Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach

Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach

1st Edition - February 5, 2007

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  • Author: Boyun Guo, PhD
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080479958

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Description

Petroleum Production Engineering, A Computer-Assisted Approach provides handy guidelines to designing, analyzing and optimizing petroleum production systems. Broken into four parts, this book covers the full scope of petroleum production engineering, featuring stepwise calculations and computer-based spreadsheet programs. Part one contains discussions of petroleum production engineering fundamentals, empirical models for production decline analysis, and the performance of oil and natural gas wells. Part two presents principles of designing and selecting the main components of petroleum production systems including: well tubing, separation and dehydration systems, liquid pumps, gas compressors, and pipelines for oil and gas transportation. Part three introduces artificial lift methods, including sucker rod pumping systems, gas lift technology, electrical submersible pumps and other artificial lift systems. Part four is comprised of production enhancement techniques including, identifying well problems, designing acidizing jobs, guidelines to hydraulic fracturing and job evaluation techniques, and production optimization techniques.

Key Features

  • Provides complete coverage of the latest techniques used for designing and analyzing petroleum production systems
  • Increases efficiency and addresses common problems by utilizing the computer-based solutions discussed within the book
  • Presents principles of designing and selecting the main components of petroleum production systems

Readership

Pipeline Engineering, Petroleum engineering

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    List of Symbols
    List of Tables
    List of Figures
    Part I: Petroleum Production Engineering Fundamentals
    Chapter 1: Petroleum Production System
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Reservoir
    1.3 Well
    1.4 Separator
    1.5 Pump
    1.6 Gas Compressor
    1.7 Pipelines
    1.8 Safety Control System
    1.9 Unit Systems
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 2: Properties of Oil and Natural Gas
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Properties of Oil
    2.2.1 Solution Gas Oil Ratio
    2.2.2 Density of Oil
    2.2.3 Formation Volume Factor of Oil
    2.2.4 Viscosity of Oil
    2.2.5 Oil Compressibility
    2.3 Properties of Natural Gas
    2.3.1 Specific Gravity of Gas
    2.3.2 Gas Pseudocritical Pressure and Temperature
    2.3.3 Viscosity of Gas
    2.3.4 Gas Compressibility Factor
    2.3.5 Density of Gas
    2.3.6 Formation Volume Factor of Gas
    2.3.7 Gas Compressibility
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 3: Reservoir Deliverability
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Flow Regimes
    3.2.1 Transient Flow
    3.2.2 Steady State Flow
    3.2.3 Pseudosteady State Flow
    3.2.4 Horizontal Well
    3.3 Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
    3.3.1 IPR for Single (Liquid) Phase Reservoirs
    3.3.2 IPR for Two-Phase Reservoirs
    3.3.3 IPR for Partial Two-Phase Oil Reservoirs
    3.4 Construction of IPR Curves Using Test Points
    3.5 Composite IPR of Stratified Reservoirs
    3.5.1 Composite IPR Models
    3.5.1.1 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
    3.5.1.2 Two-Phase Flow
    3.5.1.3 Partial Two-Phase Flow
    3.5.2 Applications
    3.6 Future IPR
    3.6.1 Vogel’s Method
    3.6.2 Fetkovich’s Method
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 4: Wellbore Performance
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
    4.3 Multiphase Flow in Oil Wells
    4.3.1 Flow Regimes
    4.3.2 Liquid Holdup
    4.3.3 TPR Models
    4.3.3.1 Homogeneous-Flow Models
    4.3.3.2 Separated-Flow Models
    4.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow
    4.4.1 The Average Temperature and Compressibility Factor Method
    4.4.2 The Cullender and Smith Method
    4.5 Mist Flow in Gas Wells
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 5: Choke Performance
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Sonic and Subsonic Flow
    5.3 Single-Phase Liquid Flow
    5.4 Single-Phase Gas Flow
    5.4.1 Subsonic Flow
    5.4.2 Sonic Flow
    5.4.3 Temperature at Choke
    5.4.4 Applications
    5.5 Multiphase Flow
    5.5.1 Critical (Sonic) Flow.
    5.5.2 Subcritical (Subsonic) Flow
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 6: Well Deliverability
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Nodal Analysis
    6.2.1 Analysis with the Bottom Hole Node
    6.2.1.1 Gas Well
    6.2.1.2 Oil Well
    6.2.2 Analysis with Wellhead Node
    6.2.2.1 Gas Well
    6.2.2.2 Oil Well
    6.3 Deliverability of Multilateral Well
