Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123838445, 9780123838452

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids

1st Edition

Authors: Johannes Fink
eBook ISBN: 9780123838452
Paperback ISBN: 9780123838445
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 26th May 2011
Page Count: 808
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
30% off
20% off
20% off
139.95
97.97
97.97
97.97
97.97
97.97
111.96
111.96
84.99
59.49
59.49
59.49
59.49
59.49
67.99
67.99
106.00
74.20
74.20
74.20
74.20
74.20
84.80
84.80
Unavailable
DRM-Free

Easy - Download and start reading immediately. There’s no activation process to access eBooks; all eBooks are fully searchable, and enabled for copying, pasting, and printing.

Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle.

Open - Buy once, receive and download all available eBook formats, including PDF, EPUB, and Mobi (for Kindle).

Institutional Access

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Description

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids is a comprehensive manual that provides end users with information about oil field chemicals, such as drilling muds, corrosion and scale inhibitors, gelling agents and bacterial control. This book is an extension and update of Oil Field Chemicals published in 2003, and it presents a compilation of materials from literature and patents, arranged according to applications and the way a typical job is practiced. The text is composed of 23 chapters that cover oil field chemicals arranged according to their use. Each chapter follows a uniform template, starting with a brief overview of the chemical followed by reviews, monomers, polymerization, and fabrication. The different aspects of application, including safety and environmental impacts, for each chemical are also discussed throughout the chapters. The text also includes handy indices for trade names, acronyms and chemicals. Petroleum, production, drilling, completion, and operations engineers and managers will find this book invaluable for project management and production. Non-experts and students in petroleum engineering will also find this reference useful.

Key Features

  • Chemicals are ordered by use including drilling muds, corrosion inhibitors, and bacteria control
  • Includes cutting edge chemicals and polymers such as water soluble polymers and viscosity control
  • Handy index of chemical substances as well as a general chemical index

Readership

Petroleum Engineer, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Completion Engineer, Operations Engineer, Drilling Manager, Operations Manager, Project Production Engineer

