Pesticides in the Soil Environment

Pesticides in the Soil Environment

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Author: Shahamat U. Khan
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257068

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Description

Fundamental Aspects of Pollution Control and Environmental Science, 5: Pesticides in the Soil Environment focuses on the effects of pesticide use on the quality of soil. The manuscript first offers information on the classification of pesticides and physicochemical processes affecting pesticides in soil. Topics include herbicides, fungicides, movement in soil, chemical conversion and degradation, and photodecomposition. The text then elaborates on microbial processes affecting pesticides in soil, including fumigants, fungicides, and insecticides. The text examines the occurrence and persistence of pesticide residues in soil and minimizing pesticide residues in soil. Discussions focus on persistence, bound residues, plant uptake, short residual residues, and eliminating pesticide residues. The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the effects of pesticide use on the quality of soil.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Classification of Pesticides

    2.1. Herbicides

    2.1.1. Arsenicale

    2.1.2. Organophosphates

    2.1.3. Phenoxys

    2.1.4. Benzoics

    2.1.5. Pyridine Acids

    2.1.6. Chlorinated Aliphatic Acids

    2.1.7. Amides

    2.1.8. Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

    2.1.9. Dinitroanilines

    2.1.10. Nitriles

    2.1.11. Phenols

    2.1.12. Bipyridyliums

    2.1.13. Uracils

    2.1.14. Triazoles

    2.1.15. ò-Triazines

    2.1.16. Ureas

    2.2. Insecticides

    2.2.1. Organophosphorus Compounds

    2.2.2. Carbamates

    2.2.3. Organochlorines

    2.2.4. Synthetic Pyrethroids

    2.3. Fungicides

    2.4. Fumigants

    References

    Chapter 3. Physicochemical Processes Affecting Pesticides in Soil

    3.1. Adsorption

    3.1.1. Characteristics of Soil

    3.1.2. Characteristics of Pesticides

    3.1.3. Adsorption Isotherms

    3.1.4. Mechanisms of Adsorption

    3.1.5. Adsorption of Specific Types of Pesticides

    3.1.6. Adsorption of Pesticides by Organo-Clay Complexes

    3.2. Movement in Soil

    3.2.1. Diffusion

    3.2.2. Mass Flow

    3.3. Volatilization

    3.4. Chemical Conversion and Degradation

    3.4.1. Hydrolysis

    3.4.2. Oxidation and Reduction

    3.4.3. N-Nitrosation

    3.4.4. Other Reactions

    3.5. Photodecomposition

    References

    Chapter 4.Microbial Processes Affecting Pesticides in Soil

    4.1. Herbicides

    4.1.1. Arsenicale

    4.1.2. Organophosphates

    4.1.3. Phenoxys

    4.1.4. Benzoic Acids

    4.1.5. Pyridine Acids

    4.1.6. Amides

    4.1.7. Thiocarbamates, PhenyIcarbamates and Acylanilides

    4.1.8. Dinitroanilines

    4.1.9. Bipyridyliums

    4.1.10. Uracils

    4.1.11. 4-Triazines

    4.1.12. Phenylureas

    4.1.13. Other Herbicides

    4.2. Insecticides 136

    4.2.1. Organophosphates

    4.2.2. Carbamates

    4.2.3. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    4.2.4. Synthetic Pyrethroids

    4.3. Fungicides

    4.4. Fumigante

    References

    Chapter 5. Occurrence and Persistence of Pesticide Residues in Soil

    5.1. Persistence

    5.1.1. Herbicides

    5.1.2. Insecticides

    5.1.3. Fungicides

    5.1.4. Other Pesticides

    5.2. Bound Residues

    5.3. Pesticides in Soil Animals

    5.4. Plant Uptake

    References

    Chapter 6. Minimizing Pesticides Residues in Soil

    6.1. Alternative to Pesticides

    6.2. Short Residual Pesticides

    6.3. Eliminating Pesticide Residues

    6.4. Future Needs

    References

    Appendix

    Author Index

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 248
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257068

About the Author

Shahamat U. Khan

About the Editor

R. J. Wakeman

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