    6.3.1 Gas Well
    6.3.2 Oil Well
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 7: Forecast of Well Production
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Oil Production during Transient Flow Period
    7.3 Oil Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period
    7.3.1 Oil Production during Single-Phase Flow Period
    7.3.2 Oil Production during Two-Phase Flow Period
    7.4 Gas Production during Transient Flow Period
    7.5 Gas Production during Pseudo-Steady Flow Period
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 8: Production Decline Analysis
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Exponential Decline
    8.2.1 Relative Decline Rate
    8.2.2 Production Rate Decline
    8.2.3 Cumulative Production
    8.2.4 Determination of Decline Rate
    8.2.5 Effective Decline Rate
    8.3 Harmonic Decline
    8.4 Hyperbolic Decline
    8.5 Model Identification
    8.6 Determination of Model Parameters
    8.7 Illustrative Examples
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Part II: Equipment Design and Selection
    Chapter 9: Well Tubing
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Strength of Tubing
    9.3 Tubing Design
    9.3.1 Tension, Collapse, and Burst Design
    9.3.2 Buckling Prevention During Production
    9.3.3 Considerations for Well Treatment and Stimulation
    9.3.3.1 Temperature Effect
    9.3.3.2 Pressure Effect
    9.3.3.3 Total Effect of Temperature and Pressure
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 10: Separation Systems
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Separation Systems
    10.2.1 Principles of Separation
    10.2.2 Types of Separators
    10.2.2.1 Vertical Separators
    10.2.2.2 Horizontal Separators
    10.2.2.3 Spherical Separators
    10.2.3 Factors Affecting Separation
    10.2.4 Selection of Separators
    10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity10.2.4.1 Gas Capacity
    10.2.4.2 Liquid Capacity
    10.2.5 Stage Separation
    10.3 Dehydration Systems
    10.3.1 Water Content of Natural Gas Streams
    10.3.2 Methods for Dehydration
    10.3.2.1 Dehydration by Cooling
    10.3.2.2 Dehydration by Adsorption
    10.3.2.3 Dehydration by Absorption
    10.3.2.3.1 Glycol Dehydration Process
    10.3.2.3.2 Advantages and Limitations
    10.3.2.3.3 Sizing Glycol Dehydrator Unit
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 11: Transportation Systems
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Pumps
    11.2.1 Triplex Pumps
    11.2.2 Duplex Pumps
    11.3 Compressors
    11.3.1 Types of Compressors
    11.3.2 Reciprocating Compressors
    11.3.3 Centrifugal Compressors
    11.4 Pipelines
    11.4.1 Flow in Pipelines
    11.4.1.1 Oil Flow
    11.4.1.2 Gas Flow
    11.4.1.2.1 Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
    11.4.1.2.2 Weymouth Equation for Non-horizontal Flow
    11.4.1.2.3 Panhandle-A Equation for Horizontal Flow
    11.4.1.2.4 Panhandle-B Equation for Horizontal Flow
    11.4.1.2.5 Clinedinst Equation for Horizontal Flow
    11.4.1.2.6 Pipeline Efficiency
    11.4.2 Design of Pipelines
    11.4.2.1 Wall Thickness Design
    11.4.2.1.1 Design Procedure
    11.4.2.1.2 Design for Internal Pressure
    11.4.2.1.3 Design for External Pressure
    11.4.2.1.4 Corrosion Allowance
    11.4.2.1.5 Check for Hydrotest Condition
    11.4.2.2 Insulation Design
    11.4.2.2.1 Insulation Materials
    11.4.2.2.2 Heat Transfer Models
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Part III: Artificial Lift Methods
    Chapter 12: Sucker Rod Pumping
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Pumping System
    12.3 Polished Rod Motion
    12.4 Load to the Pumping Unit
    12.4.1 Maximum PRL
    12.4.2 Minimum PRL
    12.4.3 Counterweights
    12.4.4 Peak Torque and Speed Limit
    12.4.5 Tapered Rod Strings
    12.5 Pump Deliverability and Power Requirements
    12.5.1 Effective Plunger Stroke Length
    12.5.2 Volumetric Efficiency
    12.5.3 Power Requirements
    12.6 Procedure for Pumping Unit Selection
    12.7 Principles of Pump Performance Analysis
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 13: Gas Lift
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Gas Lift System
    13.3 Evaluation of Gas Lift Potential
    13.4 Gas Lift Gas Compression Requirements
    13.4.1 Gas Flow Rate Requirement
    13.4.2 Output Gas Pressure Requirement
    13.4.2.1 Injection Pressure at Valve Depth
    13.4.2.2 Injection Pressure at Surface
    13.4.2.3 Pressure Upstream the Choke
    13.4.2.4 Pressure of the Gas Distribution Line
    13.4.3 Compression Power Requirement
    13.4.3.1 Reciprocating Compressors
    13.4.3.1.1 Volumetric Efficiency
    13.4.3.1.2 Stage Compression
    13.4.3.1.3 Isentropic Horsepower
    13.4.3.2 Centrifugal Compressors
    13.5 Selection of Gas Lift Valves
    13.5.1 Unloading Sequence
    13.5.2 Valve Characteristics
    13.5.2.1 Pressure Valve
    13.5.2.1.1 Unbalanced Bellow Valve
    13.5.2.1.2 Balanced Pressure Valve