Table of Contents


Preface

1. Drilling Muds

Classification of Muds

Dispersed Noninhibited Systems

Phosphate-treated Muds

Lignite Muds

Quebracho Muds

Lignosulfonate Muds

Lime Muds

Sea Water Muds

Nondispersed Noninhibited Systems

Low-solids Fresh Water Muds

Variable Density Fluids

Gas-based Muds

Drill-in Fluids

Mud Compositions

Inhibitive Water-based Muds

Water-based Muds

Oil-based Drilling Muds

Synthetic Muds

Inverted Emulsion Drilling Muds

Foam Drilling

Chemically Enhanced Drilling

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Drilling

Additives

Thickeners

Lubricants

Bacteria

Corrosion Inhibitors

Viscosity Control

Clay Stabilization

Formation Damage

Shale Stabilizer

Fluid Loss Additives

Scavengers

Surfactants

Hydrate Inhibitors

Weighting Materials

Organoclay Compositions

Miscellaneous

Multicomponent Additives

Cleaning Operations

Cuttings Removal

Junk Removal

Filter Cake Removal

Drilling Fluid Disposal

Toxicity

Conversion Into Cements

Environmental Regulations

Characterization of Drilling Muds

Viscosity

API Filtration

Alkalinity and pH

Total Hardness

Roller Oven

References

Tradenames

2. Fluid Loss Additives

Mechanism of Action of Fluid Loss Agents

Action of Macroscopic Particles

Action of Cement Fluid Loss Additives

Testing of Fluid Loss Additives

Formation Damage

Reversible Gels

Bacteria

Inorganic Additives

Bentonite

Sodium Metasilicate

Ultra-fine Filtrate-Reducing Agents

Bridging Agents for Fluid Loss Control

Organic Additives

Tall Oil Pitch

Mercaptans for Iron Control

Polysaccharides

Cellulose-based Fluid Loss Additives

Starch

Borate Crosslinkers

Guar

Succinoglycan

Polyether-modified Polysaccharides

Scleroglucan

Gellan

Humic Acid Derivates

Oil-based Well Working Fluids

Lignosulfonates

Synthetic Polymers

Polyorthoesters

Polyhydroxyacetic Acid

Polydrill

Latex

Polyvinyl Alcohol

Polyethyleneimine

Acrylics

Silicones

Phthalimide as a Diverting Material

Special Applications

References

Tradenames

3. Clay Stabilization

Properties of Clays

Swelling of Clays

Montmorillonite

Guidelines

Mechanisms Causing Instability

Kinetics of the Swelling of Clays

Hydrational Stress

Borehole Stability Model

Shale Inhibition with Water-based Muds

Inhibiting Reactive Argillaceous Formations

Thermal Treatment to Increase the Permeability

Formation Damage by Fluids

Formation Damage in Gas Production Shut-in

Swelling Inhibitors

Salts

Quaternary Ammonium Salts

Potassium Formate

Saccharide Derivatives

Sulfonated Asphalt

Grafted Copolymers

Polyoxyalkylene Amines

Anionic Polymers

Amine Salts of Maleic Imide

Comparative Study

Test Methods

Shale Erosion Test

Hassler Cell

References

Tradenames

4. Lubricants

Synthetic Greases

Base Fluids

Extreme Pressure Agents

Anti-seize Agents

Anti-wear Additives

Metal Deactivators

Solubility Aids

Antioxidants

Base stocks

Lubricant Compositions

Molybdenum disulfide

Polarized Graphite

Ellipsoidal Glass Granules

Calcium-Sulfonate-based Greases

Paraffins

Olefins

Phospholipids

Alcohols

Ethers

Esters

Polymers

Starch

Amides

Special Issues

Side Reactions

Silicate-Based Muds

Studies on Pipe Sticking

Differential Sticking Reducer

References

Tradenames

5. Bacterial Control

Mechanisms of Growth

Growth of Bacteria Supported by Oil Field Chemicals

Mathematical Models

Detection of Bacteria

Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

Bacterial Corrosion

Mechanisms of Microbial Corrosion

Corrosion Monitoring

Assessment of the Activity of Biocides

Synergistic Action of Biocides

Treatments with Biocides

Previously Fractured Formations

Intermittent Addition of Biocide

Nonbiocidal Control

Biocides

Various Biocides

References

Tradenames

6. Corrosion Inhibitors

Classification of Corrosion Inhibitors

Fields of Application

Acidization

Oil Storage Tanks

Pipelines

Production Wells

Scale Removal Treatments Using Acids

Application Techniques

Batch Versus Continuous Application

Emulsions

Application in Solid Form

Characterization

Dye Transfer Method

Liquid Chromatography

Thin Layer Chromatography

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Corrosion Tests

Side Effects

Stabilizer for Emulsions

Antisynergism with Alcohols

Synergism with Surfactants

Interactions with Kinetic Gas Hydrate Inhibitors

Effect of Flow on Inhibitor Film Life

Inhibitor Chemicals

Amides and Imidazolines

Salts of Nitrogenous Bases

Nitrogen Quaternaries

Polyoxylated Amines, Amides, and Imidazolines

Mercaptan Modified Products

Nitrogen Heterocyclics

Carbonyl Compounds

Silicate-based Inhibitors

Thioacetals

Miscellaneous Inhibitors

Antimony Halides

Aldol-amine Adducts

Encapsulated Types

Anti-biofoulant Corrosion inhibitors

Formic Acid Free Formulation

Intensifiers

References

Tradenames

7. Scale Inhibitors

Classification and Mechanism

Thermodynamic Inhibitors

Kinetic Inhibitors

Adherence Inhibitors

Mathematical Models

Optimal Dose

Precipitation Squeeze Method

Inhibitor Chemicals

Water-soluble Inhibitors

Oil-soluble Scale Inhibitors

Inhibitors for Special Tasks

Characterization

Spectroscopic Methods

Turbidimetry

Static Bottle Test

References

Tradenames

8. Gelling Agents

Placing Gels

Basic Mechanisms of Gelling Agents

Polymer–Crosslinker–Retarder Systems

Gelling in Oil-based Systems

Aluminum Phosphate Ester Salts

Less Volatile Phosphoric Acid Esters

Aluminum Trichloride

Biopolymers

Organic Polysilicate Ester

Latex

Gelling in Water-based Systems

Xanthan Gum

Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Polyacrylamide-based Formulations

