Pesticides in the Soil Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444418739, 9781483257068

Pesticides in the Soil Environment

1st Edition

Authors: Shahamat U. Khan
Editors: R. J. Wakeman
eBook ISBN: 9781483257068
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 248
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Description

Fundamental Aspects of Pollution Control and Environmental Science, 5: Pesticides in the Soil Environment focuses on the effects of pesticide use on the quality of soil.
The manuscript first offers information on the classification of pesticides and physicochemical processes affecting pesticides in soil. Topics include herbicides, fungicides, movement in soil, chemical conversion and degradation, and photodecomposition. The text then elaborates on microbial processes affecting pesticides in soil, including fumigants, fungicides, and insecticides.
The text examines the occurrence and persistence of pesticide residues in soil and minimizing pesticide residues in soil. Discussions focus on persistence, bound residues, plant uptake, short residual residues, and eliminating pesticide residues.
The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the effects of pesticide use on the quality of soil.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Classification of Pesticides

2.1. Herbicides

2.1.1. Arsenicale

2.1.2. Organophosphates

2.1.3. Phenoxys

2.1.4. Benzoics

2.1.5. Pyridine Acids

2.1.6. Chlorinated Aliphatic Acids

2.1.7. Amides

2.1.8. Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

2.1.9. Dinitroanilines

2.1.10. Nitriles

2.1.11. Phenols

2.1.12. Bipyridyliums

2.1.13. Uracils

2.1.14. Triazoles

2.1.15. ò-Triazines

2.1.16. Ureas

2.2. Insecticides

2.2.1. Organophosphorus Compounds

2.2.2. Carbamates

2.2.3. Organochlorines

2.2.4. Synthetic Pyrethroids

2.3. Fungicides

2.4. Fumigants

References

Chapter 3. Physicochemical Processes Affecting Pesticides in Soil

3.1. Adsorption

3.1.1. Characteristics of Soil

3.1.2. Characteristics of Pesticides

3.1.3. Adsorption Isotherms

3.1.4. Mechanisms of Adsorption

3.1.5. Adsorption of Specific Types of Pesticides

3.1.6. Adsorption of Pesticides by Organo-Clay Complexes

3.2. Movement in Soil

3.2.1. Diffusion

3.2.2. Mass Flow

3.3. Volatilization

3.4. Chemical Conversion and Degradation

3.4.1. Hydrolysis

3.4.2. Oxidation and Reduction

3.4.3. N-Nitrosation

3.4.4. Other Reactions

3.5. Photodecomposition

References

Chapter 4.Microbial Processes Affecting Pesticides in Soil

4.1. Herbicides

4.1.1. Arsenicale

4.1.2. Organophosphates

4.1.3. Phenoxys

4.1.4. Benzoic Acids

4.1.5. Pyridine Acids

4.1.6. Amides

4.1.7. Thiocarbamates, PhenyIcarbamates and Acylanilides

4.1.8. Dinitroanilines

4.1.9. Bipyridyliums

4.1.10. Uracils

4.1.11. 4-Triazines

4.1.12. Phenylureas

4.1.13. Other Herbicides

4.2. Insecticides 136

4.2.1. Organophosphates

4.2.2. Carbamates

4.2.3. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

4.2.4. Synthetic Pyrethroids

4.3. Fungicides

4.4. Fumigante

References

Chapter 5. Occurrence and Persistence of Pesticide Residues in Soil

5.1. Persistence

5.1.1. Herbicides

5.1.2. Insecticides

5.1.3. Fungicides

5.1.4. Other Pesticides

5.2. Bound Residues

5.3. Pesticides in Soil Animals

5.4. Plant Uptake

References

Chapter 6. Minimizing Pesticides Residues in Soil

6.1. Alternative to Pesticides

6.2. Short Residual Pesticides

6.3. Eliminating Pesticide Residues

6.4. Future Needs

References

Appendix

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
248
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483257068

About the Author

Shahamat U. Khan

About the Editor

R. J. Wakeman