    13.5.2.1.3 Pilot Valve
    13.5.2.2 Throttling Pressure Valve
    13.5.2.3 Fluid-Operated Valve
    13.5.2.4 Combination Valves
    13.5.3 Valve Spacing
    13.5.4 Valve Selection and Testing
    13.5.4.1 Valve Sizing
    13.5.4.2 Valve Testing
    13.6 Special Issues in Intermittent Flow Gas-Lift
    13.7 Design of Gas Lift Installations
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 14: Other Artificial Lift Methods
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Electrical Submersible Pump
    14.2.1 Principle
    14.2.2 ESP Applications
    14.3 Hydraulic Piston Pumping
    14.4 Progressive Cavity Pumping
    14.4.1 Down Hole PCP Characteristics
    14.4.2 Selection of Down Hole PCP
    14.4.3 Selection of Drive String
    14.4.4 Selection of Surface Driver
    14.5 Plunger Lift
    14.5.1 Working Principle
    14.5.2 Design Guideline
    14.5.2.1 Estimate of Production Rates with Plunger Lift
    14.5.2.2 GLR and Buildup Pressure Requirements
    14.5.2.2.1 Rules of Thumb
    14.5.2.2.2 Analytical Method
    14.6 Hydraulic Jet Pumping
    14.6.1 Working Principle
    14.6.2 Technical Parameters
    14.6.3 Selection of Jet Pumps
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Part IV: Production Enhancement
    Chapter 15: Well Problem Identification
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Low Productivity
    15.2.1 Pressure Transient Data Analysis
    15.3 Excessive Gas Production
    15.4 Excessive Water Production
    15.5 Liquid Loading of Gas Wells
    15.5.1 Turner’s Method
    15.5.2 Guo et al.’s Method
    15.5.2.1 Minimum Kinetic Energy
    15.5.2.2 Four-Phase Flow Model
    15.5.2.3 Minimum Required Gas Production Rate
    15.5.3 Comparison of Turner’s and Guo et al.’s Methods
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 16: Matrix Acidizing
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Acid/Rock Interaction
    16.2.1 Primary Chemical Reactions
    16.2.2 Dissolving Power of Acids
    16.2.3 Reaction Kinetics
    16.3 Sandstone Acidizing Design
    16.3.1 Selection of Acid
    16.3.2 Acid Volume Requirement
    16.3.3 Acid Injection Rate
    16.3.4 Acid Injection Pressure
    16.4 Carbonate Acidizing Design
    16.4.1 Selection of Acid
    16.4.2 Acidizing Parameters
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 17: Hydraulic Fracturing
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Formation Fracturing Pressure
    17.3 Fracture Geometry
    17.3.1 Radial Fracture Model
    17.3.2 The KGD Model
    17.3.3 The PKN model
    17.3.4 Three-Dimensional and Pseudo-3D Models
    17.4 Productivity of Fractured Wells
    17.5 Hydraulic Fracturing Design
    17.5.1 Selection of Fracturing Fluid
    17.5.2 Selection of Proppant
    17.5.3 The Maximum Treatment Pressure
    17.5.4 Selection of Fracture Model
    17.5.5 Selection of Treatment Size
    17.5.6 Production Forecast and NPV Analyses
    17.6 Post-frac Evaluation
    17.6.1 Pressure Matching
    17.6.2 Pressure Build-Up Test Analysis
    17.6.3 Other Evaluation Techniques
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Chapter 18: Production Optimization
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Naturally Flowing Well
    18.3 Gas-Lifted Well
    18.4 Sucker Rod-Pumped Well
    18.5 Separator
    18.6 Pipeline Network
    18.6.1 Pipelines in Series
    18.6.2 Pipelines in Parallel
    18.6.3 Looped Pipelines
    18.7 Gas Lift Facility
    18.8 Oil and Gas Production Fields
    18.8.1 Types of Flow Networks
    18.8.2 Optimization Approaches
    18.8.2.1 Simulation Approach
    18.8.2.2 Optimization Approach
    18.8.3 Procedure for Production Optimization
    18.8.4 Production Optimization Software
    18.8.4.1 ReO
    18.8.4.2 HYSYS
    18.8.4.3 FAST Piper
    18.9 Discounted Revenue
    Summary
    References
    Problems
    Appendix A: Unit Conversion Factors
    Appendix B: The Minimum Performance Properties of API Tubing

Product details

  • No. of pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2007
  • Published: February 5, 2007
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080479958

About the Author

Boyun Guo, PhD

Boyun Guo is a Professor at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette in the Petroleum Engineering Department and Director of the Center for Optimization of Petroleum Systems (COPS) of the Energy Institute of Louisiana (EIL). He has 40 years of work experience in the oil and gas industry and academia. He is the principal author of 11 books and author/coauthor of over 150 research papers. He holds a BS degree in Engineering Science from Daqing Petroleum Institute in China, MS degree in Petroleum Engineering from Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology, and a PhD degree in Petroleum Engineering from New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Louisiana, Lafayette and Director, Center for Optimization of Petroleum Systems (COPS), USA

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