Polyacrylic Acid

Alkali-Silicate Aminoplast Compositions

In Situ Formed Polymers

Epoxide Resins

Urea-formaldehyde Resins

Vinyl Monomers

References

Tradenames

9. Filter Cake Removal

Bridging Agents

Degradable Bridging Agents

Dissolvable Bridging Agents

Degradation by Acids

Citric Acid

Acetic Acid

Acid Generating Coatings

Acidic Foam

Orthoesters

Enzymatic Degradation

Peroxides

Hydrogen Peroxide

Metal Peroxides

Magnesium Peroxide in Filter Cake

Degradation by Oligosaccharides

Breaking by Emulsions

Surfactant Nanotechnology

Special Issues

Manganese tetroxide

Multiply Active Compositions

Self-destructing Filter Cake

Oscillatory Flow

References

10. Cement Additives

Cementing Technologies

Primary Cementing

Secondary Cementing

Squeeze Cementing

Plug Cementing

Basic Composition of Portland Cement

Manufacturing

Active Components in Cements

Chemistry of Setting

Standardization of Cements

Mixing with Additives

Important Properties of Cement Slurries and Set Cement

Special Cement Types

Resin Cement

Oil-based Cement

High-temperature Cement

Low-temperature Cement

High-alumina Cement

Magnesian Cement

Fiber Cement

Acid Gas Resistant Cement

Permeable Cement

Salt-water Stable Latex Cement

Settable Drilling Fluids

Classification of Cement Additives

Light-weight Cement

Foam Cement

Density-increasing or Weighting Agents

Control of Thickening and Setting Time

Viscosity Control

Dispersants

Expansion Additives

Set Strength Enhancement

Adhesion Improvement

Fluid Loss Control

Clay Control Additives

Anti-gas-migration Agents

Corrosion Inhibitors

Other Chemical Attack

Use of Waste from Other Industrial Branches

References

Tradenames

11. Transport

Pretreatment of the Products

Pretreatment for Corrosion Prevention

Natural Gas

Sulfur Contamination of Refined Products

Demulsifiers

Heavy Crudes

Corrosion Control

Crude Oil Treatment

Chemical Inhibition

Coatings

Paraffin Inhibitors

Pour Point Depressants

Drag Reducers

Drag Reduction in Gas Transmission Lines

Synergism with Paraffin Deposition

Hydrate Control

Additives for Slurry Transport

Additives for Odorization

Cleaning

Gelled Pigs

References

12. Drag Reducers

Operating Costs

Mechanism of Drag Reduction

Damping of Transmission of Eddies

Viscoelastic Fluid Thread

Polymer Degradation in Turbulent Flow

Drag Reduction in Two-phase Flow

Drag Reduction in Gas Flow

Microfibrils

Drag-reducing Surfactant Solutions

Soapy Industrial Cleaner

Lyophobic Performance of the Lining Material

Interpolymer Complexes

Drag-reducing Chemicals

Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene

Copolymers of alpha-Olefins

Latex Drag Reducers

Polyether Compounds for Oil-based Well Drilling Fluids

Tylose

Microencapsulated Polymers

Aluminum Carboxylate

References

13. Gas Hydrate Control

Naturally Occurring Gas Hydrates

Problems with Gas Hydrates in Petroleum Technology

Nature of Inclusion Compounds

Gas Hydrates

Conditions for Formation

Water Content

Decomposition

Stability Diagram

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

Hammerschmidt Equation

Formation and Properties of Gas Hydrates

Two-Step Mechanism of Formation

Nucleation Particle Sizes

Clustering Before Nucleation

Experimental Methods

Modeling the Formation of Gas Hydrates

Test Procedures for Inhibitors

Screening Method

High Pressure Sapphire Cell

Circulating Loop

Inhibition of Gas Hydrate Formation

Drying

Thermodynamic Inhibition with Additives

Kinetic Inhibition

Nucleation Inhibitors

Crystal Growth Inhibitors

Agglomeration Inhibitors

Gas Hydrate Inhibitors with Corrosion Inhibition

Recyclable Antifreeze Agents

Hydrate Inhibitors for Drilling Fluids

References

Tradenames

14. Antifreeze Agents

Theory of Action

Antifreeze Chemicals

Heat Transfer Liquids

Brines

Alcohols

Glycols

Toxicity and Environmental Aspects

Special Uses

Hydraulic Cement Additives

Pipeline Transportation of Aqueous Emulsions of Oil

Low Temperature Drilling Fluids

References

15. Odorization

General Aspects

Limits of Explosion

