.1.3 Isentropic Horsepower
13.4.3.2 Centrifugal Compressors
13.5 Selection of Gas Lift Valves
13.5.1 Unloading Sequence
13.5.2 Valve Characteristics
13.5.2.1 Pressure Valve
13.5.2.1.1 Unbalanced Bellow Valve
13.5.2.1.2 Balanced Pressure Valve
13.5.2.1.3 Pilot Valve
13.5.2.2 Throttling Pressure Valve
13.5.2.3 Fluid-Operated Valve
13.5.2.4 Combination Valves
13.5.3 Valve Spacing
13.5.4 Valve Selection and Testing
13.5.4.1 Valve Sizing
13.5.4.2 Valve Testing
13.6 Special Issues in Intermittent Flow Gas-Lift
13.7 Design of Gas Lift Installations
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 14: Other Artificial Lift Methods
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Electrical Submersible Pump
14.2.1 Principle
14.2.2 ESP Applications
14.3 Hydraulic Piston Pumping
14.4 Progressive Cavity Pumping
14.4.1 Down Hole PCP Characteristics
14.4.2 Selection of Down Hole PCP
14.4.3 Selection of Drive String
14.4.4 Selection of Surface Driver
14.5 Plunger Lift
14.5.1 Working Principle
14.5.2 Design Guideline
14.5.2.1 Estimate of Production Rates with Plunger Lift
14.5.2.2 GLR and Buildup Pressure Requirements
14.5.2.2.1 Rules of Thumb
14.5.2.2.2 Analytical Method
14.6 Hydraulic Jet Pumping
14.6.1 Working Principle
14.6.2 Technical Parameters
14.6.3 Selection of Jet Pumps
Summary
References
Problems
Part IV: Production Enhancement
Chapter 15: Well Problem Identification
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Low Productivity
15.2.1 Pressure Transient Data Analysis
15.3 Excessive Gas Production
15.4 Excessive Water Production
15.5 Liquid Loading of Gas Wells
15.5.1 Turner’s Method
15.5.2 Guo et al.’s Method
15.5.2.1 Minimum Kinetic Energy
15.5.2.2 Four-Phase Flow Model
15.5.2.3 Minimum Required Gas Production Rate
15.5.3 Comparison of Turner’s and Guo et al.’s Methods
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 16: Matrix Acidizing
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Acid/Rock Interaction
16.2.1 Primary Chemical Reactions
16.2.2 Dissolving Power of Acids
16.2.3 Reaction Kinetics
16.3 Sandstone Acidizing Design
16.3.1 Selection of Acid
16.3.2 Acid Volume Requirement
16.3.3 Acid Injection Rate
16.3.4 Acid Injection Pressure
16.4 Carbonate Acidizing Design
16.4.1 Selection of Acid
16.4.2 Acidizing Parameters
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 17: Hydraulic Fracturing
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Formation Fracturing Pressure
17.3 Fracture Geometry
17.3.1 Radial Fracture Model
17.3.2 The KGD Model
17.3.3 The PKN model
17.3.4 Three-Dimensional and Pseudo-3D Models
17.4 Productivity of Fractured Wells
17.5 Hydraulic Fracturing Design
17.5.1 Selection of Fracturing Fluid
17.5.2 Selection of Proppant
17.5.3 The Maximum Treatment Pressure
17.5.4 Selection of Fracture Model
17.5.5 Selection of Treatment Size
17.5.6 Production Forecast and NPV Analyses
17.6 Post-frac Evaluation
17.6.1 Pressure Matching
17.6.2 Pressure Build-Up Test Analysis
17.6.3 Other Evaluation Techniques
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 18: Production Optimization
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Naturally Flowing Well
18.3 Gas-Lifted Well
18.4 Sucker Rod-Pumped Well
18.5 Separator
18.6 Pipeline Network
18.6.1 Pipelines in Series
18.6.2 Pipelines in Parallel
18.6.3 Looped Pipelines
18.7 Gas Lift Facility
18.8 Oil and Gas Production Fields
18.8.1 Types of Flow Networks
18.8.2 Optimization Approaches
18.8.2.1 Simulation Approach
18.8.2.2 Optimization Approach
18.8.3 Procedure for Production Optimization
18.8.4 Production Optimization Software
18.8.4.1 ReO
18.8.4.2 HYSYS
18.8.4.3 FAST Piper
18.9 Discounted Revenue
Summary
References
Problems
Appendix A: Unit Conversion Factors
Appendix B: The Minimum Performance Properties of API Tubing

Details

No. of pages:
312
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2007
Published:
5th February 2007
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
9780750682701
Paperback ISBN:
9781493303243
eBook ISBN:
9780080479958

About the Author

Boyun Guo, PhD

Boyun Guo is a Professor at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette in the Petroleum Engineering Department and Director of the Center for Optimization of Petroleum Systems (COPS) of the Energy Institute of Louisiana (EIL). He has 40 years of work experience in the oil and gas industry and academia. He is the principal author of 11 books and author/coauthor of over 150 research papers. He holds a BS degree in Engineering Science from Daqing Petroleum Institute in China, MS degree in Petroleum Engineering from Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology, and a PhD degree in Petroleum Engineering from New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Louisiana, Lafayette and Director, Center for Optimization of Petroleum Systems (COPS), USA

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