Desirable Properties of Odorants

Measurement and Odor Monitoring

Olfactoric Response

Physiological Methods

Chemical and Physical Methods

Additives for Odorization

Sulfur Compounds

Other Compounds

Industrial Synthesis of Odorants

Uses and Properties

Odorant Injection Techniques

Leak Detection

Fuel Cells

Odor-fading

Environmental Problems

References

Tradenames

16. Enhanced Oil Recovery

Waterflooding

Surfactants

Interphase Structure

Interfacial Rheological Properties

Microemulsion Phase Diagrams

Interfacial Tension

Imbibition Experiments

Caustic Waterflooding

Injection Strategies

Foam-enhanced Caustic Waterflooding

Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Flooding

Interphase Properties

Clay Dissolution

Acid Flooding

Hydrochloric Acid

Sulfuric Acid

Emulsion Flooding

Micellar Polymer Flooding

Chemical Injection

Ammonium Carbonate

Hydrogen Peroxide

Alcohol–Waterflooding

Chemical Injection of Waste Gases

Polymer Waterflooding

Low-tension Polymer Flood Technique

Influence of Viscosity on Ionic Strength

Modified Acrylics

Biopolymers

Combination Flooding

Low-tension Polymer Flood

Effect of Alkaline Agents on the Retention

Alkaline Steamflooding

Sediment-forming Materials

Water-alternating Gas Technology

Hydrocarbon-assisted Steam Injection

Foam Flooding

Basic Principles of Foam Flooding

Ambient Pressure Foam Tests

Polymer-enhanced Foams

Carbon Dioxide Flooding

Steamflooding

Carbon Dioxide

Air Injection

Chemical Reactions

In Situ Combustion

Special Techniques

Viscous Oil Recovery

Low-permeability Flooding

Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques

Basic Principles and Methods

Economics

Strict Anaerobic Bacteria

Ultramicrobacteria

Scale Inhibitors as a Microbial Nutrient

Interfacial Properties

Tracers

Thermal Stability of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate

Asphaltene Deposition

Stabilizer Dispersant

Reservoir Properties

Reservoir Models

Profile Control

Formation Damage

Wettability

Flooding of Oil in Chalk

Treatment of Produced Water

Soil Remediation

References

17. Fracturing Fluids

Stresses and Fractures

Comparison of Stimulation Techniques

Action of a Fracturing Fluid

Stages in a Fracturing Job

Types of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids

Comparison of Different Techniques

Expert Systems for Assessment

Water-Based Systems

Thickeners and Gelling Agents

Concentrates

Friction Reducers

Fluid Loss Additives

pH Control Additives

Clay Stabilizers

Biocides

Surfactants

Crosslinkers

Gel Breaking in Water-based Systems

Scale Inhibitors

Oil-Based Systems

Organic Gel Aluminum Phosphate Ester

Increasing the Viscosity of Diesel

Gel Breakers

Foam-Based Fracturing Fluids

Defoamers

Fracturing in Coal-Beds

Propping Agents

Sand

Ceramic Particles

Bauxite

Light-weight Proppants

Porous Pack with Fibers

Coated Proppants

Anti-settling Additives

Proppant Flowback

Acid Fracturing

Encapsulated Acids

The In Situ Formation of Acids

Fluid Loss

Gel Breaker for Acid Fracturing

Special Problems

Corrosion Inhibitors

The Problem of Iron Control in Fracturing

Enhanced Temperature Stability

Chemical Blowing

Frost-resistant Formulation

Formation Damage in Gas Wells

Characterization of Fracturing Fluids

Rheological Characterization

Zirconium-based Crosslinking Agent

Oxidative Gel Breaker

Size Exclusion Chromatography

Assessment of Proppants

References

Tradenames

18. Water Shutoff

Classification of Methods

In Situ Polymerization

Acrylic Gels

Crosslinkers

Special Applications

Shear-Initiated Inversion of Emulsions

Thermally Stable Gels

Disproportionate Permeability Reduction

Field Experience

Silicate-based Agents

Combined Polymer-Silicate Technology

Gel-Foam Technique

Resin Types

Epoxide Resins

Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

Furan-Silicone Resins

Cement with Additives

Polymethyl Methacrylate Modified with Monoethanolamine

Crude Light Pyridine Bases

Granulated Fly Ash

Phosphonic Acid Derivates

Phosphonium Complexone

Aerated Plugging Solution

Compressed Foam Mixture

Furfuramide

Cellulosics and Polyacrylics

Smectite Clays

Plasticizers

Water Glass

Organosilicones

Formaldehyde Resin

Liquid Metal Alloy

Bentonite

Blast Furnace Slag

Fiber Reinforcement

Gels from Aluminum Hydroxychloride

Organosilicones

Non-Crosslinked Copolymers

Anchoring

Inorganic Colloids

Water Swelling Additives

Water-swelling Cellulose

Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile

Guar

Clays

Wastes

Waste Oil Sludge

Aluminum Trichloride

Antifoaming with Sulfite-waste Liquor

Surfactants

Polymeric Surfactants

Viscoelastic Surfactant Solutions

Tailoring the Hydrodynamic Volume

Temperature-Sensitive Latex Particles

References

Tradenames

19. Oil Spill Treating Agents

History

List of Major Oil Spills

General Requirements

Mechanisms

Application

Environmental Aspects

Implementation Application Programs

Tests

Subsurface, Soil, and Ground Water

In Situ Chemical Oxidation

Ground Water

Chemicals in Detail

References

20. Waste Disposal

Drilling Fluids

Bioremediation

Assessment of Biodegradability

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Cuttings

Environmental Impact

Modeling the Discharge

Microwave Treatment

Discharge in Cement

Fillers in Bitumen

Chromium Removal

Injection Techniques

Acid Gas Injection

Storage of Carbon Dioxide

Slurry Fracture Injection Technique

Use as Sealants

References

Tradenames

21. Dispersions, Emulsions, and Foams

Dispersions

Dispersants

Emulsions

Oil-in-water Emulsions – Invert Emulsions

Water-in-water Emulsions

Oil-in-water-in-oil Emulsions

Microemulsions

Solids-stabilized emulsion

Biotreated Emulsion

Shale Inhibition

Transportation

Acid-rich Oils

Characterization of Emulsions

Low Fluorescence Emulsifiers

Foams

Aphrons

References

Tradenames

22. Defoamers

Theory of Defoaming

Stability of Foams

Action of Defoamers

Classification of Defoamers

Active Ingredients

Ancillary Agents

Uses in Petroleum Technology

Aqueous Fluid Systems

Well Treatment and Cementation

Plugging Agents

Gas-Oil Separation

Natural Gas

Distillation and Petroleum Production

Antimicrobial Antifoam Compositions

References

23. Demulsifiers

Emulsions in Produced Crude Oil

Waterflooding

Oil Spill Treatment

Desired Properties

Mechanisms of Demulsification

Stabilization of Water-oil Emulsions

Interfacial Tension Relaxation

Performance Testing

Spreading Pressure

Characterization by Dielectric Constant

Shaker Test Methods

Viscosity Measurements

Screening

Classification of Demulsifiers

Common Precursor Chemicals

Demulsifiers in Detail

Polyoxyalkylenes

Vinyl Polymers

Polyamines

Polyamides

Phenolics

Alkoxylated Fatty Oils

Biodemulsifiers

References

Appendix 1: List of Tradenames

Appendix 2: List of Acronyms

Index

Chemical Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
808
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780123838452
Paperback ISBN:
9780123838445

About the Author

Johannes Fink

Johannes Fink is a Professor of Polymer Chemistry at Montanuniversität Leoben in Vienna, Austria. Dr. Fink teaches macromolecular chemistry. His career spans for more than thirty years in the field of polymers, including characterization, flame retardancy and pyrolysis of polymers. Johannes has published multiple books and articles, including Petroleum Engineer’s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, 2nd Edition, Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology, all published by Elsevier.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Polymer Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Vienna, Austria

Reviews

"If you are new to oil field chemicals or just not technically inclined, this book is a good first reference that introduces the what, where, how, and why of the chemicals that are used in the oil field. The book is designed for engineers; however, it would be useful for anyone not familiar with the topic in order to frame the chemistry that is applied in oil recovery." --AOCS, Inform, May 2012